The effects of Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) on the immune system: Its molecular mechanisms of action

Noni Benefits Research Department, Tahitian Noni International Research Center, 737 East 1180 South, American Fork, UT 84003, USA. <>
Journal of Ethnopharmacology (Impact Factor: 3). 03/2008; 115(3):502-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2007.10.023
Source: PubMed


The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in the immunomodulatory effects of Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) in vitro and in vivo in mice. In vitro, Tahitian Noni Juice (TNJ) and Noni fruit juice concentrates (NFJC) (1, 5mg/mL) potently activate cannabinoid 2 (CB2), but inhibit cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors in a concentration-dependant manner. In vivo, oral administration of TNJ ad libitum for 16 days decreased the production of IL-4, but increased the production of IFN-gamma. These results suggest that noni modulates the immune system via activating of the CB2 receptors, and suppressing of the IL-4, but increasing the production of IFN-gamma cytokines. It may also exert beneficial immunomodulation effects in conditions involving inadequate immune responses.

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Available from: Claude Jarakae Jensen
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    • "Noni fruit juice concentrates potently activate Cannabinoid 2 which exerts beneficial immunomodulation effects on human body (Palu et al., 2008). Noni extracts demonstrated hypotensive activity, and have been shown to have ACE-inhibitory activity. "

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    • "A variety of potential health benefits have been reported for noni fruit juice [3]. These include immunomodulation [4] [5] and antioxidant activities in vitro and in vivo [6] [7] [8]. The antioxidant activity of noni juice was found to be associated with increased endurance in athletes [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Deacetylasperulosidic acid (DAA) is a major phytochemical constituent of Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit. Noni juice has demonstrated antioxidant activity in vivo and in human trials. To evaluate the role of DAA in this antioxidant activity, Wistar rats were fed 0 (control group), 15, 30, or 60 mg/kg body weight per day for 7 days. Afterwards, serum malondialdehyde concentration and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were measured and compared among groups. A dose-dependent reduction in malondialdehyde was evident as well as a dose-dependent increase in superoxide dismutase activity. DAA ingestion did not influence serum glutathione peroxidase activity. These results suggest that DAA contributes to the antioxidant activity of noni juice by increasing superoxide dismutase activity. The fact that malondialdehyde concentrations declined with increased DAA dose, despite the lack of glutathione peroxidase-inducing activity, suggests that DAA may also increase catalase activity. It has been previously reported that noni juice increases catalase activity in vivo but additional research is required to confirm the effect of DAA on catalase. Even so, the current findings do explain a possible mechanism of action for the antioxidant properties of noni juice that have been observed in human clinical trials.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
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    • "Traditionally, the fruits were used as food a treatment for and intestinal problems, while the leaves served for the treatment of wound infections, arthritis, swellings, and similar conditions [1, 2]. Recent research indicated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties [3, 4]. During the last decade, noni, mostly marketed as a fermented juice, has become a widely traded food supplement worldwide, based on health claims related to some of its compounds, in particular flavonoids [5–7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Noni has been used in traditional medicine and as food for thousands of years. While the fruits serve as food and internal medicine, leaves were traditionally used only topically. In recent years, concern regarding the possible content of anthraquinones in noni has led to scrutiny by the European Food Safety Authority. Little research existed on the content of anthraquinones in different noni preparations, with no information about the potential effect of harvest and preparation methods. Our research focused on lucidin, alizarin, and rubiadin, the most important anthraquinones from a health perspective. We found that the production process (fermentation/juice production versus drying/lyophilization) has no effect on the anthraquinone content. The source product, however, does have implications: noni fruit puree from which seeds had been removed as well as consumer products produced from such puree had no detectable amounts of any anthraquinones. Products that did contain seed or leaf material in all cases did contain partly significant amounts of anthraquinones. To alleviate safety concerns, we suggest that noni products, whether fermented or unfermented juice or powder, should be derived only from fully ripe noni fruits, and that any seed material needs to be removed during the production process.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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