Murakami K, Mizoue T, Sasaki S, Ohta M, Sato M, Matsushita Y et al.. Dietary intake of folate, other B vitamins, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to depressive symptoms in Japanese adults. Nutrition 24, 140-147

ArticleinNutrition 24(2):140-7 · February 2008with7 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2007.10.013 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Although a favorable effect of dietary folate and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on depression is suggested from epidemiologic studies in Western countries, evidence from non-Western populations is lacking. We examined cross-sectional associations between the intake of folate, other B vitamins, and omega-3 PUFAs and depressive symptoms in Japanese adults. Subjects were 309 Japanese men and 208 Japanese women 21-67 y of age. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated, brief, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were defined as present when subjects had a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale score > or =16. Adjustment was made for age, body mass index, work place, marital status, occupational physical activity, leisure-time physical activity, current smoking, current alcohol drinking, and job stress score. The prevalences of depressive symptoms were 36% for men and 37% for women. Folate intake showed a statistically significant, inverse, and linear association with depressive symptoms in men but not in women. The multivariate odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for depressive symptoms for men in the first, second, third, and fourth quartiles of folate intake were 1.00 (reference), 0.78 (0.38-1.63), 0.57 (0.27-1.18), and 0.50 (0.23-1.06), respectively (P for trend = 0.045). No statistically significant linear association was observed for the intake of riboflavin, pyridoxine, cobalamin, total omega-3 PUFAs, alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, or docosahexaenoic acid in either sex. Higher dietary intake of folate was associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms in Japanese men but not women.
    • "A cross-national ecological examination of both n-6 and n-3 PUFA reported that a threshold of n-3 PUFA consumption of 750 mg/d (0.35% of energy, based on a 2000 kcal/d diet) could be sufficient to protect 98% of the population from the risk to develop depressive disorders (Hibbeln et al., 2006). Considering such threshold, none of the epidemiological studies included in this systematic review reported similar amounts, even among individuals in higher quantiles , with the exception of those conducted in Japan (Miyake et al., 2006; Murakami et al., 2008 Murakami et al., , 2010). It has been suggested that n-3 PUFA intakes should be made dependent on concurrent intakes of n-6 PUFA, which based on the current per capita background available intake of LA in the United States, reaches a healthy dietary allowance of 3.5 g/d of n-3 PUFA (Hibbeln et al., 2006). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Fish consumption and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been hypothesized to exert preventive effects toward depressive disorders, but findings are contrasting. We aimed to systematically review and perform meta-analysis of results from observational studies exploring the association between fish, n-3 PUFA dietary intake, and depression. Methods: A search on the main bibliographic source of the observational studies up to August 2015 was performed. Random-effects models of the highest versus the lowest (reference) category of exposure and dose-response meta-analysis were performed. Results: A total of 31 studies including 255,076 individuals and over 20,000 cases of depression, were examined. Analysis of 21 datasets investigating relation between fish consumption and depression resulted in significant reduced risk (RR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.69, 0.89), with a linear dose-response despite with moderate heterogeneity. Pooled risk estimates of depression for extreme categories of both total n-3 PUFA and fish-derived n-3 PUFA [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)+docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] resulted in decreased risk for the highest compared with the lowest intake (RR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.67, 0.92 and RR=0.82, 95% CI: 0.73, 0.92, respectively) and dose-response analysis revealed a J-shaped association with a peak decreased risk for 1.8g/d intake of n-3 PUFA (RR=0.30, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.98). Limitation: Design of the studies included and confounding due to lack adjustment for certain variables may exist. Conclusions: The present analysis supports the hypothesis that dietary n-3 PUFA intake are associated with lower risk of depression.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2016
    • "To date, only one study has investigated the relationship between n-3 PUFA consumption and depressive symptoms in a general Japanese population [26]. In this cross-sectional study of 547 municipal employees (21–67 years old) no statistically significant linear relationship was observed for n-3 PUFAs, alinolenic acid, EPA, or docosahexaenoic acid in either sex [26]. One plausible explanation for this difference in results compared with the present study is the ceiling effect. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Emerging evidence suggests that fish consumption may have beneficial effects on mood disorders. However, no study has been reported on this issue in young adults to date. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between fish consumption and depressive symptoms in Japanese undergraduate students. Methods: The 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was used to measure depressive symptoms with a cut-off score of 16. A total of 4190 completed questionnaires (from 2124 men and 2066 women) were received for analysis. Results: Multivariate logistic analysis showed that fish intake was inversely associated with risk of depressive symptoms in undergraduate students. After adjustment for possible confounders, the odds-ratios (95% confidence intervals) for fish intake 1-2 times/month, 1-2 times/week, 3-4 times/week, and almost every day (compared with "almost never") were 0.78 (0.62-0.99), 0.70 (0.56-0.87), 0.67 (0.53-0.85) and 0.65 (0.46-0.92), respectively. This association tended to be stronger in women than in men. Conclusions: Frequent fish consumption in undergraduate students seems to moderate depressive symptoms. Further research is warranted to clarify the causality.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015
    • "There was a non-significant trend toward greater improvement of folate intake in the intervention group. This is particularly relevant as iron and folate have been identified as nutrients that may play a role in the prevention and treatment of depression (Rangan et al., 1998; Tolmunen et al., 2003; Astorg et al., 2008; Murakami et al., 2008 ). The intervention group increased their intake of these nutrients while the intake of these nutrients decreased in the attention control group. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a diet and exercise lifestyle intervention on mental health outcomes for patients currently being treated for depression and/or anxiety in primary care. Patients (n=119) referred by general practitioners to the 12-week randomised controlled trial were assigned to either an intervention of six visits to a dual qualified dietitian/exercise physiologist (DEP) where motivational interviewing and activity scheduling were used to engage patients in individually-tailored lifestyle change (focussed on diet and physical activity), or an attention control with scheduled telephone contact. Assessments conducted at baseline (n=94) and 12 weeks (n=60) were analysed with an intent-to-treat approach using linear mixed modelling. Significant improvement was found for both groups on Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) scores, measures of nutrient intake and total Australian modified Healthy Eating Index (Aust-HEI) scores. Significant differences between groups over time were found only for iron intake and body mass index. Patients participating in individual consultations with a dietitian were more likely to maintain or improve diet quality than those participating in an attention control. This study provides initial evidence to support the role of dietitians in the management of patients with depression and/or anxiety.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015
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