Family Environment and Adult Attachment as Predictors of Psychopathology and Personality Dysfunction Among Inpatient Abuse Survivors

ArticleinViolence and Victims 22(5):577-600 · February 2007with41 Reads
DOI: 10.1891/088667007782312159 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
The current study explored the role of early family environment and adult attachment style in explaining long-term outcomes among child abuse survivors. Adult patients (N = 80) in a trauma treatment program were assessed for clinical diagnosis and administered a multiscale questionnaire. Hierarchical regression analyses were significant for dissociative identity disorder (DID), substance abuse, anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress, somatization, and six personality disorder dimensions. Adult attachment styles were significant predictors of most outcome variables. Of particular note was the strong contribution of attachment avoidance to DID. Five family environment scales (Independence, Organization, Control, Conflict, Expressiveness) also contributed to various psychopathological outcomes. Evidence emerged supporting a mediating role for attachment style in the link between family independence and five personality disorder dimensions.
    • "Discussing examples of when one family member's state of mind was misinterpreted by another family member can often lead to an understanding about misunderstandings between two people (Choi-Kain and Gunderson 2008). Studies have demonstrated that adolescents benefit from sensitive parenting (i.e., warmth and acceptance), accurate communication , predictability, and the encouragement of autonomy while cultivating supervision (Allen et al. 2007; Riggs et al. 2007). During this stage it is especially important that the therapist act as a trusted and secure base for family members by affirming and validating their emotions in order to increase their confidence. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adolescence is a pivotal time in human development and can be a challenging time for individuals to learn to regulate emotions, while also balancing biopsychosocial changes. The family plays a key role in an adolescent’s development. Thus, it is imperative for families to remain involved when adolescents are in residential treatment for emotional or behavioral issues. In this paper, we explore the benefits of, and methods for, increasing the identified patient’s (i.e., the adolescent’s) and the family’s readiness for change. The process of increasing family engagement in residential treatment is considered through the lens of the Stages of Change model. Barriers practitioners may face with adolescents and their families are also addressed.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016
    • "A su vez, el apego seguro emocional más que la estimulación intelectual, es crucial para el desarrollo de una personalidad saludable (Braun & Bock, 2011). No es sorprendente entonces, que exista una alta prevalencia de trauma infantil tanto en individuos con apego inseguro como en pacientes con trastornos de la personalidad (Bakermans Kranenburg & van Ijzendoorn, 2009; Buchheim et al., 2008; Gabbard, 2005; Lyons-Ruth, Yellin, Melnick, & Atwood, 2005; Riggs et al., 2007; Teicher, Andersen, Polcari, Anderson, & Navalta, 2002). Traumas durante la infancia se correlacionan especialmente con el estilo adulto de apego desorganizado (Barone, 2003; Westen et al., 2006). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: La teoría del apego es un modelo biopsicosocial para describir y explicar la forma en que un individuo se relaciona con otros cercanos: como sus padres, hijos y parejas sexuales. Esta forma de relacionarse es aprendida durante la infancia temprana y sirve de molde para todas las relaciones íntimas durante la vida del sujeto. Un adulto con un apego seguro ha internalizado una relación de confianza con sus padres o cuidadores durante la infancia y es por lo tanto capaz de adaptarse a distintos contextos sociales, y de mantener un equilibrio adecuado entre autonomía y dependencia para la regulación del estrés. Los estilos inseguros de apego se dividen en 1) Ansioso (el individuo es hipersensible al rechazo e intenta llamar la atención de los otros de manera compulsiva); 2) Evitativo (el individuo es hiposensible a las interacciones sociales, por lo que tiende a aislarse); y 3) Desorganizado (el sujeto es incapaz de controlar sus reacciones de estrés, por lo que tiende a sufrir desregulaciones afectivas generalizadas). El presente artículo revisa los elementos teóricos, psicológicos, neurocientíficos y del desarrollo del apego desde una perspectiva basada en la evidencia. Otorgamos un reporte actualizado del estudio del apego y de su relevancia para la comprensión de la etiología, el diagnostico y tratamiento de los trastornos mentales. Este artículo examina la relación privilegiada entre apego y trastornos de la personalidad desde diversos ángulos, con el objetivo de introducir los avances psicoterapéuticos más recientes para el tratamiento de los trastornos de la personalidad, especialmente del trastorno límite, basados en el estudio científico del apego. Describimos tres intervenciones terapéuticas cuya efectividad ha sido demostrada por evidencia científica: el Tratamiento Basado en la Mentalización, la Psicoterapia Centrada en la Transferencia y la Terapia de Esquemas.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of Social Service Research
    • "more likely among individuals with anxious attachment styles (Riggs et al., 2007). In addition, results in the current study are congruent with the literature showing that the fearful attachment style predominates among individuals with drug dependence (Schindler et al., 2005). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adult attachment styles and spirituality have been shown to be protective factors against depressive symptoms among individuals in treatment for substance use disorders. However, no studies to date have examined how these two factors simultaneously are related to depressive symptomatology in this population. Thus, this study aimed to examine how adult attachment styles (secure vs. insecure attachment styles) and 2 distinct spirituality dimensions (existential purpose and meaning in life and religious well-being or the perceived relationship with God) are associated with depressive symptoms. Using a cross-sectional design, 77 individuals receiving substance abuse treatment were asked to complete a battery of self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that secure attachment style and higher levels of existential purpose and meaning in life were significantly related to lower levels of depressive symptoms whereby the existential purpose and meaning in life was a stronger predictor of depressive symptoms. These results suggest that practitioners may consider addressing attachment issues during treatment; however, emphasizing ways to increase individuals' purpose and meaning in life may further enhance treatment outcomes. Future research should utilize a larger sample size, include more comprehensive measures of attachment styles, and explore ways to increase purpose and meaning in life in this population.
    Article · Apr 2014
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