Adenosine Promotion of Cellular Migration in Bronchial Epithelial Cells Is Mediated by the Activation of Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate–Dependent Protein Kinase A
Department of Internal Medicine, Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5815, USA. Journal of Investigative Medicine
(Impact Factor: 1.69).
12/2007; 55(7):378-85. DOI: 10.2310/6650.2007.00019
Migration of neighboring cells into the injury is important for rapid repair of damaged airway epithelium. We previously reported that activation of the A(2A )receptors (A(2A)ARs) mediates adenosine-stimulated epithelial wound healing, suggesting a role for adenosine in migration. Because A(2A)AR increases cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels in many cells, we hypothesized that cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is involved in adenosine-mediated cellular migration. To test this hypothesis, we stimulated a human bronchial epithelial cell line with adenosine and/or A(2A)AR agonist (5'-(N-cyclopropyl)-carboxamido-adenosine [CPCA]) in the presence or absence of adenosine deaminase inhibitor (erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine hydrochloride [EHNA]). Cells treated with adenosine or CPCA demonstrated a concentration-dependent increase in migration. Similar results were observed in the presence and absence of EHNA. To confirm A(2A) involvement, we pretreated the cells for 1 hour with the A(2A) receptor antagonist ZM241385 and then stimulated them with either adenosine or CPCA. To elucidate PKA's role, cells were pretreated for 1 hour with either a PKA inhibitor (KT5720) or a cAMP antagonist analogue (Rp-cAMPS) and then stimulated with adenosine and/or CPCA. Pretreatment with KT5720 or Rp-cAMPS resulted in a significant decrease in adenosine-mediated cellular migration. PKA activity confirmed that bronchial epithelial migration requires cAMP and PKA activity. When cells were wounded and stimulated with CPCA, an increase in PKA activity occurred. Pretreatment for 1 hour with either KT5720 or Rp-cAMPS resulted in a significant decrease in adenosine-mediated PKA activation. These data suggest that adenosine activation of A(2A)AR augments epithelial repair by increasing airway cellular migration by PKA-dependent mechanisms.
Available from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
- "The type of response following the activation of adenosine receptors depends on the responding cell and the adenosine receptors which it expresses. For example, within the lung increased extracellular adenosine levels during injury have been shown to induce cellular migration to promote repair . However, immune cells are typically inhibited by high local extracellular adenosine levels in order to prevent excessive collateral damage to healthy tissue that can result during an inflammatory response [13,14,17,18]. "
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We performed a genetic analysis of wild type and CD73-/- (that are unable to produce extracellular adenosine and are protected from EAE development) to identify factors that are both important for EAE development and controlled by extracellular adenosine signaling.
We show that extracellular adenosine triggered lymphocyte migration into the CNS by inducing the expression of the specialized chemokine/adhesion molecule CX3CL1 at the choroid plexus. In wild type mice, CX3CL1 is upregulated in the brain on Day 10 post EAE induction, which corresponds with initial CNS lymphocyte infiltration and the acute stage of EAE. Conversely, mice that cannot synthesize extracellular adenosine (CD73-/- mice) do not upregulate CX3CL1 in the brain following EAE induction and are protected from EAE development and its associated lymphocyte infiltration. Additionally, blockade of the A2A adenosine receptor following EAE induction prevents disease development and the induction of brain CX3CL1 expression. The CX3CL1 induced during EAE is found on the choroid plexus, which is the barrier between the blood and cerebral spinal fluid in the brain and is a prime entry point into the CNS for immune cells. Furthermore, CX3CL1 expression can be induced in the brains of mice and in choroid plexus cell line following A2A adenosine receptor agonist administration. Most importantly, we show that CX3CL1 blockade protects against EAE development and inhibits lymphocyte entry into the CNS.
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