Group cognitive behavior therapy for Japanese patients with social anxiety disorder: Preliminary outcomes and their predictors

Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan.
BMC Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 2.21). 02/2007; 7(1):69. DOI: 10.1186/1471-244X-7-69
Source: PubMed


A number of studies have provided strong evidence for the use of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in the treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, all of the previous reports were from Europe and North America and it is unknown whether Western psychological therapies are effective for SAD in non-Western cultures. The present pilot study aimed to evaluate CBT program for SAD which was originally developed for Western patients, among Japanese patients.
Fifty-seven outpatients who participated in group CBT for SAD were evaluated using eight self-reported and one clinician-administered questionnaires to measure various aspects of SAD symptomatology at the beginning and at the end of the program. Pre- and post-treatment scores were compared and the magnitude of treatment effect was quantified as well based once on the intention-to-treat (ITT) and once among the completers only. We also examined baseline predictors of the CBT outcomes.
Seven patients (12%) did not complete the program. For the ITT sample, the percentage of reduction was 20% to 30% and the pre to post treatment effect sizes ranged from 0.37 to 1.01. Among the completers, the respective figures were 20% to 33% and 0.41 to 1.19. We found no significant pretreatment predictor of the outcomes.
Group CBT for SAD is acceptable and can bring about a similar degree of symptom reduction among Japanese patients with SAD as among Western patients.

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Available from: Junwen Chen
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    • "Only Chen and colleagues [25-27] showed that group CBT can bring about a similar degree of symptom reduction for Japanese patients as for Western patients with SAD. However, no study has tested the effectiveness of individual CBT for SAD in Japan. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is regarded as an effective treatment for social anxiety disorder (SAD) in Europe and North America. Individual CBT might be acceptable and effective for patients with SAD even in non-Western cultures; therefore, we conducted a feasibility study of individual CBT for SAD in Japanese clinical settings. We also examined the baseline predictors of outcomes associated with receiving CBT. This single-arm trial employed a 14-week individual CBT intervention. The primary outcome was the self-rated Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, with secondary measurements of other social anxiety and depressive severity. Assessments were conducted at baseline, after a waiting period before CBT, during CBT, and after CBT. Of the 19 subjects screened, 15 were eligible for the study and completed the outcome measures at all assessment points. Receiving CBT led to significant improvements in primary and secondary SAD severity (ps < .001). The mean total score on the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale improved from 91.8 to 51.7 (before CBT to after CBT), and the within-group effect size at the end-point assessment was large (Cohen’s d = 1.71). After CBT, 73% of participants were judged to be treatment responders, and 40% met the criteria for remission. We found no significant baseline predictors of those outcomes. Despite several limitations, our treatment—which comprises a 14-week, individual CBT program—seems feasible and may achieve favorable treatment outcomes for SAD in Japanese clinical settings. Further controlled trials are required in order to address the limitations of this study. Trial registration UMIN-CTR UMIN000005897
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · BMC Research Notes
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    • "Details of the inclusion criteria for the participants and the contents of the group CBT as an acute-phase treatment have been described elsewhere [27]. In brief, 57 consecutive patients with SAD were initially recruited into the outpatient group-based CBT program at the Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Hospital, Japan, between February 2005 and May 2007. "
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    ABSTRACT: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most common anxiety disorders. The efficacy of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) has been examined but to date its effects on Quality of Life (QoL) have not been appropriately evaluated especially in the long term.The study aimed to examine, in the long term, what aspects of Quality of Life (QoL) changed among social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients treated with group cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and what predictors at baseline were associated with QoL. Outpatients diagnosed with SAD were enrolled into group CBT, and assessed at follow-ups for up to 12 months in a typical clinical setting. QoL was evaluated using the Short Form 36. Various aspects of SAD symptomatology were also assessed. Each of the QoL domains and scores on symptomatology were quantified and compared with those at baseline. Baseline predictors of QoL outcomes at follow-up were investigated. Fifty-seven outpatients were enrolled into group CBT for SAD, 48 completed the whole program, and 44 and 40 completed assessments at the 3-month and 12-month follow-ups, respectively. All aspects of SAD symptomatology and psychological subscales of the QoL showed statistically significant improvement throughout follow-ups for up to 12 months. In terms of social functioning, no statistically significant improvement was observed at either follow-up point except for post-treatment. No consistently significant pre-treatment predictors were observed. After group CBT, SAD symptomatology and some aspects of QoL improved and this improvement was maintained for up to 12 months, but the social functioning domain did not prove any significant change statistically. Considering the limited effects of CBT on QoL, especially for social functioning, more powerful treatments are needed.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · BMC Psychiatry
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    • "A VF experiment based on the procedures reported by Harvey et al. (2000) is introduced around Session 7 within the CBT program (see Chen et al., 2007). Patients are asked to perform a 5-min role play of a moderately anxiety-provoking situation (subjective unit of disturbance: 75) with 3 min of preparation. "
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    ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to examine how video feedback can affect perceived performance and anticipatory anxiety in various naturalistic social anxiety-provoking situations among clinical patients diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and to examine predictors that might influence response to video feedback. Participants were 52 consecutive patients with DSM-IV SAD who participated in a group-based CBT program. Our results demonstrated that video feedback was associated with a decrease in the underestimation of own performance as well as the perception of feared outcomes. Moreover, anticipatory anxiety decreased after video feedback combined with peer feedback. Male sex, comorbidity with other anxiety disorders, and benzodiazepine prn, as well as patients' initial anxiety and avoidance were negative predictors of the effect of video feedback.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
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