Article

In vitro evaluation of the antiviral effects of the homeopathic preparation Gripp-Heel on selected respiratory viruses

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Abstract

Gripp-Heel is a homeopathic preparation frequently used in the treatment of respiratory viral infections such as various types of influenza and the common cold. The antiviral activity of Gripp-Heel was studied in vitro on human pathogenic enveloped and nonenveloped RNA and DNA viruses. Before the antiviral assays, in vitro cytotoxicity of Gripp-Heel was determined with cells used for the infection experiments (HeLa, HEp-2, MDCK, BGM) as well as with mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes. A concentration of 0.5 of the commercially available product slightly reduced cell viability and proliferative capacity, and experiments on antiviral activity were determined starting with a dilution of 0.2 of the commercially available product. The antiviral activity was determined against a broad panel of enveloped and nonenveloped DNA and RNA viruses with plaque reduction assay, cytopathogenic assays, virus titrations, analysis of the viral proteins in virus-specific enzyme immunoassays, and haemagglutination tests. Control substances were acyclovir (10 microg/mL), ribavirin (6 microg/mL), and amantadine hydrochloride (5 microg/mL), depending on the virus type. Gripp-Heel demonstrated dose-dependent in vitro activity (significant reductions of infectivity by 20% to 40%) against Human herpesvirus 1, Human adenovirus C serotype 5, Influenza A virus, Human respiratory syncytial virus, Human parainfluenza virus 3, Human rhinovirus B serotype 14, and Human coxsackievirus serotype A9. The mechanisms of this antiviral activity are still unclear, but type I interferon induction might be a possible explanation. Further research on this homeopathic preparation seems warranted.

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... Nevertheless, previous in vitro experiments have demonstrated the antiviral activity against a broad panel of viruses. These studies showed reductions in infectivity against a panel of human respiratory viruses such as herpes simplex virus, adenovirus, influenza A virus, RSV, parainfluenza virus, rhinovirus and coxsackievirus [6,7]. Other in vitro studies have demonstrated that Engystol® exerts modulatory effects on the immune system in terms of phagocytic activity, granulocyte function and improved humoral response8910111213. ...
... The respective cells were incubated in 12-or 24 well tissue culture dishes with serially diluted serum-free virus stock solutions for 1 h at 34°C as described elsewhere [6]. ...
... The antiviral activity of Gripp-Heel® against influenza, Para3, RSV, HRV-14, HSV-1 and Ad5 was determined by means of a plaque formation assay or cytopathogenic effect (CPE), respectively as described elsewhere [6]. For Ad5 a virus specific ELISA was employed. ...
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Infections with respiratory viruses can activate the innate immune response - an important host defence mechanism in the early stage of viral infection. Interferon (IFN) release, triggered by virus infection, is an important factor in establishing an antiviral state, where IFN activation occurs prior to the onset of the adaptive immune response.The two ultra-low-dose combination medications, Engystol® and Gripp-Heel®, have documented efficacy for the treatment of the respiratory infections. However, the underlying antiviral mechanisms remain elusive. It was the goal to investigate whether Engystol® and Gripp-Heel® display antiviral activity in a prophylactic treatment protocol (2, 24 and 48 h pre-incubation) using a plaque reduction assay and whether the medications affect the release of type 1 IFN in virus-susceptible cell lines and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Both medications demonstrate prophylactic effect against viral respiratory virus replication. However, when the incubation was continued for up to 5 days, both medications exhibited a pronounced antiviral effect which was dependent on the pre-incubation time. Moreover, in co-stimulated HeLa cells as well as in activated PBMCs Gripp-Heel® and Engystol® demonstrated an increased type 1 IFN production. Engystol® and Gripp-Heel® inhibited the replication of a variety of respiratory viruses. Additionally, we showed that pre-incubation affects the magnitude of the inhibitory effect differently for the various tested viruses. Both medications stimulate type 1 IFN release in different cell systems which suggests that their antiviral activity may be mediated possibly via modulation of the antiviral type 1 IFN host response.
... [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9] Similarly, homoeopathic drugs play an important role in the treatment of common respiratory infections. [10][11][12] In this article, I wish to discuss the possibility of homoeopathic medicines like Lachesis and Gripp Heel which will be more effective to cure corona patient. ...
... After searching and analysing drug quality of homoeopathic drugs Lachesis and Gripp Heel, I have realised to the best of my knowledge that these two drugs may be used for treatment against COVID-19. 10,18 • Lachesis is derived from the venom of the South American bushmaster snake. It is the dilution of extracted venom and milk sugar or lactose. ...
... Gripp Heel is used in the form of tablets or solution for injection and contains 5 active ingredients: Aconitum (monkshood), Bryonia (bryony), Eupatorium petrolatum (water hemp), Lachesis (bushmaster snake venom) and Phosphorus. 10 The antiviral effect of Gripp Heel is against a broad panel of enveloped and non-enveloped DNA and RNA viruses. 10 Gripp Heel is used to ward off viral infections with various types of RNA virus-like influenza A, RSV and parainfluenza virus type 3 and other viruses. ...
Article
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From December 2019, a new pandemic named Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-2019) has become a key topic of discussion across the world. The reason behind this discussion is the rapid increase in human death due to COVID-19 which has stunned the world. The pathogen of COVID-19 is a novel coronavirus called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which is similar to SARS CoV. SARS-CoV-2 infects mainly the respiratory system which causes the death because there is no effective vaccines or therapeutics against COVID-19. Homoeopathic drugs like Lachesis and Gripp Heel may play an effective role to cure corona patients.
... Homeopathic medicines successfully used in treatment of influenza. Several medicines have been proven to have effective in viral respiratory illnesses with remarkable anti-viral properties [39] in ultra-diluted doses [40,41] . Similarity in the pharmacodynamic properties and patient symptom is the basis of treatment. ...
... Pneumonia in second and third stages ; with dullness on percussion ; bronchial respiration, with red or gray hepatization and infiltration of parenchyma. [47] Gripp-Heel® a homeopathic preparation frequently used in the treatment of respiratory viral infections demonstrated dose-dependent in vitro activity (significant reductions of infectivity by 20% to 40%) against Human herpesvirus 1, Human adenovirus C serotype 5, Influenza A virus, Human respiratory syncytial virus, Human parainfluenza virus 3, Human rhinovirus B serotype 14, and Human coxsackievirus serotype A9 [39] . ...
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Viral infections affect respiratory tract commonly, Most of the infections are mild and in some it would be severe with direct or indirect complications. Homoeopathic medicines are extensively used to treat influenza since long time. Several of those medicines have been possess anti-viral properties in ultra-diluted doses. Similarity in the pharmacodynamic properties and patient signs are the basis of Homoeopathic treatment. The curing property of these drugs is based on its disease causing property. Sanguinaria canadensis is one such important medicine used in Homoeopathy to treat influenza and its complications, both individually as well as in combination preparations. The signs and symptoms of most of the severe viral respiratory infections are similar to that of the drug proving observations on Sangunaria canadensis. The Sangunaraia respiratory symptoms are observed along with gastric and cardiac symptoms. The symptoms observed and recorded in Homoeopathic repertories are very similar to that of influenza like illness ranging from mild to severe respiratory illnesses. Secondary Metabolites action of Sangunaria canadensis displays antiviral activity impeding HIV protease. Protopine in addition to allocryptopine are more vigorous against Parainfluenza Virus-3. Sanguinarine is seen as the inhibitor of aminopeptidase A, dipeptidyl peptidase IV and aminopeptidase N. APN inhibitors could meddle in certain processes of the pathogenetic course of aggravation, tumor infiltration through the basal membrane and viral infection. Numerous plants produce Antiviral phyto-constituents which can target viral proteins, lipid envelope, and viral nucleic acids. DNA-intercalating drugs curb DNA and RNA polymerases and protein biosynthesis, and diminish viral replication. Fundamental oils and polyphenols are dynamic against the free infection, the intercalators can likewise repress the viral replication inside the host cell. Among the intercalating PSMs, alkaloids of the isoquinoline, quinoline and β-carboline type give a few incredible antiviral mixes to model. sanguinarine, in Sanguinaria canadensis is a solid DNA intercalator with articulated cytotoxic, antibacterial and antiviral properties. Homoeopathic dynamizations of Sanguinaria Canadensis are safe and has been successfully used for viral respiratory pneumonia for long time. This medicine in homoeopathy potencies could have a potential for inhibiting viral replication and disease progression. Based on the clinical experience gained from the use of Sanguinaria on viral respiratory illness and the adjuvant facts noted above, the potentized homoeopathic medicine Sanguinaria canadensis can be further studied for its application in severe viral respiratory illness like SARS Covid-2 as a stand-alone treatment or as an adjuvant treatment.
... Homeopathic medicines made from botanical sources also exert antiviral effects against multiple human pathogenic respiratory viruses in vitro [183]. Such medicines combine low potencies of Aconitum napellus, Bryonia alba, Eupatorium, Phosphorus, and Lachesis. ...
... Modern observational, comparative effectiveness, and efficacy studies also indicate a strong track record for homeopathy of faster onset clinical improvements in mild to moderate common acute infections of the upper respiratory tract (e.g., colds, influenza - [191][192][193]) and ear [194][195][196][197][198][199][200]). In vitro, homeopathic remedies made from botanical sources demonstrate antiviral effects and the ability to stimulate patterns of change in pro-and antiinflammatory cytokine release [183,201,202]. Even while dismissing the favorable findings, the otherwise negative (albeit highly flawed - [203][204][205]) Shang et al's metaanalysis reported a subanalysis of homeopathy efficacy studies restricted to infectious diseases that revealed a strongly significant benefit of homeopathic treatment [206]. ...
Article
Infectious diseases present public health challenges worldwide. An emerging integrative approach to treating infectious diseases is using nanoparticle (NP) forms of traditional and alternative medicines. Advantages of nanomedicine delivery methods include better disease targeting, especially for intracellular pathogens, ability to cross membranes and enter cells, longer duration drug action, reduced side effects, and cost savings from lower doses. We searched Pubmed articles in English with keywords related to nanoparticles and nanomedicine. Nanotechnology terms were also combined with keywords for drug delivery, infectious diseases, herbs, antioxidants, homeopathy, and adaptation. NPs are very small forms of material substances, measuring 1-100 nanometers along at least one dimension. Compared with bulk forms, NPs' large ratio of surface-area-to-volume confers increased reactivity and adsorptive capacity, with unique electromagnetic, chemical, biological, and quantum properties. Nanotechnology uses natural botanical agents for green manufacturing of less toxic NPs. Nanoparticle herbs and nutriceuticals can treat infections via improved bioavailability and antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects. Recent studies demonstrate that homeopathic medicines may contain source and/or silica nanoparticles because of their traditional manufacturing processes. Homeopathy, as a form of nanomedicine, has a promising history of treating epidemic infectious diseases, including malaria, leptospirosis and HIV/AIDS, in addition to acute upper respiratory infections. Adaptive changes in the host's complex networks underlie effects. Nanomedicine is integrative, blending modern technology with natural products to reduce toxicity and support immune function. Nanomedicine using traditional agents from alternative systems of medicine can facilitate progress in integrative public health approaches to infectious diseases.
... Again, this is a false perception perpetrated by homeopathy's critics: Bio-medical research is expensive, and manufacturers of homeopathic remedies are not globalised conglomerates. Nevertheless, Heel in Germany [39] and Guna in Italy [40] regularly conduct and publish trials into the efficacy of their products for specific conditions. As patents expire, or dangerous side-effects lead to high-profile drug withdrawals, many large pharmaceutical companies find maintaining experimental R and D facilities too expensive. ...
Article
Though homeopathy has been in successful and continuous use for well over 200 years, in the United Kingdom it is under growing pressure, from scientific detractors and sections of the media. As such, homeopathy's free National Health Service provision is threatened because it is derided as 'unproven', 'unscientific', and even 'deadly'. While refuting these and other detractions, this paper considers possible reasons for the current plight of homeopathy UK. Thus, the current attacks against homeopathy should be viewed more in the context of the globalised pharmaceutical industry which is itself in crisis, and a succession of UK governments seemingly supine in the face of legislation originating from the European Union.
... [55][56][57] The homeopathic preparation of Engystol which contains Vincetoxicum hirundinaria (swallow-wort) and Sulphur showed reductions in DNA viruses adenovirus type 5 and herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) and RNA viruses respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (HRV) infections by 73% (A5), 80% (HSV-1), 37% (RSV) and 20% (HRV) respectively. 58 59 The homeopathic preparation prepared from a mixture of extract of Cactus grandiflorus, Aloe socotrina, Abies nigra, Arnica, Lycopodium, Lachesis and mineral (calcium carbonate) products preincubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from patients with either chronic fatigue syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were found effective in stimulating in vitro natural killer function. 60 These experimental findings not only raise a strong point in favour of the efficacy of homeopathic drugs but also raise a question regarding the negligence of the literate world. ...
Article
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a zoonotic disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Its symptoms range from mild fever, cough, pharyngitis to severe acute respiratory syndrome. Since its first outbreak in Wuhan province of China, the disease has spread worldwide and emerged as pandemic. The infection is mainly spread by droplets and through contacts. Initially SARS-CoV-2 was thought to cause viral pneumonia only, but now it is evident that the virus can spread through the bloodstream and can cause systemic lesions as well. Though most of the time patients recovered spontaneously for immune-compromised patients, it is detrimental. Lack of effective therapy in conventional medicine has made host immune response as the only option to focus on this battle against COVID-19. First-world countries such as the USA, Italy, England and Spain have witnessed a massive number of deaths, and India is not an exception to that. The whole world is searching for effective treatment in the form of antiviral drugs, vaccines and hydroxychloroquine, but none has proven effective. Homeopathy has always put a mark during epidemics and in recent past during the elimination of leptospirosis in Cuba (2009–2014), homeopathy was very effective. In this scenario, we think homeopathy has a decisive role to play to fight this pandemic as it can enhance the host immune response and reduce the severity of the infection to a great extent. In this review, we will discuss the scopes of homeopathic medicines in the treatment of coronavirus disease.
... Though we do not have space here to discuss the purported mechanisms of homeopathic effects, it is worth mentioning that also basic in vitro experimental studies provide evidence that the effects of homeopathy differ from placebo. Some homeopathic medicines showed direct effects on the immune system cells (18), or exerted antiviral action (154)(155)(156), and homeopathic doses of cytokines have been able to resolve conditions of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in mice, establishing normal cytokine levels (157). A large body of laboratory evidence demonstrates that highly diluted/dynamized histamine -a substance mediator of inflammatory processes -has significant inhibitory effects in vitro on basophil granulocytes of the blood (158)(159)(160)(161), which are key regulatory cells of inflammation and immunity (162,163). ...
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The present paper reviews the clinical research carried out over the past three decades to evaluate the effectiveness of homeopathy for the treatment of respiratory allergies, common upper respiratory tract infections, otorhinolaryngologic complaints, and rheumatic diseases. We include in the analysis both randomised and non-randomised trials, assigning them different weightings in the final balance of evidence, on the basis of semi-quantitative criteria. Overall, the literature concerning a total of 83 original studies suggests that homeopathy may have significant effects in some conditions, e.g. Galphimia glauca (low homeopathic dilutions/dynamizations) in allergic oculorhinitis, Anas barbariae (high homeopathic dilution/dynamization) in influenza-like syndromes, classical individualised homeopathy in otitis, in allergic complaints and in fibromyalgia, and a few low-potency homeopathic complexes in sinusitis, rhinoconjunctivitis, arthritis. The evidence for individualised homeopathic therapy in the field of upper respiratory tract infections and for homeopathic immunotherapy in respiratory allergies is more conflicting. Pragmatic equivalence trials suggest that, in primary care, homeopathic treatment is not inferior to conventional treatment. A larger number of observational studies and of clinical trials -- conducted in a methodologically correct manner without altering the treatment setting-- are needed before sure conclusions concerning the application of homeopathy for specific diseases can be drawn.
... doi:10. 1016/j.phymed.2011.10.010 of the homeopathic preparation of Gripp-Heel was demonstrated to act against human herpesvirus (HSV-1), human adenovirus (HAV), human parainfluenza virus, human coxsackievirus, influenza A virus, HRV, and RSV, which might be based on the induction of type 1 interferons (Glatthaar 2007) by the respective substances. Nevertheless, no detailed information is yet available on the exact mode of antiviral action of plant extracts. ...
Article
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Sinupret(®), a herbal medicinal product made from Gentian root, Primula flower, Elder flower, Sorrel herb, and Verbena herb is frequently used in the treatment of acute and chronic rhinosinusitis and respiratory viral infections such as common cold. To date little is known about its potential antiviral activity. Therefore experiments have been performed to measure the antiviral activity of Sinupret(®) oral drops (hereinafter referred to as "oral drops") and Sinupret(®) dry extract (hereinafter referred to as "dry extract"), in vitro against a broad panel of both enveloped and non-enveloped human pathogenic RNA and DNA viruses known to cause infections of the upper respiratory tract: influenza A, Chile 1/83 (H1N1) virus (FluA), Porcine Influenza A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) virus (pFluA), parainfluenza type 3 virus (Para 3), respiratory syncytial virus, strain Long (RSV), human rhinovirus B subtype 14 (HRV 14), coxsackievirus subtype A9 (CA9), and adenovirus C subtype 5 (Adeno 5). Concentration-dependent antiviral activity (EC(50) between 13.8 and 124.8 μg/ml) of Sinupret(®) was observed against RNA as well as DNA viruses independent of a viral envelope. Remarkable antiviral activity was shown against Adeno 5, HRV 14 and RSV in which dry extract was significantly superior to oral drops. This could be ascertained with different assays as plaque-reduction assays in plaque forming units (PFU), the analyses of a cytopathogenic effect (CPE) and with enzyme immunoassays (ELISA) to determine the amount of newly synthesised virus. Our results demonstrate that Sinupret(®) shows a broad spectrum of antiviral activity in vitro against viruses commonly known to cause respiratory infections.
... Previous empirical studies have shown that different homeopathic remedies modulate components of the allostatic stress response network. These findings include remedy-induced changes in heat shock proteins [7,17,146], cytokines147148149, immune150151152153, metabolic [12,131], and nervous system154155156157158159160161162 function, as well as gene expression patterns [9,163,164]. Nanoparticles per se can and do mobilize components of the allostatic network165166167. ...
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Background This paper proposes a novel model for homeopathic remedy action on living systems. Research indicates that homeopathic remedies (a) contain measurable source and silica nanoparticles heterogeneously dispersed in colloidal solution; (b) act by modulating biological function of the allostatic stress response network (c) evoke biphasic actions on living systems via organism-dependent adaptive and endogenously amplified effects; (d) improve systemic resilience. Discussion The proposed active components of homeopathic remedies are nanoparticles of source substance in water-based colloidal solution, not bulk-form drugs. Nanoparticles have unique biological and physico-chemical properties, including increased catalytic reactivity, protein and DNA adsorption, bioavailability, dose-sparing, electromagnetic, and quantum effects different from bulk-form materials. Trituration and/or liquid succussions during classical remedy preparation create “top-down” nanostructures. Plants can biosynthesize remedy-templated silica nanostructures. Nanoparticles stimulate hormesis, a beneficial low-dose adaptive response. Homeopathic remedies prescribed in low doses spaced intermittently over time act as biological signals that stimulate the organism’s allostatic biological stress response network, evoking nonlinear modulatory, self-organizing change. Potential mechanisms include time-dependent sensitization (TDS), a type of adaptive plasticity/metaplasticity involving progressive amplification of host responses, which reverse direction and oscillate at physiological limits. To mobilize hormesis and TDS, the remedy must be appraised as a salient, but low level, novel threat, stressor, or homeostatic disruption for the whole organism. Silica nanoparticles adsorb remedy source and amplify effects. Properly-timed remedy dosing elicits disease-primed compensatory reversal in direction of maladaptive dynamics of the allostatic network, thus promoting resilience and recovery from disease. Summary Homeopathic remedies are proposed as source nanoparticles that mobilize hormesis and time-dependent sensitization via non-pharmacological effects on specific biological adaptive and amplification mechanisms. The nanoparticle nature of remedies would distinguish them from conventional bulk drugs in structure, morphology, and functional properties. Outcomes would depend upon the ability of the organism to respond to the remedy as a novel stressor or heterotypic biological threat, initiating reversals of cumulative, cross-adapted biological maladaptations underlying disease in the allostatic stress response network. Systemic resilience would improve. This model provides a foundation for theory-driven research on the role of nanomaterials in living systems, mechanisms of homeopathic remedy actions and translational uses in nanomedicine.
... 50 The highly reactive characteristics of NPs 21,22 shift the already low hormetic doseeresponse curve even lower in terms of the dose needed to mobilize adaptive changes. 27,51 The endogenous adaptations include multiple, interacting shifts in central nervous system (CNS) function, 9,52,53 autonomic balance, 54 heat shock protein activation, 55e57 cortisol release, 58e65 inflammatory cytokine expression, 66,67 and/or immune system mobilization. 68e70 A homeopath might describe the patient as "never having been well since" an adverse life event. ...
Article
Key concepts of the Nanoparticle-Allostatic Cross-Adaptation-Sensitization (NPCAS) Model for the action of homeopathic remedies in living systems include source nanoparticles as low level environmental stressors, heterotypic hormesis, cross-adaptation, allostasis (stress response network), time-dependent sensitization with endogenous amplification and bidirectional change, and self-organizing complex adaptive systems. The model accommodates the requirement for measurable physical agents in the remedy (source nanoparticles and/or source adsorbed to silica nanoparticles). Hormetic adaptive responses in the organism, triggered by nanoparticles; bipolar, metaplastic change, dependent on the history of the organism. Clinical matching of the patient's symptom picture, including modalities, to the symptom pattern that the source material can cause (cross-adaptation and cross-sensitization). Evidence for nanoparticle-related quantum macro-entanglement in homeopathic pathogenetic trials. This paper examines research implications of the model, discussing the following hypotheses: Variability in nanoparticle size, morphology, and aggregation affects remedy properties and reproducibility of findings. Homeopathic remedies modulate adaptive allostatic responses, with multiple dynamic short- and long-term effects. Simillimum remedy nanoparticles, as novel mild stressors corresponding to the organism's dysfunction initiate time-dependent cross-sensitization, reversing the direction of dysfunctional reactivity to environmental stressors. The NPCAS model suggests a way forward for systematic research on homeopathy. The central proposition is that homeopathic treatment is a form of nanomedicine acting by modulation of endogenous adaptation and metaplastic amplification processes in the organism to enhance long-term systemic resilience and health.
... All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2011.10.010 of the homeopathic preparation of Gripp-Heel was demonstrated to act against human herpesvirus (HSV-1), human adenovirus (HAV), human parainfluenza virus, human coxsackievirus, influenza A virus, HRV, and RSV, which might be based on the induction of type 1 interferons (Glatthaar 2007) by the respective substances. Nevertheless, no detailed information is yet available on the exact mode of antiviral action of plant extracts. ...
... doi:10. 1016/j.phymed.2011.10.010 of the homeopathic preparation of Gripp-Heel was demonstrated to act against human herpesvirus (HSV-1), human adenovirus (HAV), human parainfluenza virus, human coxsackievirus, influenza A virus, HRV, and RSV, which might be based on the induction of type 1 interferons (Glatthaar 2007) by the respective substances. Nevertheless, no detailed information is yet available on the exact mode of antiviral action of plant extracts. ...
... 219 4X potency as part of combination homeopathic product significantly reduced viral infectivity of multiple human viruses. 220 ...
Article
The purpose of the present paper is to (a) summarize evidence for the nanoparticle nature and biological effects of traditional homeopathically-prepared medicines at low and ultralow doses; (b) provide details of historically-based homeopathic green manufacturing materials and methods, relating them to top-down mechanical attrition and plant-based biosynthetic processes in modern nanotechnology; (c) outline the potential roles of nonlinear dose-responses and dynamical interactions with complex adaptive systems in generating endogenous amplification processes during low dose treatment. Possible mechanisms of low dose effects, for which there is evidence involving nanoparticles and/or homeopathically-manufactured medicines, include hormesis, time-dependent sensitization, and stochastic resonance. All of the proposed mechanisms depend upon endogenous nonlinear amplification processes in the recipient organism in interaction with the salient, albeit weak signal properties of the medicine. Conventional ligand-receptor mechanisms relevant to higher doses are less likely involved. Effects, especially for homeopathically-prepared nanophytomedicines, include bidirectional host state-dependent changes in function. Homeopathic clinicians report successful treatment of serious infections and cancers. Preclinical biological evidence is consistent with such claims. Controlled biological data on homeopathically-prepared medicines indicate modulation of gene expression and biological signaling pathways regulating cell cycles, immune reactions, and central nervous system function from studies on cells, animals, and human subjects. As a 200-year old system of traditional medicine used by millions of people worldwide, homeopathy offers a pulsed low dose treatment strategy and strong safety record to facilitate progress in translational nanomedicine with plants and other natural products. In turn, modern nanotechnology methods can improve homeopathic manufacturing procedures, characterize nanoparticle end-products, and describe interactions of homeopathic nanophytomedicines with living systems at the nanoparticle and even individual organism level of detection. Faster progress toward safe and effective personalized nanophytomedicine treatments can result.
... Though we do not have space here to discuss the purported mechanisms of homeopathic effects, it is worth mentioning that also basic in vitro experimental studies provide evidence that the effects of homeopathy differ from placebo. Some homeopathic medicines showed direct effects on the immune system cells (18), or exerted antiviral action (154)(155)(156), and homeopathic doses of cytokines have been able to resolve conditions of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in mice, establishing normal cytokine levels (157). A large body of laboratory evidence demonstrates that highly diluted/dynamized histamine -a substance mediator of inflammatory processes -has significant inhibitory effects in vitro on basophil granulocytes of the blood (158)(159)(160)(161), which are key regulatory cells of inflammation and immunity (162,163). ...
... Though we do not have space here to discuss the purported mechanisms of homeopathic effects, it is worth mentioning that also basic in vitro experimental studies provide evidence that the effects of homeopathy differ from placebo. Some homeopathic medicines showed direct effects on the immune system cells (18), or exerted antiviral action (154)(155)(156), and homeopathic doses of cytokines have been able to resolve conditions of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in mice, establishing normal cytokine levels (157). A large body of laboratory evidence demonstrates that highly diluted/dynamized histamine -a substance mediator of inflammatory processes -has significant inhibitory effects in vitro on basophil granulocytes of the blood (158)(159)(160)(161), which are key regulatory cells of inflammation and immunity (162,163). ...
... [12] The homeopathic preparation Gripp-Heel which contains fixed combination of homeopathic agents, namely Aconitum (monkshood), Bryonia (bryony), Eupatorium perfoliatum (water hemp), Lachesis (bushmaster snake venom) and Phosphorus demonstrated dose-dependent in vitro antiviral activity (significant reduction of infectivity by 20%-40%) against human pathogenic enveloped and non-enveloped RNA and DNA viruses such as human herpesvirus 1, human adenovirus C serotype 5, influenza A virus, human RSV, human RSV, human parainfluenza virus 3, HRV B serotype 14 and human coxsackievirus serotype A9 in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of chick egg. [13] In vitro screening of Belladonna 3, 12, 30 and 200C showed significant inhibition of Japanese encephalitis virus infection. [14] The homeopathic preparation prepared from a mixture of extract of Cactus grandiflorus, Aloe socotrina, Abies nigra, Arnica, Lycopodium, Lachesis and mineral (Calcium carbonate) products preincubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from patients with either chronic fatigue syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were found effective in stimulating in vitro natural killer function. ...
Article
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Background: Before the 20th century, research in Homeopathy was limited either for its proving in healthy human volunteers or to its clinical verification/clinical efficacy in diseased individuals. However, in recent years, there has been an increased trend in the number of pre-clinical studies aimed to evaluate the pharmacological activity produced by homeopathic medicines. The objective of this review is to make a systemic compilation of results of experimental pharmacological findings of homeopathic medicines, both in vitro and in animal models, and to present the same in a summarised form. Methods: Articles published up to March 2017 having information of in vitro and in vivo studies using homeopathic medicines were collected from the PubMed database, review articles, scientific reports, research articles, thesis, online information extracted from Medline, etc. to compile this review. The articles from the most common therapeutic areas such as antimicrobial effect, central nervous system disorders, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, anticancer, wound healing, antiasthmatic and liver toxicity and other therapeutic areas such as diabetes and malaria were included in this review. Results: This review article not only provides the scientific approaches applied in Homeopathy research but also provides evidence-based information on pharmacological effects of dilutions/potencies as well as mother tincture of different homeopathic drugs. This review article also reveals the use of improved methodology, molecular techniques and analytical part adopted in recently published research articles to understand the mechanism of action of homeopathic medicines. Conclusion: Homeopathy has substantial scope in pre-clinical research where therapeutic and biological effects of homeopathic medicines with proper mechanism of action can be traced out with the use of modern molecular techniques in in vivo and in vitro experiments.
... The results of basic research experiments may invigorate new clinical trials that investigate complementary treatments for infectious diseases [130]. Some homeopathic medicines showed direct effects on the immune system cells [131][132][133][134][135][136], or exerted antiviral action [93,[136][137][138]. ...
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Please note that the journal name is: “Journal of Alternative, Complementary and Integrative Medicine”. Introduction Homeopathy is a therapeutic natural medical alternative that is widely and increasing-ly being used, even for pediatric patients. Given this trend, it is essential that clinicians have the re-sources to advise their patients as to the potential benefits and harms of this complementary therapy. The aim of this work is to describe the available literature cited in PubMed concerning the ho-meopathic treatments on human subjects (both children and adult) for common upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), otitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, rhinosinusitis, pharyngitis and tonsillitis. Methods The PubMed search made use of the keywords “homeopathy” or “homeopathic”, and the names of the indicated diseases. The report covers all forms of homeopathic therapy, namely: a) classical individualized homeopathy, b) ailment-specific medicines and complexes. In order to take into account the whole mass of literature, the evidence of the clinical effectiveness is summarized according to semi-quantitative criteria, based on the number of randomized and non-randomized papers published in each group of ailments. The medicines used in the various studies are classified and described. Results A total of 40 clinical studies, published until the end of 2018, which assess the effective-ness of the homeopathic treatment in one of the abovementioned conditions are reported and classi-fied. The studies are randomized or equivalence studies with control group (n=21), non randomized or observational (n=19) and concern different clinical approaches, namely individualized using high homeopathic dilutions or non-individualized using complex drug formulations. Studies have re-vealed mixed results, suggesting that some homeopathic formulations may have significant effects in URTI and otorhinolaryngological infections. Several studies have demonstrated benefits to pa-tients’ quality of life and symptom scoring, or equivalence with the conventional medical approach. Scarcity of data and uncertainty still exists in literature on the effectiveness of individualized ap-proach in URTIs. 21 different medicines were used in a minimum of two published reports. Conclusion Homeopathic formulations in upper respiratory tract and otorhinolaryngological infec-tions are likely effective and the individualized approach in non severe otitis is possibly effective. Homeopathic treatments may help when use of antibiotics is not indicated. Due to the heterogeneity of approaches and of drugs used, additional studies will be required to evaluate the possible integra-tion of homeopathy into the standard of care for the treatment of respiratory and otorhinolaryngo-logic ailments.
... The results of basic research experiments may invigorate new clinical trials that investigate complementary treatments for infectious diseases [130]. Some homeopathic medicines showed direct effects on the immune system cells [131][132][133][134][135][136], or exerted antiviral action [93,[136][137][138]. ...
... The antiviral activity of Gripp-Heel, a homoeopathic combination, was shown in the treatment of respiratory viral infections, for various types of influenza and the common cold (BernadetteGlatthaar-Saalmüller, 2007). The antiviral activity of Gripp-Heel in vitro on human pathogenic enveloped and non-enveloped RNA and DNA viruses were investigated in this work. ...
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In 1994, Madeleine Bastide described experimental models in immunology that were used during the 1980s to investigate high dilution effects on several biological systems. She classified the available papers in four categories: High dilutions of antigens; High dilutions of thymus, bursa and other hormones; High dilutions of cytokines; Immunopharmacological activity of silica. The studies about high dilutions of antigens were not continued after this period, but gave rise to a long process of a series of invitro models on antigens and histamine dilutions, that led to the demonstration of the biological modulation effects of these preparations on basophil degranulation. During this process, a multi-centre study was performed, with a high degree of reproducibility among different independent laboratories.The studies about high diluted cytokines, thymulin and other hormones opened a new line of scientific investigation, about the regulatory properties of endogenous substances prepared according to homeopathic methods. The most frequently studied substance, thymulin, when administered to mice at 5cH potency, is able to improve the activity of phagocytes in different experimental situations, such as viral, bacterial and parasitic infections. The immunopharmacological activity of silica was demonstrated, at that time, as an invivo illustration of the homeopathic 'similia principle'. More recently, studies on silica have assumed another focus: the putative role of silica as active contaminant present in high dilutions. This paper presents a follow-up summary on these items, considering the evolution of discoveries from 1994 to 2014.
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The objective of this study was to search for effective agents for the treatment of infections in animals or infected cell lines. The Homeopathic Basic Research experiments (HomBRex) database (http://www.carstens-stiftung.de/hombrex) on model biological systems in homeopathic research was searched. Eligible experiments were reviewed and analysed. The database contains 48 eligible experiments published from 1832 to 2009. Causative pathogens were bacteria, fungi, viruses, proto- and metazoa. In the experiments, various parameters were observed and a large set of medicines was investigated. In eight of the 48 experiments, at least one of the investigated medicines was selected according to the similia principle. Nosodes and homeopathic complexes were investigated in 8 and 14 experiments respectively. Mice were the most often used host organisms (13 experiments). In 31 experiments at least one homeopathic medicine was found effective for treatment. The results of basic research experiments may invigorate new clinical trials that investigate complementary treatments for infectious diseases. However, all experiments reviewed here await replication and no clear-cut conclusion can be drawn regarding the transferability of in vitro results to in vivo outcomes.
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To study the effects of the homeopathic preparation Engystol (Biologische Heilmittel HEEL GmbH, Baden-Baden, Germany) on a panel [corrected] of human pathogenic viruses in vitro. The effects of Engystol were studied using plaque-reduction assays and virus titration assays, and by quantification of newly synthesized viral proteins in virus-specific enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays (ELISAs). The DNA viruses Adeno 5 and herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1), the RNA virus respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and human rhinovirus (HRV). A 73% reduction of Adeno 5 specific proteins and an 80% reduction in HSV-1 specific proteins were observed in ELISAs of virus-infected cells treated with Engystol after infection. The effects appeared to be dose-dependent. With these viruses, similar results were observed in titration assays of viral offspring from cells treated with Engystol. Pretreatment of adenovirus with Engystol did not inhibit the infectivity of the virus suspension and no Engystol-induced stimulation of interferon-alpha could be observed. Plaque-reduction assays with the RNA viruses, RSV and HRV, showed reductions in infectivity by 37% (RSV) and 20% (HRV), respectively. The results indicate antiviral activity of Engystol independent of the activation of the cellular interferon system.
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To determine the sensitivity of herpes simplex virus isolates to acyclovir and the importance of resistant isolates in hospitalized patients. Retrospective incidence cohort study. All herpes simplex virus isolates cultured over 1 year from patients followed at a tertiary care center. Consecutive herpes simplex virus isolates were collected from 207 patients, including immunocompetent patients, patients with malignancy, neonates, bone marrow and organ transplant recipients, and patients seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus. A rapid nucleic acid hybridization method was used to assess susceptibility to acyclovir. Acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex viruses were recovered from 7 of 148 immunocompromised patients (4.7%) but from none of 59 immunocompetent hosts. Clinical disease was found in all 7 patients with resistant herpes simplex virus and was more severe in pediatric patients. All resistant isolates were from acyclovir-treated patients and had absent or altered thymidine kinase activity by plaque autoradiography. Herpes simplex virus resistant to acyclovir arises relatively frequently in immunocompromised patients and may cause serious disease. Rapid detection of resistance permits antiviral therapy to be individualized. Antiviral susceptibility testing to monitor viral resistance should be encouraged, especially in tertiary care settings.
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Incubation of the alphaherpesviruses pseudorabiesvirus (PRV) and bovine herpesvirus 1 during infection of cell cultures with an extract prepared from the leaves of Acanthospermum hispidum impaired productive replication of these viruses in a concentration-dependent manner whereas propagation of classical swine fever virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus and vaccinia virus was not affected. The 50% inhibitory concentration for cell growth (IC50) was 107 +/- 5 microliters/ml, and the concentration reducing PRV yield by 1 log10 (90% effective concentration, EC90) was 8 +/- 3 microliters/ml. The selectivity index calculated as the IC50/EC90 ration was 13 +/- 4. Delineation of the mechanism of the antiviral activity demonstrated inhibition of alphaherpesvirus attachment to and, to a lesser extent, penetration into the cells. In contrast, viral gene expression was not inhibited by the extract when added after entry of virions into the target cells. Reduced antiviral activity of A.h. against PRV deletion mutants lacking glycoprotein C (gC) or glycoproteins gC, gE, gG and gI altogether indicated that gC alone and/or viral attachment complexes of which gC is a component constitute the target structures for A. hispidum.
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Epidemic influenza continues to be associated with significant morbidity in the general population, and mortality in the elderly and other high risk patients. Although the case fatality rate averages less than 0.01%, tens of thousands of deaths occur each year. Control through immunisation programmes has not been possible due to incomplete protective efficacy and antigenic variations that occur frequently. Currently available anti-influenza medications (amantadine and rimantadine) have had limited success due to underutilisation, lack of activity against influenza B, the rapid development of viral resistance to the drugs, and adverse effects. A new class of antiviral agents designed to inhibit influenza neuraminidase, an important surface glycoprotein, is currently under active development for use in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza A and B infections. Two of these compounds, zanamivir (GG167) and GS4104 (the ethyl ester prodrug of GS4071) have reached clinical trials. Most studies of zanamivir have involved topical administration by inhalation of dry powder aerosols and/or intranasal doses of aqueous solutions. These routes rapidly provide high local concentrations at the sites of delivery. GS4104 is administered orally, which allows for greater ease of administration, and probably more uniform distribution of the parent compound GS4071 in the respiratory tract. Both have shown potent inhibitory activity against influenza in animal models and experimental human influenza with excellent tolerability profiles. Zanamivir treatment has been shown to reduce the severity and duration of naturally occurring, uncomplicated influenza illness in adults. Clinical resistance to these drugs has not been recognised as a significant problem to date, although strains resistant to each agent have been produced in the laboratory. This class of agents shows considerable promise as a novel approach to prophylaxis and treatment of influenza infections. Ongoing studies should provide the data needed to allow the addition of 1 or more of the neuraminidase inhibitors to the clinician's anti-influenza armamentarium.
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A liquid extract from Eleutherococcus senticosus roots inhibited the productive replication of human rhinovirus (HRV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza A virus in cell cultures infected with these viruses, all of which belong to the RNA type viruses. Analysis of virus production after treatment of the infected cells using plaque-reduction assays showed a strong antiviral activity of the Eleutherococcus extract. In contrast, no effect was detected using the same protocol for cells infected with the DNA viruses, adenovirus (Adeno 5) or herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV 1). Pre-treatment of cells did not inhibit either virus adsorption or virus replication. The results of the study demonstrate that the Eleutherococcus extract inhibited the replication of all RNA viruses studied so far. This antiviral activity remained stable under the conditions used for drug preparation and storage.
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A plaque method is described for animal viruses using agar-cell suspensions, which has certain advantages over the monolayer method.
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Treatments for mild viral infections are usually directed at providing symptomatic relief. The effectiveness of the homoeopathic remedy Gripp-Heel was compared with that of conventional treatments in a prospective, observational cohort study in 485 patients with mild viral infections and symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle pain, cough or sore throat. Practitioners specialised in homoeopathy or conventional treatment, or practised both to similar extents. As evaluated by the practitioners, the homoeopathic therapy was effective to similar or greater degree than the conventional therapies: 67.9% of patients were considered asymptomatic at the end of Gripp-Heel therapy vs. 47.9% of patients in the control group. Practitioners judged homoeopathic treatments as 'successful' in 78.1% of cases vs. 52.2% for conventional therapies. Tolerability and compliance were good in both treatment groups, with the verdict 'very good' given for 88.9% of patients in the homoeopathic group vs. 38.8% in the conventional treatment group.