Polyuria and Polydipsia in Horses

Clinical Sciences Department, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, 227 Magruder Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.
The Veterinary clinics of North America. Equine practice (Impact Factor: 0.44). 01/2008; 23(3):641-53, vii. DOI: 10.1016/j.cveq.2007.08.001
Source: PubMed


Polyuria and polydipsia provide a diagnostic challenge for the equine clinician. This article describes the various known causes of polyuria and polydipsia in horses and provides a description of a systematic diagnostic approach for assessing horses with polyuria and polydipsia to delineate the underlying cause. Treatment and management strategies for addressing polyuria and polydipsia in horses are also described.

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Available from: Erica Mckenzie, Feb 28, 2014
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    • "Primary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus , characterised by a failure of the renal tubules to respond to ADH , is a rare cause of PU in the horse ( Schott et al . 1993 ; McKenzie 2007 ) . However , most commonly diabetes insipidus occurs secondary to renal failure and a variety of endocrine , metabolic , infectious , or mechanical ( post obstruction ) disorders . "
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    ABSTRACT: A 14-year-old Swiss Warmblood gelding was presented with chronic severe polyuria, polydipsia and weight loss. At the time of admission, water intake was 240 l/day. On rectal examination, a large mass was identified in the left dorsal abdominal quadrant, which was shown to originate from the left kidney by transabdominal ultrasonographic examination. Unilateral nephrectomy via flank incision was performed under general anaesthesia. Histopathological examination of the tumour revealed a papillary renal adenocarcinoma. Successful outcome and survival was documented 13 months after surgery. Severe polyuria and polydipsia should be considered as major clinical signs for renal carcinoma in horses, which can be successfully treated with unilateral nephrectomy if no signs of metastatic spread are evident.
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    ABSTRACT: A 14-year-old Cleveland Bay cross gelding was presented with severe urinary incontinence that had been present for 1 year, and chronic polydipsia and polyuria over 4 years. Water intake had been recorded as 240 L over a 24-hour period. The horse had marked urinary incontinence and polyuria and polydipsia. The urine was markedly hyposthenuric, but no abnormalities on urinalysis were detected. There were no other abnormal clinical or neurological signs. Haematological and serum biochemical examinations showed no abnormalities and ultrasonographic and endoscopic examination of the urinary tract did not reveal any abnormalities. The horse underwent a modified water deprivation test and failed to concentrate its urine after 5 days. 1-desamino-8-d-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) was administered I/V but the urine remained isosthenuric with a specific gravity of 1.010. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. A definitive cause of the urinary incontinence was not found but overflow incontinence was considered a possibility. Despite being a rare condition in the horse diabetes insipidus should be considered in cases of severe polydipsia and polyuria in mature horses.
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