Article

The hormonal effects of Tribulus terrestris and its role in the management of male erectile dysfunction--an evaluation using primates, rabbit and rat

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Abstract

Hormonal effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT) were evaluated in primates, rabbit and rat to identify its usefulness in the management of erectile dysfunction (ED). TT extract was administered intravenously, as a bolus dose of 7.5, 15 and 30 mg/kg, in primates for acute study. Rabbits and normal rats were treated with 2.5, 5 and 10mg/kg of TT extract orally for 8 weeks, for chronic study. In addition, castrated rats were treated either with testosterone cypionate (10mg/kg, subcutaneously; biweekly for 8 weeks) or TT orally (5mg/kg daily for 8 weeks). Blood samples were analyzed for testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) levels using radioimmunoassay. In primates, the increases in T (52%), DHT (31%) and DHEAS (29%) at 7.5mg/kg were statistically significant. In rabbits, both T and DHT were increased compared to control, however, only the increases in DHT (by 30% and 32% at 5 and 10mg/kg) were statistically significant. In castrated rats, increases in T levels by 51% and 25% were observed with T and TT extract respectively that were statistically significant. TT increases some of the sex hormones, possibly due to the presence of protodioscin in the extract. TT may be useful in mild to moderate cases of ED.

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... Tribulus terrestris (Linn.) have been shown to be responsible for aphrodisiac activity 9,10 . These bioactive agents exhibit aphrodisiac activity either by increasing the biosynthesis and secretion of androgens or act directly on the central nervous system to modulate the action of neurotransmitters and gonadal tissues in animals. ...
... These bioactive agents exhibit aphrodisiac activity either by increasing the biosynthesis and secretion of androgens or act directly on the central nervous system to modulate the action of neurotransmitters and gonadal tissues in animals. Specifically, saponins enhance androgen production 9 . ...
... Therefore, it is not surprising that in this study, the levels of the sex hormones were elevated, thou the elevation was not statistically significant except for testosterone; when compared with that of the normal control groups. Elevated level of testosterone has been associated with a moderate but significant increase in sexual desire and penile function 9 . Reports on testosterone also suggest that a slightly increased level of testosterone in adult males results in an enhanced sexual desire and arousability 15 . ...
... The seeds of T. terrestris contain alkaloids, steroidal saponins, tannins, flavonoids, and flavonol glycosides, as bioactive compounds (Chhatre, Nesari, Somani, Kanchan, & Sathaye, 2014;Ghosal et al., 2015). The androgenic activity of T. terrestris is linked to the presence of protodioscin, a steroidal saponin (Dinchev et al., 2008;Ganzera, Bedir, & Khan, 2001), which induces production of testosterone phyto-dehydroepiandrosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and dehydroepiandros-teronesulfate in men (Adimoelja, Sartono, & Soedjono, 2005), rabbits and rats (Gauthaman, Adaikan, & Prasad, 2002;Gauthaman & Ganesan, 2008). Therefore, puncture vine extracts are used to treat sexual infertility, improve libido and spermatogenesis in humans (Adaikan, Gauthaman, Ng, & Prasad, 2000;Adaikan, Gauthaman, & Prasad, 2001;Adimoelja, 2000;Adimoelja & Adaikan, 1997;Bucci, 2000;Neychev & Mitev, 2005). ...
... The saponins in A. vera extracts (Kumar, Chandana, Preethi, & Chauhan, 2012) elevate testosterone production in animals such as rats (Gauthaman & Ganesan, 2008) and fish (Table 1), which favors development of male sex organs. ...
... Phyto-compounds such as flavonoids and steroidal saponins, are reported to inhibit aromatase enzyme activity (Golan et al., 2008) increasing the production of testosterone, a process towards induction fish masculinization (Gauthaman & Ganesan, 2008). ...
Article
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Control of prolific reproduction is vital for a profitable tilapia aquaculture enterprise. All‐male tilapia culture is a popular method used to control prolific breeding, because the male individuals grow faster than female and mixed‐sex populations. Presently, most farmers use 17α‐methyl testosterone (MT) to produce all‐male tilapia individuals, although synthetic hormones are linked to human health and environmental risks. Recently, considerable attention has focused on plant‐based products as alternatives to MT, because they are affordable, safe, and eco‐friendly. Despite the growing interest in using plant extracts to prevent frequent spawning in tilapia production, the available information is not collated to standardize application guidelines. Accordingly, this review article consolidates existing knowledge on the use of plant extracts to control prolific breeding in tilapia culture systems. In addition, limitations to commercial application of the extracts are identified. To date, seed, root, and leaf extracts of 20 plant species, most notably, Tribulus terrestris, Mucuna pruriens, and Carica papaya, exhibit potential for controlling unwanted breeding in tilapia production systems. The extracts are mainly administered orally, incorporated in fish feeds. Saponins and flavanoids are the main bioactive compounds in the phytoextracts, which induce sex inversion and fertility impairment in tilapia. The commercialization of plant extracts is, however, hampered by lack of standardized information on extract preparation, optimal dosages, and mechanism of action. Thus, future studies should address these technical limitations and highlight economic incentives for commercial use of plant extracts in tilapia aquaculture.
... In this case series, we highlight four male patients with aborted SCD in the setting of abnormal testosterone status; two patients with TdP in a setting of testosterone deprivation (of which one drug-induced) and 2 patients with VF associated with exogenous androgenic booster (Tribulus terrestris) intake [7]. From these case series, we review the current available literature of the complex relationship between androgens and QTc interval, emphasizing the importance of QTc monitoring and risk of ventricular arrhythmias in this subset of patients. ...
... Four months after initiating Tribulus terrestris [7] (Tribooster®, BioTech, USA; 1500mg/pill, one pill every other day), a 32 y.o. man with no personal medical or family history of cardiac disease presented with an aborted VF cardiac arrest ( Figure 3) following a total of 7 electrical cardioversions over a few hours. ...
... Originating from the plant family of Zygophyllaceae which has been used since ancient times for multitude effects particularly as an aphrodisiac, improvement in sexual dysfunction, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties, Tribulus terrestris is an overthe-counter nutritional herbal supplement advertised to increase male performance [7]. Several studies have demonstrated in different animal models that Tribulus terrestris increases the levels of testosterone as well as its active metabolite (dihydrotestosterone, DHT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate [7]. ...
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The prevalence and incidence of cardiac pro-arrhythmic disorders are often influenced by sex due to specific effects on the QT interval. Androgens shorten QT, which may be protective against acquired long QT syndromes and their related arrhythmias in men such as torsade de pointes (TdP). On the other hand, androgens can potentiate Brugada and early repolarization syndromes, which are most prevalent in men. In this case series, we highlight four male patients with aborted SCD in the setting of abnormal testosterone status; two patients with TdP in a setting of testosterone deprivation (of which one drug-induced) and 2 patients with ventricular fibrillation associated with exogenous androgenic booster (Tribulus terrestris) intake. From this case series, we review the current available literature of the effects of androgen as a double-edged sword on the QTc interval and emphasize the importance of QTc monitoring in this subset of patients.
... Investigators in 4 studies reported beneficial effects of TT supplementation on testosterone levels [12,15,22,24]. These results are consistent with animal studies [13,[60][61][62] or older men [63] in which TT has shown to increase testosterone. The properties of TT may also influence the effects on testosterone levels because of their pleiotropic effects such as: (i) direct action of the pituitary gland that secretes more LH; (ii) increased levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) molecules; (iii) suppression of aromatase that prevents estrogen synthesis; (iv) antioxidant effect that protects against endothelial dysfunction in the gonads; (v) anti-inflammatory properties [8,46,64]. ...
... Saponins, mainly protodioscin, induce the transformation of testosterone into DHT, through their intervention on the enzyme 5-α reductase [46]. Previously, significant increases on testosterone and DHT levels have been described in primates after TT administration compared to control [61]. However, Ma et al. [12] reported decreases in TT supplementation group in both testosterone and DHT hormones. ...
... However, Ma et al. [12] reported decreases in TT supplementation group in both testosterone and DHT hormones. These contradictory findings may be explained by the different percentage of steroidal saponins, the dose or the bioavailability of TT, which were higher in the animal study [61]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Tribulus terrestris L. (TT) is a plant used in traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurvedic medicine, and sports nutrition to improve health and performance. However, no conclusive evidence exists about the potential beneficial effects of TT on sport and health biomarkers in physically active adults. Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, and the modified McMaster Critical Review Form for methodological quality assessment, we systematically reviewed studies indexed in Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed, to assess the effects of TT on immunological, hematological, biochemical, renal, lipidic, hormonal behavior, and anti-inflammatory response in physically active adult males. Among 340 records identified in the search, a total of 7 studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Overall, participants supplemented with TT displayed significant improvements in lipid profile. Inflammatory and hematological biomarkers showed moderate beneficial effects with no significant changes on renal biomarkers. No positive effects were observed on the immune system response. Additionally, no TT-induced toxicity was reported. In conclusion, there was no clear evidence of the beneficial effects of TT supplementation on muscle damage markers and hormonal behavior. More studies are needed to confirm the benefits of TT due to the limited number of studies available in the current literature.
... Tribulus terrestris belongs to the plant family of Zygophyllaceae that has been used since ancient times for a multitude of effects, particularly as an aphrodisiac, for improvement in sexual dysfunction and for its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties [88]. Several studies have demonstrated in different animal models that Tribulus terrestris increases the levels of testosterone as well as its active metabolite (DHT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate [88]. ...
... Tribulus terrestris belongs to the plant family of Zygophyllaceae that has been used since ancient times for a multitude of effects, particularly as an aphrodisiac, for improvement in sexual dysfunction and for its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties [88]. Several studies have demonstrated in different animal models that Tribulus terrestris increases the levels of testosterone as well as its active metabolite (DHT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate [88]. Particularly among primates, there was a mean 51% and 32% increase in testosterone and DHT, respectively, with Tribulus terrestris ingestion in comparison to normal primate subjects [88]. ...
... Several studies have demonstrated in different animal models that Tribulus terrestris increases the levels of testosterone as well as its active metabolite (DHT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate [88]. Particularly among primates, there was a mean 51% and 32% increase in testosterone and DHT, respectively, with Tribulus terrestris ingestion in comparison to normal primate subjects [88]. In castrated rats, administration of Tribulus terrestris increased testosterone levels by 25%. ...
Article
Full-text available
Significant variations from the normal QT interval range of 350 to 450 milliseconds (ms) in men and 360 to 460 ms in women increase the risk for ventricular arrhythmias. This difference in the QT interval between men and women has led to the understanding of the influence of sex hormones on the role of gender-specific channelopathies and development of ventricular arrhythmias. The QT interval, which represents the duration of ventricular repolarization of the heart, can be affected by androgen levels, resulting in a sex-specific predilection for acquired and inherited channelopathies such as acquired long QT syndrome in women and Brugada syndrome and early repolarization syndrome in men. Manipulation of the homeostasis of these sex hormones as either hormonal therapy for certain cancers, recreational therapy or family planning and in transgender treatment has also been shown to affect QT interval duration and increase the risk for ventricular arrhythmias. In this review, we highlight the effects of endogenous and exogenous sex hormones in the physiological and pathological states on QTc variation and predisposition to gender-specific pro-arrhythmias.
... In this case series, we highlight four male patients with aborted SCD in the setting of abnormal testosterone status; two patients with TdP in a setting of testosterone deprivation (of which one drug-induced) and 2 patients with VF associated with exogenous androgenic booster (Tribulus terrestris) intake [7]. From these case series, we review the current available literature of the complex relationship between androgens and QTc interval, emphasizing the importance of QTc monitoring and risk of ventricular arrhythmias in this subset of patients. ...
... Four months after initiating Tribulus terrestris [7] (Tribooster ® , BioTech, USA; 1500 mg/pill, one pill every other day), a 32 y.o. man with no personal medical or family history of cardiac disease presented with an aborted VF cardiac arrest (Fig. 3) following a total of 7 electrical cardioversions over a few hours. ...
... Originating from the plant family of Zygophyllaceae which has been used since ancient times for multitude effects particularly as an aphrodisiac, improvement in sexual dysfunction, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties, Tribulus terrestris is an over-the-counter nutritional herbal supplement advertised to increase male performance [7]. Several studies have demonstrated in different animal models that Tribulus terrestris increases the levels of testosterone as well as its active metabolite (dihydrotestosterone, DHT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate [7]. ...
Article
The prevalence and incidence of cardiac pro-arrhythmic disorders are often influenced by sex due to specific effects on the QT interval. Androgens shorten QT, which may be protective against acquired long QT syndromes and their related arrhythmias in men such as torsade de pointes (TdP). On the other hand, androgens can potentiate Brugada and early repolarization syndromes, which are most prevalent in men. In this case series, we highlight four male patients with aborted SCD in the setting of abnormal testosterone status; two patients with TdP in a setting of testosterone deprivation (of which one drug-induced) and 2 patients with ventricular fibrillation associated with exogenous androgenic booster (Tribulus terrestris) intake. From this case series, we review the current available literature of the effects of androgen as a double-edged sword on the QTc interval and emphasize the importance of QTc monitoring in this subset of patients.
... Saponins and protodioscin (estradiol glycosides) increases the levels of testosterone and LH, which are presented in Tribulus terrestris. Because of these effects, this plant has been used for the treatment of sexual and erectile dysfunctions in the traditional medicines [97,98] , also this plant increases androgen and sexual desires [99] , blood pressure of penile artery [100] ,the mean number of the primary spermatocytes in the dose of 10 mg/kg [101]. Studies have shown that alcoholic extract of a plant in the family of Tribulus terrestris with the dose of 50 mg/kg could significantly increase free testosterone level in body [99]. ...
... Another study done on sheep, showed that using 1.5 grams of Tribulus terrestris extract for 40 days increased spermatogenesis in sheep during breeding season [96]. Studies show that Tribulus terrestris extract can improve erection and sexual behavior in rat and increase sexual hormones in rat, rabbit and primate [97,100]. The studies show that Tribulus terrestris plant increases secretion of LH from pituitary gland by containing saponins. ...
Article
Full-text available
The inability to have a child is a baleful event for millions of couples in their life, and a large percentage of them have a personal frustration. The problem of infertility in couples is distributed equitably between the two sexes. Among different methods, medicinal plants have been used in many Nations to treat male infertility problems. These medicinal herbs are used to treat sperm disorders, dysfunctioning of the libido, 2 sexual asthenia and erection. Herbs provide a therapeutic option, which is affordable and available for infertile couples, and herbalism is the main form of treatment in our health system. So in this review, we have summarized most of the data dealing with the positive effects of plant extracts on mammalian reproductive system.
... The following treatments were used: control fed basal diets without any supplementations, GE 0.2 (supplemented with 0.2 g GE kg −1 diet), GE 0.4 (supplemented with 0.4 g GE kg −1 diet), TE 0.6 (supplemented with 0.6 g TT kg −1 diet), TT 1.2 (supplemented with 1.2 g TT kg −1 diet), DPPG 3 (supplemented with 3 g DPPG kg −1 diet), and DPPG 6 (supplemented with 6 g DPPG kg −1 diet). The tested levels were selected according to the literature data [22,31,32]. The experiment lasted 84 days. ...
... The histological improvement in the present study could be due to the herbal contents of saponin, steroids, antioxidants, and different compounds. It has many effects, such as increased testosterone and dihydrotestosterone levels, stimulating sperm production [31,69], preventing cell death, and inhibiting the destruction of the mitochondrial membrane [70]. ...
Article
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This study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of three natural antioxidants on sex hormone levels, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems, and histological changes in the testes of male Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. A total of 210 male Nile tilapia were distributed into seven treatments (three replicates for each) with an initial weight of 3.67 g fish􀀀1. The fish were fed experimental diets (32% crude protein) without supplementation as control or supplemented with ginseng extract (GE; 0.2 and 0.4 g GE kg􀀀1 diet), Tribulus terrestris extract (TT; 0.6 and 1.2 g TT kg􀀀1 diet), and date palm pollen grains (DPPG; 3 and 6 g DPPG kg􀀀1 diet) for 84 days. The results revealed a significant increase in the luteinizing hormone level with TT, DPPG, and GE supplementation increased the levels by 22.9%, 18.5%, and 17.6%, respectively. The testosterone level also increased significantly with TT1.2, GE0.4, TT0.6, and DPPG6 by 86.23%, 64.49%, 57.40%, and 24.62%, respectively. The antioxidant status in the testis homogenate showed a significant decrease in the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances when using different dietary substances. In addition, glutathione reduced contents, glutathione S-transferases, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities significantly increased with different dietary supplementation in a dose-dependent manner. The histological evaluation revealed normal histological features of the testes in all treatments with increasing active seminiferous tubules (%) in GE, TT, and DPPG supplemented groups, especially with the highest levels. In conclusion, the dietary supplementation of GE, TT, and DPPG enhanced sex hormones level, redox status, and testis structure and could improve the male reproductive performance of Nile tilapia.
... The increase in the level of this hormone could be attributed to the phytosterol compounds found in this extract. Gauthaman and Ganesan (2008) and Ahangarpour et al. (2013) reported that saponins are compounds of a steroidal nature that tend the stimulation of steroidogenesis. This compound would stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, resulting in the synthesis of testosterone. ...
... This compound would stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, resulting in the synthesis of testosterone. Steroidal saponins thus have the capacity not only to increase the level of testosterone produced by Leydig cells but also to bind either to the receptors of this hormone or to the enzymes involved in the synthesis to increase their functions (Gauthaman andGanesan 2008, Ahangarpour et al., 2013). This increase in testosterone level should be associated with a change in sexual behavior (mounting and the frequency of successful mounting) once exposed to AS and treated with AEPAL. ...
Article
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The control of pesticide’s toxicological properties in the food chain could be a benefit to farmers by increasing animal productivity. The current study’s objective was to evaluate the protective effects of aqueous extract of Persea americana leaves (AEPAL) on secondary sexual traits and testis histology damages induced by Antouka Super® (AS) in male Japanese quail. Sixty male quails of 28 days old and weighing 106-119g were randomly distributed into 5 groups of 12 animals each and daily received for 60 consecutive days one of the treatments: group 1 and 2 received respectively 10 ml of distilled water and 75mg/kg of b.w of AS while groups 3, 4 and 5 in addition to 75mg/kg of b.w of AS, they received respectively 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of b.w of AEPAL. The sexual behavior characteristics were evaluated during the trial period. At the end of the study, birds were humanly sacrificed, their blood collected for testosterone analysis and the testes removed for teste structure evaluation. Results revealed that exposure to AS significantly decreased testosterone level, time of shouting and appearance of foam, quantity of foam product, the volume and area of the cloacal gland, frequency of mount and frequency of successful mount, as well as degradation of the testes histology. The administration of AEPAL increased these parameters in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, these results demonstrate that AS had a toxic effect on secondary sexual traits and testis histology in male quail which could be alleviated by AEPAL administration at 200mg/kg of b.w.
... Saponins and alkaloids have been associated with enhancing aphrodisiac activity. Protodioscin is a saponin found in Tribulus terrestris and has been shown to increase mount and intromission frequencies; decrease mount latency, intromission latency and post ejaculation interval as well as increase intracavernosal pressure in rats (Gauthaman and Ganesan, 2008). The alkaloid fraction of the seeds of Hygrophila spinosa reportedly increased testosterone production by Leydig cells in vitro and increased mount and intromission frequency in male rats (Vyas and Raval, 2016). ...
... Antioxidant property and phytochemical constituents includes; polyphenols, tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids for long have been standardized due to their reproduction effects in animals [19] , and act indirectly on androgen discharge via triggering or inhibiting pituitary glands and hypothalamus thus impelling spermatogenesis and other function associated with other glands [20] . Findings have revealed saponins being responsible for intermediary character in androgens synthesis by facilitating the pituitary gland to secretion luteinizing hormone (LH) enhancing testosterone synthesis via Leydig cells of the testis [21] . Flavonoids are concerned in maintaining the production of androgens via impeding 17β-estradiol aromatase, an enzyme complex in converting testosterone into estrogen. ...
Article
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The study is aimed at evaluating the fertility potential of bi-herbal methanol extract on male Wistar rats. This research finding based it fact of fertility in male Wistar rats to investigate through the phytochemicals, antioxidant assay, hormonal indexes, lipid profile, body/organ weight changes and histopathological study across the graded doses (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) of the treated groups of bi-herbal (Zingiber officinale and Chrysophyllum albidum)) methanol extract using standard procedure. Results from the phytochemical screening elicited the essential constituents (alkaloids, flavonoids phenol, tannins and saponnins). The antioxidant assay showed broad scavenging property against free radicals, which possibly is associated with one of its mechanisms of action. An increase in the level of significant (p > 0.05) in hormonal indexes (testosterone, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone) and slight increase in the level of lipid profile (cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL LDL and VLDL) activities among the treatment groups when compared with the control. There absent significant change (p > 0.05) in the body and testes mass ratio. No pronounce histopathological variation on the testes state in comparative to the control. The dependent from the bi-herbal extract with extreme exhibition of fertility potential as its therapeutic effect
... Mount Frequency and Intromission Frequency are useful factors of sexual strength, sexual desire and potency. The number of mount (MF) reflects sexual motivation, and rise in the number of intromission (IF) shows the efficiency of erection.Some of the medicinal plants are effective as aphrodisiac through mechanisms such as vasodilation, generation of nitric oxide, elevation of androgens and gonadotropins [10].In the previous studies it is seen that Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a major circulating steroid ( Figure B) in the plasma, and a common precursor for both androgens and estrogens and its subsequent conversions to testosterone and its metabolites responsible for the effective masculine behavior in rats [11].The involvement of saponins ( Figure C) in the biosynthesis of DHEA boosts the level of testosterone and therefore triggers the sexual desire in male rats [12]. Steroidal nature of saponins makes it possible to act as intermediary in androgen synthesis where saponin binds to hormone receptor and undergoes conformational change to yield androgen production. ...
... The improvement in growth performance as a result of T.terrestris extract addition in the current work may be due to the phytochemical compounds, mainly the T.terrestris extract such as flavonoids, steroidal sapogenins, and alkaloids which have anti inflammatory, anti tumor, and immunomodulatory activities, adding to Gokshur extract which also have antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties (Miller, 1996 &Kumar et al., 2006 andAllan). Those compounds have been proved to possess a positive effect on fish growth performance (Omitoyin et al., 2013 andOmar et al., 2014), relating that impact to increasing testosterone level (Gauthaman & Ganesan, 2008) which may be attributed to the improvement in growth performance using the extract. ...
Article
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Effects of dietary inclusion of Tribulus terrestris and 17 α-methyltestosterone on sex reversal, growth performance, feed utilization and survival rates of red tilapia were evaluated in this study. Red tilapia fry with an average weight of 0.02 ±0.003 g and an average length of 0.6 ±0.012 cm were subjected to six different sex reversal treatments. The experiment lasted for 112 days. Two T. terrestris extract treatments (1and 2 g/kg diet); three hormonal treatments with 17 α-methyltestosterone ( 30,60 and 100 mg/kg diet); were applied in this experiment plus a control group. The results of this study revealed that all plant and hormonal treatment showed a significantly higher male percentages (p≤0.05) than the control. The highest male percentage of (90%) was achieved at the dose of 60 mg 17 α-methyltestosterone/kg followed by T. terrestris extract at 2 g/kg with a male percentage of (84.4%). Growth performance and feed utilization of red tilapia were better in the two treatments of T.terrestris extract followed by the hormonal dose 60 mg/kg diet than other treatments. A significantly higher survival rate 85.44% , 83.33%, and 83.11% were achieved at 1 and 2 g T. terrestris extract/kg and the control respectively. The lowest survival (71.56%) was observed at the 30 mg 17 α -MT/ kg diet (p ≤ .05). Testes weight was significantly higher at 2 g T. terrestris extract/kg diet treatment than the other treatments and control. The highest male gonado-somatic index records were found at the control and 2 g T. terrestris extract/ kg diet treatments. Conclusively, the addition of T. terrestris extract and 17 α –MT into red tilapia hybrid fry diets contributes in producing almost all male tilpia population and enhancing growth performance and feed utilization of the fish.
... According to Ribeiro et al. (2018) polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins present in Colocasia spp. powder improve the serum levels of testosterone, increasing the body mass and length of the rats (Gauthaman & Ganesan, 2008). In the study lead by Lewu, Yakubu, Adebola, and Afolayan (2011), it was shown that the intake of Colocasia spp. ...
Chapter
Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott and Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott are the most popular tubers among the Araceas family. Their chemical composition related to their nutritional benefits could make these rhizomes a valid option for the nutritional and technological improvement of food products. This chapter provide a clarification about the correct nomenclature of both tubers giving an insight around the principle components and their health effects. The scientific literature review has primarily highlighted several in vitro and animal studies where the consumption (leaves and whole tuber) of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott and Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott was related with certain antihyperglycemic, antihypertensive, hypoglycemic and prebiotic effects. Owing to their functional properties, different component from these rhizomes, specially starch, mucilage and powders are being used by the food industry. Their ability to behave as thickener and gelling agent has allowed their incorporation in baked food, food paste and beverages. This chapter suggests the development of more research around these rhizomes since they could potentially play, with other crops, an important role in the future sustainable strategies to feed the planet.
... These prosexual effects expressed in hypogonadal rats could be attributed to the presence of saponins, steroids, and triterpenes. In fact, the steroidal nature of saponins can play an intermediary role in the androgen synthesis pathway [34]. Also, saponins can bind to receptors of steroid hormones and induce conformational changes that contribute to enhancing the physiological activity of the male hormone (testosterone). ...
Article
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This work was undertaken to evaluate the biological activity of the aqueous extract of the dry seeds of Aframomum daniellii seeds on the copulatory performance of rats with testicular deficiency. Hypogonadal adult male rats (30) were divided into 6 groups: group I received distilled water (10 ml/kg), group II received sildenafil citrate (5 mg/kg), group III received intramuscular injections of testosterone enanthate (3. 6 mg/kg), group IV, V, and VI received the aqueous extract of A. daniellii at the respective doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/po/day for 14 days. The copulatory performance of the animals were assessed on days 1, 7 and 14 through the following copulation parameters: Mount, intromission, and ejaculation latency (ML, IL, and EL) and frequency (MF, IF and EF), average interval of copulation (AIC) and post-ejaculatory interval (PEI)). We noticed a significant decrease of ML (p < 0.05), IL (p < 0.01), EL (p < 0.001) and the increase of MF, IF and EF (p < 0.01) particularly at doses of 100 and 400 mg/kg when compared to group I and II. In addition, we noticed a significant increase of AIC from day 7 (p < 0.05) to day 14 (p < 0.001) at the same two doses while the PEI significantly decreased from the 1st (p < 0.01) to the 14th day (p < 0.001) when compared to group I and II. These findings demonstrated that A. daniellii aqueous extract of seeds enhanced pro-sexual potential and pro-sexual desire in male rats with testicular deficiency.
... Phytochemicals, mainly phenols and steroidal saponins in the extracts, may affect the endocrine system of the fish, alter the course of sexual differentiation towards maleness and stimulate fish growth (Chakraborty et al., 2014). Tribulus terrestris contains steroidal saponin protodioscin, which has been reported to increase the levels of different androgens in mammals (Gauthaman & Ganesan, 2008). ...
Article
Growth and immune status of monosex Nile tilapia produced through dietary treatment with solvent extracts of four plant materials were analysed. Nile tilapia juveniles (mean weight 0.025 ± 0.009g) were fed diet containing 17α‐methyltestosterone (10 mg/kg feed, MT), Basella alba leaf ethanol extract (1.0 g/kg feed, EB), Tribulus terrestris seed ethanol extract (2.0 g/kg feed, ET), Mucuna pruriens seed methanol extract (0.2 g/kg feed, MM), Asparagus racemosus root methanol extract (0.2 g/kg feed, MA) for 30 days followed by basal diet for 90 days. The control group was fed basal diet for 120 days. MT, EB, ET and MA showed significantly (p < .05) higher male (%), final weight (g), final length (mm), weight gain (g), specific growth rate (%) compared with control and MM. EB and MA showed significantly (p < .05) better immunostimulatory (phagocytic, lysozyme activities, respiratory burst), haematological, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity compared with other treatment groups. MT, EB, ET and MA showed significantly (p < .05) higher level of GH, IGF‐1 and 11‐KT compared with control and MM. The growth and health promoting, and immunostimulating efficacy of plant extracts may be attributed to the presence of steroidal saponins and polyphenols in them. EB and MA were more potent in growth promotion, immunostimulation and adaptogenic potential compared with other two plant materials. These two plant materials may be used as an environment friendly safe alternative to MT for production and culture of monosex Nile tilapia.
... Phytochemicals, mainly phenols and steroidal saponins in the extracts, may affect the endocrine system of the fish, alter the course of sexual differentiation towards maleness and stimulate fish growth (Chakraborty et al., 2014). Tribulus terrestris contains steroidal saponin protodioscin, which has been reported to increase the levels of different androgens in mammals (Gauthaman & Ganesan, 2008). ...
... Leonard) [25]. Similarly, pro sexual stimulatory property of Mondia whitei Hook (Skeels) has also been attributed to its steroid and triterpene contents [26]. These bioactive agents display aphrodisiac activity either by increasing androgen biosynthesis and secretion or by acting directly on the central nervous system in order to modulate the function of animal neurotransmitters and gonadal tissues. ...
... ( Cek et al., 2007a;2007b;Gauthaman and Adaikan, 2008;Bashir et al., 2009;Janalizadeh et al., 2015;Duru and Sahin, 2016 ) ...
Conference Paper
The present essay intended to introduce a new and effective combination of transgender in Artemia urmiana. It has been accomplished by three main steps. The first stage was preparing of used compounds such as herbal extract, hormonal composition, rice bran, and Spirulina algae, and the second step was Artemia hatching and challenging with masculinization combinations. Finally, the animals in each experimental group were kept until maturity, then their sexual attributes were assessed in determining the sexuality, and the average relative frequency of observed males (percental) was calculated to the determination of the masculinization rate for each treatment. After demonstrating data normality and homogeneity, they were analyzed by the one-way ANOVA and following that the Duncan test. The results showed that there was a significant difference between treated groups with various concentrations of 17α-Methyltestosterone and 10 mg/l methanol extract of Tribulus terrestris (p< 0.05). However, the masculinization rate due to treatment with 50 mg/ml extract of this plant was different from the control group (p> 0.05). Therefore, 10 mg/l of the extract containing 1000 µg/ml purity in methanol solvent could affect the masculinization of the Artemia urmiana population as nearly much as the hormonal composition with 5 mg/l (purity 99%) concentration.
... From this study, the qualitative screening of ABJSE has shown that secondary metabolites like alkaloid, saponin, terpenoids, glycoside, and resin are present substantially. Meanwhile, Saponin has been implicated in the enhancement of sexual behavior by either binding to hormone receptors, which may result in a conformational change that will enhance the physiological function of hormones or bind to enzymes that are involved in the synthesis of such hormones and thus enhance its production (21). Also alkaloid according to Patel et al(22), increases blood flow in the sexual organs due to vasodilatation thus leading to enhanced sexual performance. ...
Article
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Background: Brassica juncea is one of the herbal substances consumed because of the belief that it possesses aphrodisiac potentials. Hence, this work was designed to investigate the effect of aqueous Brassica juncea seed extract (ABJSE) on the sexual behavior and selected reproductive organs of male Wistar rats. Methods: Adult Wistar rats (220 ± 20 g) of 10 weeks old were randomly divided into four groups; I - IV (n=6). Normal saline, ABJSE (200 and 400 mg/kg) and sildenafil citrate, SC; (5 mg/kg) body weight was administered per os, daily for 14 days. Sexual behavioral tests were performed with estrus female rats weekly. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. The blood sample was collected for sexual hormonal assay, while the hypothalamus, testes, and epididymis were also harvested for histological tissue processing. Results: ABJSE improved sexual performance by significantly reducing mount and intromission latencies; post-ejaculatory interval, while increasing Ejaculatory and intromission frequencies compared to the control group. The mounting frequency did not record any significant change compared with the control. Testosterone was significantly increased in ABJSE groups. Histologically, the reproductive tissues of the treatment groups were packed with seminiferous tubules and spermatozoa although slight distortion in the connective tissues was also noticed. While the hypothalamus showed a slight increase in neurosecretory activities in the treatment groups. Conclusion: The ABJSE has aphrodisiac potential but it should be taken at a low dose because it has deleterious tendencies. Keywords: Brassica juncea, sexual behavior, aphrodisiac, sexual dysfunction, post ejaculator interval, intromission frequency
... Saponins in the extracts might have stimulated increase in body endogenous testosterone levels probably by raising the levels of luteinizing hormones, which translated into the male sexual competence observed. The steroidal nature of saponins, in part, facilitates their role as an intermediate in the steroidal pathway of androgen production [34]. Saponins bind to hormone receptors which may result in conformational changes that enhances physiological function of the hormone or bind to enzymes that are involved in the synthesis of such hormones, and thus enhance their production [24]. ...
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Aim: To perform phytochemical screening of Plumbago zeylanica L. root extracts and assess the claim of its use in traditional management of erectile dysfunction in Uganda through evaluation of the aphrodisiac effect of its aqueous extracts in male Wistar rats. Study design: This study employed both qualitative and quantitative research designs. Place and Duration of Study: All research work were performed at Methodology: Classical phytochemical screening of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Plumbago zeylanica roots were performed following standard methods. Aqueous extracts were administered to Male Wister rats and the effect of the extracts on the mounting and intromission frequencies were determined. Results: Glycosides, phenols, saponins, quinones, terpenoids and steroids were present in both methanolic and aqueous extracts. Alkaloids were present in methanolic extracts only while tannins and phlobatannins were only present in aqueous extracts. Flavonoids, coumarins and anthraquinones were not detected in both extracts. Aqueous root extracts of Plumbago zeylanica produced pro-sexual stimulatory effects in male rats when administered at 150, 300 and 450 mg/kg body weight. Conclusion: The results support the use of Plumbago zeylanica roots by indigenous people in Uganda to increase libido, treat premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction. The extracts had low sexual enhancement in sexually inexperienced male rats and therefore, further studies using experienced animal models are needed to better apprehend the prosexual effects of P. zeylanica roots. The toxicity of the extracts as well as structural elucidation and pharmacological evaluation of the responsible bioactive compounds merit further studies.
... The plant has also been used to boost male sexual desire and mating behaviour [189,190]. Gauthaman et al. [211] investigated the androgenic properties of TT extract in primates, and intravenous administration of TT extracts (7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg) for 8 weeks induced increased plasma testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, especially at a dose of 7,5 mg/kg body weight. Oral administration of TT extract (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg body weight) in rabbits and rats resulted in increased dihydrotestosterone levels at a dosage of 5 and 10 mg/kg body weight. ...
Article
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Male erectile dysfunction (ED) refers to incompetency to reaching and retaining adequate penile tumescence for sexual intercourse. Over 152 million men globally suffer from ED and by 2025, the number of affected individuals is anticipated to be around 322 million. Pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies such as phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors, alprostadil, penile prosthesis surgery, and hormonal replacement are available for management and recuperation of ED. Nevertheless, such therapies are reported to have adverse effects as well as life-threatening. Accordingly, diversity of medicinal plant species and bioactive active compounds are preferred as therapeutic options because they are natural, abundant, available, low-cost and cause fewer or no side effects. This current review will emphasise the aetiology, risk factors, mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of ED, treatments of ED as well as their side effects. It also provides medicinal plants that are proven effective in vivo and in vitro for the mitigation and treatment of male ED. This knowledge could be used in the future in drug discovery for the development of more natural drugs with no side effects.
... Some plant extracts, for example, Tribulus terrestris, widely applied as food additives in sport, are capable of managing steroidal balance in mammalians. Bolus administration of this extract at doses between 7.5 and 30 mg/kg to Macaca mullata resulted in a meaningful increase (up to 52%) of serum levels of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) [150]. The obtained results are quite confident because the measurement of endogenous steroids was elaborated with the use of tritium-labeled internal standards ([ 3 H]-testosterone, [ 3 H]-dihydrotestosterone and [ 3 H]dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate). ...
Article
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The way of plant sterols transformation and their benefits for humans is still a question under the massive continuing revision. In fact, there are no receptors for binding with sterols in mammalians. However, possible biotransformation to steroids that can be catalyzed by gastro-intestinal microflora, microbial cells in prebiotics or cytochromes system were repeatedly reported. Some products of sterols metabolization are capable to imitate resident human steroids and compete with them for the binding with corresponding receptors, thus affecting endocrine balance and entire physiology condition. There are also tremendous reports about the natural origination of mammalian steroid hormones in plants and corresponding receptors for their binding. Some investigations and reports warn about anabolic effect of sterols, however, there are many researchers who are reluctant to believe in and have strong opposing arguments. We encounter plant sterols everywhere: in food, in pharmacy, in cosmetics, but still know little about their diverse properties and, hence, their exact impact on our life. Most of our knowledge is limited to their cholesterol-lowering influence and protective effect against cardiovascular disease. However, the world of plant sterols is significantly wider if we consider the thousands of publications released over the past 10 years.
... The photochemical screening of the Gongronema latifolium extract showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and cardiac glycoside and the absence of free anthraquinones and combined anthraquinones which was also in line with the work of [33]. It has been reported that saponin constitutents found in many plants may possess fertility potentiating properties and may be useful in treatment of impotency impotencies [34]. ...
Article
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Medicinal plants are plants used for medicinal purposes and are commonly used in treating and preventing specific ailments and diseases that are generally considered to be harmful to humans. Gongronema latifolium is a well-known plant that is beneficial in preventing and treating certain diseases and ailment due to their phytochemical constituents. This study evaluates the effect of ethanol leaf extract of Gongronema latifolium on the reproductive system of male Albino rats using standard methods. Twenty-five male rats equally divided into five groups and five female rats were used. Group I and 2…. .II served as the Normal and Positive controls and were orally administered with distilled water and subcutaneously standard drug; testosterone respectively. The other three groups were orally treated with Gongronema latifolium extract at low, middle and high dosage (200,300 and 400ml/kg body weight) respectively. After 7 days of treatment, the female rats were introduced into the male cages in the ratio 1:1 (male: female) to ascertain for the different aphrodisiac parameters. Treatment continued for another 7 days after which the male animals were sacrificed and blood samples collected for hormonal assay. Results showed that all the aphrodisiac frequencies had a significant increase (p≤0.001) in mounting frequency, intromission frequency and penile erectile frequency when compared with the controls while the mounting latency, intromission latency, ejaculatory latency and penile erectile latency were significantly reduced (p≤0.001) in comparison with the controls in this study. Most of the reproductive hormones were significantly increased (p≤0.001) in the extract treatment group when compared to the controls. Thus, this study suggests that the crude leaf extract of Gongronema latifolium may possess aphrodisiac properties and consequently on the reproductive system.
... This might be due to the androgenic properties of the bioactive compounds in the plant. A previous study has also claimed that the presence of saponin could enhance the androgen level (Gauthaman et al., 2008). In addition, the presence of alkaloids, terpenes, and xanthones in the plant extract could enhance the aphrodisiac activity in male rats (Paz et al., 1979;Taha et al., 1995;Drewes et al., 2002;Estrada-Reyes et al., 2013). ...
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Moringa oleifera leaves were essential for lowering blood glucose levels and increasing androgen levels. This study evaluates the antihyperglycemic properties of Moringa oleifera (MO) leaves aqueous extract and its effect on diabetes-induced male Sprague Dawley rats in attenuating sexual dysfunction. A total of 40 mature male rats were divided into four main groups which were normal control group that received 1 mL of distilled water, the negative control group which did not receive any treatment, positive control group that received 500 mg/kg body weight of metformin, and MO treated group that received 400 mg/kg body weight of Moringa oleifera leaves aqueous extract. All groups were analyzed after 14 and 21 days for their fasting blood glucose level (FBGL) and sexual behavior (mounting latency and mounting frequency). Analysis of testosterone level was also conducted using the testosterone kit of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The data of the treatment group were compared to the control group subjected to one-way ANOVA using IBM SPSS Statistics 22 analysis. The FBGL of diabetes-induced rats treated with Moringa oleifera leaves aqueous extract significantly decreased (p<0.05) and the plasma testosterone level increased (p<0.05) compared to the negative and positive control groups. Diabetes- induced rats treated with Moringa oleifera leaves aqueous extract also showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in mounting latency and increase (p<0.05) in mounting frequency within 15 min of the observation period. This study demonstrated that Moringa oleifera leaves aqueous extract could reduce FBGL significantly and improve the sexual dysfunction of diabetes- induced male rats.
... A total of 36 animals (18 diabetic and 18 regular rats) were equally subdivided into 6 groups of 6 animals each and administered as follows: group I, vehicle-treated normal rats (10 mL/kg purified water); group II, MET-treated normal animals (350 mg/kg/day) [28]; group III, aqueous extracts of TT-treated normal animals (10 mg/kg) [13,29]. Diabetic rats were treated in groups 4, 5, and 6 with the vehicle, MET, and TT aqueous extract, respectively, as shown in the above doses. ...
Article
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Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is a metabolic condition that induces blood glucose levels to rise due to insulin deficiency and the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The purpose of this study is to assess how efficient the antioxidant extracts Tribulus terrestris (TT) and metformin (MET) are in reducing oxidative stress and histopathology produced by streptozotocin in rat hepatocytes. The 36 male rats weighing 170–190 g of this study were randomly sorted into 6 groups. The first group was considered a normal control group, and the second and third groups were normal and remedy with MET and TT extract, respectively. The fourth group was positive diabetic, and the fifth and sixth groups were diabetic rats that were treated with MET and TT extract, respectively. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione (GSH) were detected, and the histopathology of the liver was evaluated after 8 weeks of treatment. Compared to regulation, morphological changes in the liver were found in diabetic animals, with a rise in LPO and a change in GSH levels as well as CAT and GST activities. The oxidative stress and histological architecture of the hepatocytes caused by hyperglycemia were improved as a result of therapy in the rats with MET and TT extract. Because of its antioxidant activities, diabetic rats with TT extract are more effective than MET in normoglycemia and hepatocyte reconditioning. Beneficial intervention tends to benefit primarily from direct ROS scavenging and CAT, GST, and GSH regeneration.
... Moreover, many of the phytochemicals reported to stimulate testosterone secretion such as ginseng extract (Tsai et al., 2003). Tribulus terrestris extract (TTE) causes increased testosterone level and improved sexual status (Gauthaman and Ganesan, 2008). ...
... This substantial significant enhancement in aphrodisiac on most of the parameters could be linked to the phytochemical metabolites present in BJESE like Saponin, alkaloids, oil, amino acid, glycoside etc. The mechanism of action of Saponin has been shown to enhance aphrodisiac through either a conformational change it adopts after binding to hormone receptors leading to an increase in the functionality of the hormone, or directly targeting the enzymes that synthesize the hormones to improve the hormonal production (Gauthaman and Adaikan, 2008) [8] . Similarly, alkaloid acts by vasodilating the reproductive organ to enhance blood flow leading to improved coitus (Patel et al., 2011) [23] , just as witnessed in this study. ...
Article
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Background: Brassica juncea is consumed because of its perceived numerous medicinal potentials amongst which includes aphrodisiac. This work was designed to investigate the effect of Brassica juncea Ethanolic Seed Extract (BJESE) on the sexual behavior and reproductive organs of male wistar rats. Methodology: Adult wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups (n=6). Normal saline 1 mL, low and high doses (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) of BJESE and sildenafil citrate (SC) (5mg/kg) were orally administered to groups I-IV respectively. Treatment lasted for 14days and sexual behavioral tests were conducted weekly. Thereafter, blood sample was collected through retro-orbital plexus for hormonal assay. Animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and the hypothalamus, testes and epididymis were carefully dissected out for histological tissue processing. Results: BJESE administration significant decreased mount and intromission latencies and post ejaculatory interval (PEI) relative to the normal saline. Luteinizing hormone and testosterone were significant increase in both BJESE and sildenafil groups in comparison with the normal saline group. Follicle stimulating hormone was altered in the treatment groups as compared with the normal. There was slight distortion in testicular connective tissues whereas the seminiferous tubules were normal; containing germ cells in various stages of development and normal epididymal histological structures in all the groups. Conclusion: BJESE improved sexual behavior of male wistar rats particularly in high dosage (400mg/kg).
... Flavonoids have numerous activities: antioxidant, enzyme inhibiting, vasodilating (14). The triterpenesaponins contribute to sexual stimulation activity by increasing the level of androgens (15). ...
Article
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Objective: The objective of the present study is to determine, through phytochemical screening, the major chemical compounds and to evaluate the aphrodisiac effect of the ethanolic extract of M.acuminata stems in adult male rats. Methods :To achieve our objectives, a phytochemical study was conducted to determine the major chemical compounds present in the ethanolic extract of M. acuminatastems. The phytochemical screening was carried out following standard analytical procedures using thin layer chromatography.The aphrodisiac effect was evaluated in sexually naïve male rats. In sexually naïve male rats, a single administration of the ethanolic extract was performed at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg versus 0.5 mL/100g distilled water and 715 µg/kg Sildenafil Pfizer 50 mg in the negative and positive control rats, respectively. Female rats were induced to oestrus by sequential administration of estradiol benzoate (Sigma-Aldrich) (25 μg/rat) to make them receptive to males. Results :The results of the phytochemical screening revealed that the ethanolic extract of M. acuminata stems contains coumarins, flavonoids, tannins, triterpenes of triterpenesaponins. The biological study showed that at doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg, ethanolic extract of M. acuminatastems resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) and highly significant (p < 0.001) increase in the number of sexual mounts, the number of erections, the number of ejaculations and a significant (p < 0.01) decrease in the latency time between sexual mounts in male rats. Conclusions:The sexual stimulating effects of the ethanolic extract of M. acuminata observed in this study could be attributed to the presence of the identified chemical compounds, hence the interest in using this plant in traditional aphrodisiac medicine.
... In this sense, TT is a testosterone booster and is a popular nutritional supplement in athletes for enhancing sports performance [21]. In studies with animal models, TT stimulation of testosterone production leads to improved athletic performance, enhances recovery after exercise, and prevents overtraining [26,[43][44][45]. However, in human studies, TT does not affect testosterone plasma levels in male boxers [25] and rugby players [27]. ...
Article
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Tribulus terrestris L. (TT) supplementation have been shown to enhance sports performance in many but not all studies. Moreover, data regarding the potential impact of TT supplementation on CrossFit® endurance is limited. This study aimed to determine whether TT supplementation improve body composition, hormonal response, and performance among CrossFit® athletes. In a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial, a total of 30 healthy CrossFit®-trained males were randomly allocated to receive either 770 mg of TT supplementation or a placebo daily for 6 weeks. Body mass, fat mass, fat composition, testosterone and cortisol levels, and CrossFit® performance (5 common Workouts of the Day: back squat, bench press, dead lift, Grace, and CrossFit® Total) were assessed before and after intervention. There were no significant group x time interactions for the outcomes of the study except for testosterone levels and bench press performance (p < 0.05). TT supplementation did not impact enhance performance or body composition in CrossFit® male athletes. However, TT supplementation may act as a testosterone booster helping the recovery after physical loads and mitigating fatigue.
... In this sense, TT is a testosterone booster and is a popular nutritional supplement in athletes for enhancing sports performance [21]. In studies with animal models, TT stimulation of testosterone production leads to improved athletic performance, enhances recovery after exercise, and prevents overtraining [26,[43][44][45]. However, in human studies, TT does not affect testosterone plasma levels in male boxers [25] and rugby players [27]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: Tribulus terrestris L. (TT) supplementation have been shown to enhance sports performance in many but not all studies. Moreover, data regarding the potential impact of TT supplementation on CrossFit® endurance is limited. This study aimed to determine whether TT supplementation improve body composition, hormonal response, and performance among CrossFit® athletes. In a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial, a total of 30 healthy CrossFit®-trained males were randomly allocated to receive either 770 mg of TT supplementation or a placebo daily for 6 weeks. Body mass, fat mass, fat composition, testosterone and cortisol levels, and CrossFit® performance (5 common Workouts of the Day: back squat, bench press, dead lift, Grace, and CrossFit® Total) were assessed before and after intervention. There were no significant group x time interactions for the outcomes of the study except for testosterone levels and bench press performance (p < 0.05). TT supplementation did not impact enhance performance or body composition in CrossFit® male athletes. However, TT supplementation may act as a testosterone booster helping the recovery after physical loads and mitigating fatigue.
... Studies have shown that saponins enhance aphrodisiac properties due to its androgen increasing property (Gauthaman et al., 2002;Alevtina and Zerihun, 2009) and also boost the level of testosterone in the body (Gauthaman and Adaikan, 2008). Also, saponins stimulate the leydig cells of the testes to directly increase testosterone production system (Ang et al., 2004). ...
Article
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Ethnomedicinal survey have shown that the different parts of Hunteria umbellata plant are used in Western and Southern parts of Nigeria in managing various human diseases such as sexually transmitted infections and to induce or augment labor. This is however, without information on its effect on reproductive functions. This study was therefore designed to ascertain if there is any health benefit or risk in the ingestion of Hunteria umbellata on reproductive functions. In this study, qualitative phytochemistry, acute toxicity test and the sub-chronic toxicity effects of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg/day of Hunteria umbellata (HU) methanol seed extract on reproductive functions in male and female Wistar rats were investigated for 90 days. To achieve this, effect of repeated doses of methanolic extracts of Hunteria umbellata seed were investigated on selected reproductive parameters of the test animals. Eighty (80) (40 male and 40 female) Wister rats, were randomly divided into 4 groups of 10 rats each. The first group received 10 ml/kg/day of distilled water and served as the control, while the second, third and fourth groups received 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day of the extract for 90 days respectively. Blood samples were collected by retro-orbital puncture and delivered into plain tubes for hormonal assay, using ELISA hormone test kits (Biotec Laboratories Ltd, UK). After 90 days, the rats were anesthetized using chloroform. The histology of the testes and ovaries were also carried out. Result revealed that the prolonged treatment with methanol seed extracts of Hunteria umbellata for 90 days, caused minimal decreases (p>0.05) in testosterone, estrogen, progesterone level in all the extract treated groups as compared with the control group. Also, no significant distortions were observed in the histology of testes and ovaries. The results suggests that the prolonged oral treatment with 250-1000 mg/kg/day of the methanol extract of the seed of Hunteria umbellata did not have any effect on the reproductive functions as well as the reproductive organs in males and females’ rats treated, and could be safe following repeated use.
... Saponins (steroid glycosides) play a role in the biosynthesis of DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone), thereby increasing testosterone levels in the body. Saponins are bounded to enzymes that stimulate the synthesis of testosterone, thus increasing the production of testosterone [11]. The central action of the alkaloid increases testicular cholesterol content through steroidogenesis, which will increase DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone), which in turn will increase testosterone [4]. ...
... There are recent reports of the herb being used as an antiaging agent . Regarding its effects on sexual function, it increases libido in post-menopausal females and improves sexual function in other aspects, as shown in this review paper, besides improving erectile function in males (Gauthaman and Ganesan, 2008;Kamenov et al., 2017). ...
Article
Background : Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) includes female orgasmic disorder, female sexual interest or arousal disorder, and genito-pelvic pain or penetration disorder. FSD affects 40% of women worldwide, but it is understudied and likely undertreated. Natural products are frequently used by women to treat FSD, but scientific evidence of their efficacy is lacking. Objective : This systematic review and meta-analysis focused on the study of the efficacy of natural products on FSD. Study design : Systematic review and meta-analysis of existing studies on natural products in the treatment of FSD. Methods : The literature search included MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial databases for studies published from January 2000 to February 2020. The quality and the level of evidence of the studies were assessed. The association between natural products and FSD was summarized using standardized mean differences (SMD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Results : A total of 536 studies were identified, with 20 of them meeting the criteria. According to this meta-analysis, Tribulus terrestris showed a significant positive effect in improving overall female sexual function (SMD = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.46 - 1.79, p = 0.001) and individual sexual arousal (SMD = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.22 - 1.84, p = 0.013), sexual desire (SMD = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.52 - 1.63, p = <0.001) and sexual orgasm (SMD = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.02 - 1.00, p = 0.040) domains compared to placebo. Panax ginseng was found to be effective in treating sexual arousal (SMD = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.11 - 0.97, p = 0.014) and sexual desire (SMD = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.27 - 0.90, p < 0.001) compared to placebo. Meanwhile, other natural products reviewed in this study, such as Trifolium pretense, did not differ significantly from placebo in terms of improving FSD. Conclusion : Preliminary evidence suggests that Tribulus terrestris and Panax ginseng may be effective as alternative treatments for FSD in a clinical setting.
... All groups received H 2 O 2 (100 mg/kg/body weight) for 14 days intraperitoneally [15]. Rats in supplementation groups received hydroalcoholic extracts of tribulus terrestris (5 and 10 mg per day) by gavage [16]. Aerobic exercise was performed on a treadmill at a speed of 23 m/min for eight weeks, 5 days per week, each for 30 min [17]. ...
Article
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Objective: Oxidative stress can cause DNA damage and apoptosis, and leads to cardiovascular disease. This study aims to evaluate the effect of aerobic exercise combined with consumption of hydroalcoholic extract of tribulus terrestris on mitochondrial oxidative stress markers in heart tissue of rats poisoned with hydrogen peroxide. Methods: This is an experimental study conducted on 42 male Wistar rats divided randomly into seven groups of Control (poisoned without supplementation), Aerobic Exercise, Aerobic Exercise + Supplementation with 5mg/kg extract, Aerobic Exercise + Supplementation with 10 mg/kg extract, Supplementation with 5mg/kg extract, Supplementation with 10mg/kg extract, and healthy control. All groups received hydrogen peroxide (100 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days intraperitoneally. The rats in supplementation groups received hydroalcoholic extract of tribulus terrestris with doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg of body weight by gavage. Aerobic exercise was performed on a treadmill at a speed of 23 m/min for 8 weeks, 5 days per week, each for 30 min. Twenty-four hours after the last exercise session, the heart tissues of rats were collected. Data were analyzed by independent t-test, two-way ANOVA, and Bonferroni post hoc test considering a significance level of P
... Even though the phytochemical screening of P. macrophylla has not yet been done, that of some plants belonging to the same species such as Swietenia macrophylla and Gentiana macrophylla indicated the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, terpenes, tannins, glycosides, phenols and saponins [39,40] . The implication of these bioactive components on sexual function and reproductive parameters have been widely documented [41][42][43][44][45] . ...
Article
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Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a real health problem for men worldwide. This work investigated the effects of aqueous roots extract of Pycnocoma macrophylla (Euphorbiaceae) on sexual behavior in rats. Twenty-five adults' rats divided into five groups were treated orally for fourteen days with distilled water (5 ml/kg, control), sildenafil citrate (5 mg/kg) and the aqueous extract of P. macrophylla (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w) respectively. Sexual behavior parameters such as mount latency (ML), intromission latency (IL), ejaculation latency (EL), post-ejaculatory intervals (PEI), mount frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF), ejaculation frequency (EF) and mean interval of copulation (MIC) were evaluated in treated animals mated with receptive female at days 1, 7 and 14 of treatment. At day 14, serum testosterone was measured. The results indicated that, the aqueous extract of P. macrophylla and especially the dose of 200 mg/kg significantly (p<0.01-0.001) decreased mount and intromission latencies as well as the post-ejaculatory interval on day 14 compared to the control and initial values (day1) respectively while this extract significantly (p<0.01-0.001) increased the frequencies of mounts intromissions and ejaculations, and the mean intervals of copulation. Moreover, serum testosterone significantly (p<0.05) increased in rats treated with P. macrophylla (200 mg/kg b.w) when compared to the control. P. macrophylla possess pro-sexual and aphrodisiac effects in relation with the androgenic potential of particular bioactive components present in the aqueous root extract of plant. These outcomes could be applied for the management of sexual debilities in patients.
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Chapter
Furan is common compound that can be found in many products in pure form and as its derivatives. It is abundant in environment as in processed food, industrial process, pharmaceutical products and smoke. When furans are heated, they enhanced oxidative processes in lipids and proteins, and therefore play a toxic role in many cases. In many body systems furans are examined to cause toxic effects. It is commonly formed from four precursors amino acids, carbohydrates, ascorbic acids and PUFA. To detect the presence of furan and its amount in sample many methods have been involved. Most common of them are headspace analysis, headspace sampling by solid phase microextraction, and GCMS. As furan toxic effect is confirmed in many animals and it can be harmful to human health as well. The quantity of furan taken by humans are measured through quantification of furan in many food products. Many health agencies such as EFSA, FDA and IARC determine amount of furan in different foods. Further experiments were conducted to determine its harmful effects. Mouse and rats were mostly used in such tests. In rat metabolism of furan is tested and recorded that 80% of furan was eliminated through different pathways. Furan affects on digestive track is also determined. It mostly affects liver due to its prolonged presence in liver, but it was also observed to be harmful for kidneys. Some products are also tested to mitigate furan toxicity, apigenin and lycopene were found to be effective against furan toxicity. Moreover, furan itself was known to be effective against oxidative stress, which may cause many neurodegenerative disorders.
Chapter
Endocrine disorders like diabetes, adrenal fatigue, hyper and hypothyroidism, menstrual abnormalities, and sexual dysfunctions are growing day by day due to many environmental pollutants and endocrine disrupting chemicals coming from food and breakages. Hormonal imbalances can affect life of millions of people. Herbs and spices normalize the hormone in normal ranges. Hormones are key messengers for controlling almost all body systems. Hormonal imbalance is a troublous condition which has adverse effects on mood, appetite, metabolism, aging, and mental health. Adaptogenic herbs are unique healing herbs that promote hormonal balance, enhance immune functions, and reduce mental stress. These herbs eliminate toxins from the body and detoxify liver from harmful chemicals and endocrine disrupting chemicals. Herbal infusions and their essences have potential to cure hormonal disorders.
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Tribulus terrestris is a one-year-old herb dispersed in hot and humid areas in the Mediterranean and warm regions of Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia. This plant has many benefits and is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases, including kidney stones, low blood pressure, anti-diabetic properties, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, and sexual performance in men and in treatment of hepatitis is recommended. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacological and therapeutic properties of pharynx in traditional medicine and scientific papers in modern medicine. This study is a systematic review based on the PRISMA checklist. Based on keywords, 440 titles were selected and after removing repetitive articles, 129 papers were extracted from various databases including PubMed, SID, ScienceDirect, Scopus and Magiran, and the Google Scholar search engine without time limit. T. terrestris has several properties, including antimicrobial, antibacterial, free radicals purification and inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and through various mechanisms of cell and molecules, it produces various pharmacological and therapeutic properties. One of the most important therapeutic properties of this plant is its anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Also, several clinical studies have shown that co-administration of tetanus extract with chemotherapy drugs reduces the side effects of drugs. Due to the lack of toxicity and side effects of T. terrestris, the use of herbs has been considered as a complementary drug in diet regimens for various diseases.
Article
Objective Despite numerous experimental studies in the literature, there are few clinical trials regarding the effect of date palm pollen (DPP) supplementation on sexual function improvement. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the impact of DPP on female sexual function in Iranian non-menopausal women. Methods Between October 2019 and December 2019, health centers in the city of Khalkhal, volunteers meeting the inclusion criteria were recruited in randomized clinical trials. Sixty-eight women were randomly stratified and assigned to one of the two study groups: placebo group (n = 35) and palm pollen group (n = 35), and received a starch or palm pollen capsule (300 mg per day), respectively, for 35 d. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) instrument was used to assess female sexual function. Results After DPP supplementation, the increase in desire, lubrication, and the overall score, was statistically significant compared to the placebo group (P = 0.002, P = 0.000, and P = 0.042; respectively); Whilst there was no significant differences in the remaining domains (arousal: P = 0.763; orgasm: P = 0.370; satisfaction: P =0.474; pain: P = 0.259). There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the coitus and preintervention levels of desire (r = 0.298, P = 0.038), arousal (r = 0.328, P = 0.021), lubrication (r = 0.361, P = 0.011), orgasm (r = 0.320, P = 0.025), satisfaction (r = 0.327, P = 0.022), and overall scores (r = 0.338, P = 0.018). Conclusion This study suggests that DPP (300 mg supplementation for 35 d), given to non-menopausal women, could improve the lubrication and desire domains of FSFI.
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Full-text available
The erection has always symbolized strength and virile health. Erectile dysfunction is undoubtedly a concern as old as huma nity. Tamarindus indica L., Guiera senegalensis J.F.Gmel and Ximenia americana L. are commonly used in the traditional treatment of erectile dysfunction by the Bwa community in Mali. The aim of this study was to measure the total polyphenols and flavonoids and then to evaluate the antirad ical activity of the extracts (aqueous and hydroalcoholic macerated and decocted) of the organs of these species. The study found that for all species, the hydro-alcoholic macerated extract showed the best results. The polyphenol contents have been 36.85±0.21 mgGAE/g; 32.60±0.25 mgGAE/g and 29.79±0.51 mgGAE/g for Ximenia americana, Tamarindus indica and Guiera senegalensis respectively. The flavonoid contents have been 22.03±0.15 mgQE/g; 17.53±0.02 mgQE/g and 8.03±0.03 mgQE/g for Ximenia americana, Tamarindus indica and Guiera senegalensis respectively. The antiradical activity expressed in IC50 is 37.54±0.75 µg/mL; 52.75±0.71 µg/mL and 54.66±1.14 µg/mL for Ximenia americana, Tamarindus indica and Guiera senegalensis respectively. This study revealed that those plants are rich in total polyphenols and show a good antiradical activity. This wealth would justify their traditional use. The biological tests would be necessary to confirm their use in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.
Article
Introduction Erectile dysfunction is the persistent or recurrent inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for intercourse. Despite various treatment options, not all patients respond adequately and their usefulness is limited by adverse effects and cost. Botanical medicine and natural products have been and continue to be invaluable and untapped sources of new drugs, including potentially those to treat erectile dysfunction. Objectives To review the current literature on botanical medicine traditionally used as aphrodisiacs and treatment of erectile dysfunction, in particular, scientific and clinical investigations that have been performed, possible active phytoconstituents, and mechanisms of action and to identify gaps in current knowledge to better guide future research efforts. Methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted via PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Web of Science on English publications, using various keywords, for example, “herb”, “natural product”, combined with “erectile dysfunction”, “aphrodisiac”, and “sexual performance”. Results 369 relevant articles studying medicinal plants used for erectile dysfunction were analyzed. A total of 718 plants from 145 families and 499 genera were reported to be used traditionally as aphrodisiacs and treatment of erectile dysfunction. Top plants used include Pausinystalia johimbe, Lepidium meyenii, and Panax ginseng. Different plant parts are used, with roots being the most common. Less than half of these plants have been evaluated scientifically, using various research methodologies. Clinical trials conducted were collated. Current scientific investigation shows mixed results about their usefulness in enhancing sexual performance. A limited number of studies have attempted to elucidate the mechanisms of action of these medicinal plants. Conclusion A comprehensive literature review on botanical medicine and natural products used for treatment of erectile dysfunction was successfully conducted. Although medicinal plants serve as a potential source of lead compounds for erectile dysfunction drugs, further studies are warranted to further evaluate their efficacy and safety. Sin VJ-E, Anand GS, Koh H-L. Botanical Medicine and Natural Products Used for Erectile Dysfunction. Sex Med Rev 2020;XX:XXX–XXX.
Chapter
In this chapter, the main causes of male factor infertility, specifically endocrine abnormalities and effect of endocrine disrupters, will be outlined. For many patients, conventional therapy presents considerable financial strain and moral dilemma. In this context, many patients are preferring complementary medicine (CAM). Hence, the promises offered by herbal medicine including Ayurveda, Arab, and Chinese medicine will be explored in this chapter. Many naturopathic medicaments such as Withania somnifera, Asparagus racemosus, Curculigo orchioides, Zingiber officinale, etc. are being routinely used as part of traditional medicine practice in Ayurveda and Arab medicine and gaining wider acceptance in other countries. Common herbs, targeted infertility condition, and results thereafter shall be discussed. In the concluding part of the chapter, the potential deleterious contraindications of alternate medicine such as lead toxicity from Ayurvedic medications shall be briefly discussed.
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The incorporation of cisplatin (CP) as a cytotoxic antineoplastic agent in most chemotherapeutic protocols is a challenge due to its toxic effect on testicular tissues. Natural compounds present a promising trend in research, so a new nutraceutical formulation (NCF) was designed to diminish CP spermatotoxicity. A combination of three nutraceutical materials, 250 mg Spirulina platensis powder (SP), 25 mg Tribulus terrestris L. extract (TT), and 100 mg fish oil (FO) were formulated in self-nanoemulsifying self-nanosuspension (SNESNS). SP was loaded into the optimized self-nanoemulsifying system (30% FO, 50% span 80/cremophor EL and 20% isopropanol) and mixed with TT aqueous solution to form SNESNS. For the SP, phytochemical profiling revealed the presence of valuable amounts of fatty acids (FAs), amino acids, flavonoids, polyphenols, vitamins, and minerals. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and particle size analysis confirmed the formation of nanoemulsion-based nanosuspension upon dilution. Method validation of the phytochemical constituents in NCF has been developed. Furthermore, NCF was biologically evaluated on male Wistar rats and revealed the improvement of spermatozoa, histopathological features, and biochemical markers over the CP and each ingredient group. Our findings suggest the potential of NCF with SNESNS as a delivery system against CP-induced testicular toxicity in male rats.
Chapter
Since ancient times, humans across diverse cultures have shown keen interest in traditional herbal products which enhance sexual abilities, pleasure and libido, and improve sexual functions and potency. Herbal aphrodisiacs have been claimed to possess antistress as well as adaptogenic properties that assist in combating disease-associated stress and improving physical strength ultimately helping to alleviate the anxiety linked with lack of sexual desire and performance. Even in the modern era, particularly due to social or cultural reasons, some men still prefer the use of traditional herbal aphrodisiac products to counter sexual and/or reproductive dysfunctions. Important herbal aphrodisiacs—such as Panax ginseng, Tribulus terrestris, Eurycoma longifolia, Chlorophytum borivilianum, Ginkgo biloba, and Turnera diffusa var. aphrodisiaca have been discussed in this chapter in accordance with their effects and the potent molecules/compounds that manifest their activity. In fact, the constituent biomolecules present as the active principles of the herbal preparations behind their noticeable effects. However, there can be various pathways through which they may affect the sexual and reproductive functions, ranging from enhancement of spermatogenesis; modulation of hormonal levels (particularly testosterone) and steroidogenesis; erectogenic properties including improvement in sexual motivation, copulatory behavior, and modulation of neurotransmitters; to reduction of oxidative stress. For their potential incorporation into the clinical management of male reproductive and/or sexual disorders such as erectile dysfunction or male infertility in future, these herbal aphrodisiac biomolecules have to pass through stringent confirmatory studies including proper assessment of their safety and regulatory issues together with any side effect and associated toxicity for safe human administration.
Article
The oral administration of Tribulus terrestris and Lepidium meyenii extracts on reproductive, biochemical and body parameters was evaluated in rats. Thirty-six male Wistar rats weighting 210 ± 18 g were divided into six experimental groups (n = 6). Each group received, daily for 28 days, different solutions: T. terrestris (100 mg/kg), L. meyenii (1 g/kg) and T. terrestris at doses of 75, 50 and 25 mg/kg combined with L. meyenii at doses of 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 g/kg, respectively, and distilled water (control). T. terrestris increased (p < 0.05) the serum testosterone, regardless of dose. Combined use of the extracts increased (p < 0.05) the diameter of the epididymal duct and epididymis lumen. The combinations of T. terrestris (75 and 50 mg/kg) with L. meyenii increased (p < 0.05) the sperm concentration. There were no differences (p > 0.05) in the other semen characteristics; relative weight of organs; and serum levels of urea, creatinine, alanine and aspartate transaminase, gamma glutamyl transferase, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. No histopathological changes were observed (p > 0.05). It is concluded that the association of T. terrestris and L. meyenii has positive effects on serum testosterone, sperm concentration and epididymal morphology, with no evidence of effects in the testis, liver, spleen and kidneys.
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Full-text available
The present study included 98 bovine ovary collected from AL-Shulla slaughter house immediately after the animal was slaughtered. Ovaries were preserved in physiological saline at 37 C o and transport to the laboratory within 3-4 hrs. Diameters of the follicles were measured and divided into large (6-10 mm) and small (1-5 mm) follicles. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were aspirated from large and small follicles using a 18 G needle connected to a 10 ml syringe COCs surrounded by compact and thick cumulus cell were cultured in an integrated culture media RPMI-1640 , than were divided in to two groups , the first group (control media) using integrated culture media only , the second group alcoholic extract of Tribulus terrestris (Tt) plant was added to the culture media RPMI-1640 once a concentration of 50µg/ml , and the other a concentration of 25µ/ml. The results of the current study demonstrated superiority of alcoholic extract of 50µg/ml in the percentage of oocytes maturation which optended or drawn from large and small follicles compared with a concentration of 25µg/ml of the alcoholic extract it was observable the effect of adding alcoholic extract of T. t. plant in two concentrations of 25µg/ml and or 50µg/ml on the percentage of mature oocytes compared to control media (culture media RPMI-1640) .The present results indicated that the oocytes retrieved from larger follicles is better than small follicles in maturing oocytes maturation. In conclusion, alcoholic concentration of 50µg/ml preference extracted first and then the concentration of 25µg/ml T. t. plant extract that was added to culture media RPMI-1640 , superiority in percentage of the mature oocytes compared to control culture media RPMI-1640 , also the large follicle were better than small follicles in terms of equality suitable for mature oocytes. 1 1 ‫فرع‬ ‫والتوليد‬ ‫الجراحة‬-‫الطب‬ ‫كلية‬ ‫البيطري‬-‫جامعة‬ ‫بغداد‬ 2 ‫العلوم‬ ‫كلية‬-‫النهرين‬ ‫جامعة‬-‫العراق‬ ‫الخالصة‬ ‫الحالية‬ ‫الدراسة‬ ‫شملت‬ 89 ، ‫الحيوان‬ ‫ذبح‬ ‫بعد‬ ‫مباشرة‬ ‫الشعلة‬ ‫مجزره‬ ‫من‬ ‫جمعت‬ ، ‫مبيضا‬ ‫ح‬ ‫المبايض‬ ‫فضت‬ ‫المحلول‬ ‫في‬ ‫أل‬ ‫حرارة‬ ‫بدرجة‬ ‫فسلجي‬ 73 ‫ونقلت‬ ‫م‬ ‫المختبر‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫خالل‬ 7-4 ‫قي‬ ‫تم‬ ، ‫ساعات‬ ‫الجر‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫اس‬ ‫المبايض‬ ‫على‬ ‫المتواجدة‬ ‫يبات‬ (‫الحجم‬ ‫كبيرة‬ ‫جريبات‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫وقسمت‬ 6-01 (‫الحجم‬ ‫وصفيره‬ ‫مليمتر‬) 0-5 ‫بالركمه‬ ‫المحاطة‬ ‫البويضات‬ ‫سحبت‬. ‫)مليمتر‬ ‫المبيضة‬ ‫الجر‬ ‫من‬ ‫الشفط‬ ‫بطريقه‬ ‫الكبيرة‬ ‫يبات‬ ‫والصفيرة‬ ‫ابره‬ ‫بواسطة‬ ‫قياس‬ 09 ‫سعة‬ ‫بسرنجة‬ ‫موصولة‬ ‫كيج‬ 01. ‫ملمتر‬ ‫المتكامل‬ ‫ألزرعي‬ ‫الوسط‬ ‫في‬ ‫زرعت‬ ‫المبيضة‬ ‫الركمة‬ ‫خاليا‬ ‫من‬ ‫ثخينة‬ ‫بطبقه‬ ‫والمحاطة‬ ‫لإلنضاج‬ ‫المالئمة‬ ‫البويضات‬ 0641 RPMI-‫إلى‬ ‫قسمت‬ ‫وقد‬ ، ‫مجموعتين‬ (‫السيطرة‬ ‫األولى‬ ‫المجموعة‬ ، control media ‫ما‬ ‫أي‬ ‫يضاف‬ ‫لم‬) ‫ده‬ ‫ألزرعي‬ ‫للوسط‬ ‫أضيف‬ ‫فقد‬ ‫الثانية‬ ‫المجموعة‬ ‫إما‬ ، ‫المتكامل‬ ‫ألزرعي‬ ‫للوسط‬ RPM1-1640 ‫المتكامل‬ ‫الكحولي‬ ‫المستخلص‬ ‫الكطب‬ ‫لنبات‬ ‫بتركيز‬ 51 ‫وتركيز‬ ‫مابكروغرام/مللتر‬ 55 ‫مللتر‬ ‫مايكروغرام/‬. ‫البويضات‬ ‫زرع‬ ‫بعد‬ ‫الدراسة‬ ‫نتائج‬ ‫أظهرت‬ ‫تفوق‬ ‫الكطب‬ ‫لنبات‬ ‫الكحولي‬ ‫المستخلص‬ ‫بتركيز‬ 51 ‫المسحوبة‬ ‫البويضات‬ ‫إلنضاج‬ ‫المئوية‬ ‫النسبة‬ ‫في‬ ‫مللتر‬ / ‫مايكروغرام‬ ‫بتركيز‬ ‫مقارنة‬ ‫والصغيرة‬ ‫الكبيرة‬ ‫الجريبات‬ ‫من‬ 55 ، ‫الكطب‬ ‫نبات‬ ‫لمستخلص‬ ‫مللتر‬ / ‫مايكروغرام‬ ‫وسجل‬ ‫أضافه‬ ‫تأثير‬ ‫وبالتركيزيين‬ ‫الكطب‬ ‫لنبات‬ ‫الكحولي‬ ‫المستخلص‬ 51 , 55 ‫النسبة‬ ‫في‬ ‫مللتر‬ / ‫مايكروغرام‬ ‫البويضات‬ ‫إلنضاج‬ ‫المئوية‬ .) ‫السيطرة‬ (‫ألزرعي‬ ‫بالوسط‬ ‫مقارنه‬ ‫أوضحت‬ ‫كما‬ ‫نتائج‬ ‫الدراسة‬ ‫الحالية‬ ‫الكبيرة‬ ‫الجريبات‬ ‫من‬ ‫المسحوبة‬ ‫البويضات‬ ‫بان‬ ‫أضافه‬ ‫عند‬ ‫الناضجة‬ ‫غير‬ ‫للبويضات‬ ‫المئوية‬ ‫النسبة‬ ‫وتدني‬ ‫والحيوية‬ ‫اإلنضاج‬ ‫في‬ ‫القطر‬ ‫الضفيرة‬ ‫الجريبات‬ ‫من‬ ‫أفضل‬ ‫القطر‬ The Iraqi J. Vet. Med. 36 (2):199-203; 2012 222 ‫الكحول‬ ‫المستخلص‬ ‫ي‬. ‫ألزرعي‬ ‫للوسط‬ ‫المضاف‬ ‫الكطب‬ ‫لنبات‬ ‫الكحولي‬ ‫المستخلص‬ ‫أفضلية‬ ‫الحالية‬ ‫الدراسة‬ ‫من‬ ‫نستنتج‬ RPMI-1640 ‫الجريبات‬ ‫إن‬ ‫كما‬ ، ‫السيطرة)‬ (‫ألزرعي‬ ‫بالوسط‬ ‫مقارنة‬ ‫البويضات‬ ‫لإلنضاج‬ ‫المئوية‬ ‫النسبة‬ ‫تفوق‬ ‫في‬ ‫من‬ ‫أفضل‬ ‫القطر‬ ‫الكبيرة‬ ‫حيث‬ ‫من‬ ‫القطر‬ ‫ألصفيره‬ ‫الجريبات‬ ‫ال‬ ‫البويضات‬ ‫نوعية‬. ‫وحيويتها‬ ‫لإلنضاج‬ ‫مالئمة‬ ‫ال‬ ‫كلمات‬ ‫ال‬ ‫مفتاحية‬ ‫االبقار‬ , ‫البيوض‬ ‫انضاج‬ , ‫الكطب‬ ‫نبات‬ ‫مستخلص‬ : .
Chapter
Several medicinal plants are traditionally used in different regions of Africa for the treatment of male infertility, sexual asthenia, erectile dysfunction, and impotency or used as an aphrodisiac. Scientific studies, mostly conducted in vitro or in animals, have proven the acclaimed traditional use of these plants to enhance sexual activities or sperm concentration, motility, and viability. Some of the mechanisms of actions associated with these plants include increased level of testosterone and the relaxation of the smooth cavernosal muscles. However, some plants were also shown to have detrimental effects on the male reproductive system. This may be due to the varying modes of plant extraction, duration of treatment, experimental design, dosage used, quality of the plant, or toxic effects. There is a need to standardize the protocols as well as to better understand the mechanism of actions of the respective plants. Further studies should be conducted using human subjects.
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Full-text available
The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) gel on general well-being, sexual function, and the prostate in aging men. A total of 120 men participated in this randomized, placebo-controlled study (60 DHT and 60 placebo). All subjects had nocturnal penile tumescence once per week or less, andropause symptoms, and a serum T level of 15 nmol/liter or less and/or a serum SHBG level greater than 30 nmol/liter. The mean age was 58 yr (range, 50-70 yr). Of these subjects, 114 men completed the study. DHT was administered transdermally for 6 months, and the dose varied from 125-250 mg/d. General well-being symptoms and sexual function were evaluated using a questionnaire, and prostate symptoms were evaluated using the International Prostate Symptoms Score, transrectal ultrasonography, and assay of serum prostate-specific antigen. Early morning erections improved transiently in the DHT group at 3 months of treatment (P < 0.003), and the ability to maintain erection improved in the DHT group compared with the placebo group (P < 0.04). No significant changes were observed in general well-being between the placebo and the DHT group. Serum concentrations of LH, FSH, E2, T, and SHBG decreased significantly during DHT treatment. Treatment with DHT did not affect liver function or the lipid profile. Hemoglobin concentrations increased from 146.0 +/- 8.2 to 154.8 +/- 11.4 g/liter, and hematocrit from 43.5 +/- 2.5% to 45.8 +/- 3.4% (P < 0.001). Prostate weight and prostate-specific antigen levels did not change during the treatment. No major adverse events were observed. Transdermal administration of DHT improves sexual function and may be a useful alternative for androgen replacement. As estrogens are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of prostate hyperplasia, DHT may be beneficial, compared with aromatizing androgens, in the treatment of aging men.
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IN CONTRAST to the situation in women, where the menopause marks the end of the fertile period, in men fertility persists into old age. Nevertheless old age in men is accompanied by clinical signs, such as a decrease in muscle and bone mass, decrease in sexual hair growth, and decreased libido and sexual activity, suggesting decreased virility. These clinical signs are supported by histological evidence for a decreased Leydig mass and function. Evidence for decreased plasma testosterone in elderly men As to biochemical evidence for decreased androgenicity in elderly men, 25 yr ago the blood production rate of testosterone was reported to be decreased, which at least partially is caused by a decrease of the metabolic clearance. Whether or not aging is also associated with a decrease in plasma testosterone concentrations has long been highly controversial. Indeed, a large series of publications in the 1960s and early 1970s reporting decreased plasma testosterone concentrations in elderly
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Initial studies showed that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) treatment in mice resulted in lower body weight gain. Subsequent studies have shown that DHEA treatment in rats has a similar effect. In adult rodents, weight loss is a consequence of DHEA treatment. In general, these effects are independent of changes in food intake and are accompanied by lower body fat. DHEA treatment has been shown in some circumstances to alter a number of serum factors including glucose, insulin, cholesterol, and triacylglycerol. Recent studies have focused on the effects of DHEA on liver metabolism. Studies have been undertaken to determine whether the antiobesity effect of DHEA is mediated by the previously described inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by this steroid. It appears that inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in liver is not the initial metabolic response to DHEA but may play a contributing role. Inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in adipose tissue may affect differentiation of fat cells. A number of other enzymes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism have also been shown to be altered by DHEA treatment, and several futile cycles involving some of these enzymes have been proposed to play a role in DHEA's antiobesity action. In addition, mitochondrial protein content is elevated by DHEA treatment. There appear to be time-dependent changes due to DHEA treatment on hepatic mitochondrial state three rates of respiration. Studies continue to evaluate the role of alterations in mitochondrial metabolism in DHEA's antiobesity action.
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Coronary heart disease (CHD) was treated with saponin of Tribulus terrestris. According to 406 cases of clinical observation and a cross test (67 cases treated with Yufen Ningxin Pian as control), the results showed that the total efficacious rate of remission angina pectoris was 82.3%. It was higher than the control group with a total effective rate of 67.2% (P less than 0.05). The total effective rate of ECG improvement (52.7%) was even higher than that of the control group (35.8%). It is shown that saponin of Tribulus terrestris has the action of dilating coronary artery and improving coronary circulation, and thus has better effects on improving ECG of myocardial ischemia. If taken for a long time, it has no adverse reaction on blood system and hepatic and renal functions. Neither does it have side effects. It is one of the ideal medicines to treat angina pectoris.
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Introduction STEROID hormones are familiar clinically and physiologically as regulators of physiological processes. Five groups of steroid hormones are generally recognized according to their physiological behavior: mineralocorticoids, which instruct the renal tubules to retain sodium; glucocorticoids, which are named for their carbohydratemobilizing properties but have many other effects as well; estrogens, which induce female secondary sexual characteristics; progestins, which are essential for reproduction; and androgens, which induce male secondary sexual characteristics. These classes of steroid hormones are structurally similar and arise from a common series of pathways. They are distinguished by their actions on one or more specific steroid hormone receptors. The hormone/receptor complexes function as tissue-specific transcriptional regulators of distinct domains of genes and, consequently, exert their broad array of physiological effects. (For reviews, see Refs. 1 and 2.) The pathways by which the...
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Androgens are essential for the expression of normal libido in the male, but their role in the maintenance of the erectile response in humans is controversial. It has been shown previously in the rat that castration induces 1) loss of penile reflexes; and 2) considerable reduction in the erectile response to electric field stimulation (EFS) of the cavernosal nerve. Both of these effects can be reversed by testosterone replacement. The current study was performed to determine whether these testosterone effects are mediated via its conversion to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and to what extent the synthesis of the mediator of penile erection, nitric oxide, is affected by castration and androgen replacement. Five-month-old rats were either castrated or left intact. The orchiectomized rats were implanted with SILASTIC brand silicon tubing (Dow Corning) containing testosterone or DHT with or without daily injections of the 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride. After 7 days, rats were submitted to EFS and the intracavernosal pressure was recorded. Castration reduced the EFS-induced erectile response by 50% in comparison with intact rats and testosterone restored this decrease to normal. When finasteride was given to these testosterone-treated castrate rats, erectile response was not restored. DHT was as effective as testosterone in restoring response to EFS in castrates and this effect was not decreased by finasteride. Nitric oxide synthase activity in the penile cytosol was measured by the arginine-citrulline conversion and was found to correlate with the EFS determinations. These results show that DHT is the active androgen in the prevention of erectile failure seen in castrated rats, and suggest that this effect may be mediated, at least partially, by changes in nitric oxide synthase levels in the penis.
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Although plants have long been known to have important pharmacological effects in humans, the mechanism by which plant-derived compounds act in humans is still being elucidated. Two important pathways for the biological actions of plant-derived compounds involved binding either to hormone receptors or to enzymes that metabolize hormones. What are the origins of this interaction between plant-derived compounds and animals? And what insights can we gain from investigating this question? Some answers come from recent sequence analyses, revealing that 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, which regulates estrogen and androgen levels in humans, and 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase, which regulates prostaglandin E2 and F2 alpha levels in humans, have a common ancestor with proteins in rhizobia that are important in forming nitrogen-fixing nodules in legume roots, and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, which regulates progestin and androgen levels in humans, has a common ancestor with enzymes important in the synthesis of anthocyanins. This evolutionary kinship, when combined with the structural similarities between flavonoids, licorice-derived compounds, and steroid hormones, provides another perspective on the hormone-like activity of flavonoids and other plant-derived compounds in humans: some of the hormone-like activity of plant-derived compounds is due to binding to steroid and prostaglandin dehydrogenases.
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In this study, a comparison of circulating levels of androsterone glucuronide and androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol glucuronide in the male and female of several mammalian species was performed. Glucuronidated steroids were not detected in the circulation of the dog, bovine, swine, and rodent. High levels of circulating glucuronidated steroids were measured in the cynomolgus monkey and found to be 10-fold higher than in humans. The determination of tissue levels of unconjugated and conjugated C19 steroids was then performed in intact and castrated rats treated with androgens. Steroid glucuronides were not detected in the plasma, skin, prostate, or liver of either intact or treated rats, although the levels of unconjugated steroids in the plasma and tissues were increased after steroid treatments. Significant levels were detected in the bile, thus suggesting hepatic formation of steroid glucuronides in the rat. It is suggested that the monkey represents the best animal model to date to study the contribution of diphosphoglucuronosyltransferases present in steroid target peripheral tissues to circulating levels of steroid glucuronides.
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While it is generally accepted that the erectile response in mammals is regulated by androgens, the extent of in- volvement and the precise role of these steroids remains to be established. A number of neurotransmitters have been identified that may mediate erectile function, and several research groups are actively investigating how an- drogens may affect the synthesis and action of these agents. This article reviews what is known about the role of androgens in erectile function, the effects of these ste- roid hormones on the activity of some of the neurotrans- mitters that are thought to be involved, and it cites dif- ferent experimental designs and animal models used in the study of erectile physiology. Also discussed is the question of why castration in men is not always followed by the immediate and rapid loss of erectile capacity.
Article
Rat penile erection is an androgen-dependent process with castration leading to a loss of potency. The present study was designed to determine if one of the mechanisms by which androgens maintain the erectile response is the regulation of the alpha-adrenergic responsiveness of cavernosal smooth muscle. Electrical stimulation of the major pelvic ganglion (MPG) was used to elicit erection in untreated, castrated rats (CASTRATE) or castrated rats given testosterone replacement (TESTO). The effects of phenylephrine (an alpha 1-adrenergic agonist) and prazosin (an alpha 1-adrenergic antagonist) on the erectile response were investigated. Phenylephrine, when administered to both TESTO and CASTRATE animals during erection, resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the intracavernosal pressure (CCP) with an ED50 value of 1.8 +/- 0.48 micrograms/kg BW for TESTO rats; in the CASTRATE animals, the ED50 was significantly reduced to 0.29 +/- 0.08 microgram/kg BW. The increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) resulting from phenylephrine injection in TESTO and CASTRATE animals were of similar magnitude and were not significantly different. Prazosin administration resulted in an enhancement of the erectile response in CASTRATE but not in TESTO animals. Taken together these results demonstrate that the cavernosal vasculature in CASTRATE animals possesses increased reactivity to alpha-adrenergic stimulation as compared to the sensitivity in TESTO rats. Based on these findings, we conclude that one of the mechanisms by which androgens maintain erectile function is by regulating the alpha 1-adrenergic responsiveness of the cavernosal smooth muscle.
Article
The number and magnitude of studies involving testosterone-supplementation therapy in older men are limited. In addition, many studies to date have not been blinded or controlled, were reported in abstract form only, and had involved a variety of androgen-replacement regimens and outcomes measurements. Nonetheless, an overview of the data suggests there is real potential for supplementation therapy to improve bone mass and muscle mass and strength in this age group. Affects on mood, sexual function, and cognition are less clear but may be meaningful in certain men. Questions still remain, however, on the magnitude and longevity of the beneficial effects of testosterone supplementation in the older man and whether only certain subgroups of men would truly benefit from therapy. More importantly, the long-term risks of androgen therapy in this age group really are not known, especially in the areas of cardiovascular disease and prostate diseases. Presently, men who use androgen-supplementation therapy for age-related "testosterone deficiency" should consider this as a gamble.
Article
Recent rat studies suggest that early exposure to exogenous testosterone accelerates the loss of androgen receptors and compromises eventual penile length. In humans we hypothesize that down regulation of the androgen receptor is not the mechanism that stops penile growth. To test this hypothesis we investigated the effects of androgen deprivation and supplementation on the developing human penis. A total of 15 normal human fetal penises at 7 to 19 weeks of gestation (mean plus or minus standard deviation 12 +/- 4.5) was divided in half sagittally. Specimens were grafted beneath the renal capsule of male athymic nude mice or nude rats. Three groups of host animals were prepared, including 10 with no testosterone that were castrated at grafting, 15 with testosterone and 5 with super testosterone in which 50 mg. testosterone propionate pellets were implanted subcutaneously at grafting. Each fetal penile specimen was its own control, since half was implanted into an intact animal and the other into a castrated or super testosterone host. Six weeks after grafting the specimens were analyzed for gross size (length), histology and expression of androgen receptors. All human fetal penile specimens grew from the nadir size and appeared as white exophytic growths on the surface of the host kidneys. Normal grafts were larger than castrate specimens (mean 6.9 +/- 2.1 versus 3.9 +/- 2.1 mm., p = 0.014). Mean length of the super testosterone specimens (7.3 +/- 2.3 mm.) was not significantly greater than that of normal specimens (p = 0.797). Histological analysis revealed that all specimens were composed of viable penile tissue. Cellular density of the castrate penises was approximately 2 times greater than that of the normal and super testosterone specimens (40.6 +/- 5.9 versus 25.1 +/- 2.8 cells per cm.2, p > 0.001), as calculated on enlarged micrographs. Supraphysiological doses of testosterone did not change the histology compared to controls. Immunohistochemical localization revealed androgen receptors expressed throughout the corporeal bodies, surrounding stroma and penile skin with intracellular localization to nucleus. The mean proportion of cells expressing androgen receptors was higher in the castrate (29.4 +/- 5.2 cells per cm.2) than in the normal (24.0 +/- 3.7) and super testosterone (24.7 +/- 4.5) grafts (p = 0.005). However, in regard to growth there was no change in the proportion of androgen receptor positive cells among the groups. Testosterone influences penile growth, possibly as a result of extracellular stromal expansion. The number of androgen receptor positive cells in the human fetal penis did not change among the castrate, normal and super testosterone hosts. These experiments support the hypothesis that penile growth cessation is mediated by mechanisms other than down regulation of the androgen receptor. Furthermore, these data support the hypothesis that early administration of androgen to prepubertal male individuals does not result in a shorter phallus in adulthood.
Article
The role of androgens in the male sex differentiation, in the genesis and preservation of the erectile function is summarized. In sex differentiation, testosterone acts on genitalia and central nervous system (CNS). In CNS sexual steroids exert a morphogenetic action during neuronal development. At the pubertal age, the increase of testosterone leads to the development of sex characteristics, the onset of libido and the beginning of the nocturnal spontaneous erectile function. Spontaneous erections are androgen-dependent, and they are impaired in androgen deficiency. Normal androgen levels lead to make voluntary erections. However, in the human species, cortical influences may greatly affect what could be possible to occur in relation to the hormonal situation. Endocrine causes of sexual dysfunction are responsible for about 20-25% of the total; among these primary and secondary hypogonadisms are the most frequent and they are to be managed with causal treatments and androgen replacement therapy. Therefore, androgen treatments are not useful in functional sex disorders and they may be at risk on prostatic tissue. Andropause is related to a progressive reduction of testicular function, principally due to vascular disorders, with low-normal androgen levels. On the basis of these observations it is underlined that in the human species the androgen presence is a necessary but not sufficient condition for a correct sex function.
Article
The so-called andropause is an ill-defined collection of symptoms in a group of men who may have low but may also have normal androgen levels. Unlike the proven benefits of hormone replacement therapy in women, the effects of testosterone supplementation in men are equivocal. It may increase sexual interest, but rarely to a level thought adequate by the patient. It has no proven beneficial effect on erectile dysfunction and other possible beneficial effects on haemopoesis, bone metabolism, lipids and fibrinolysis have yet to be demonstrated. With the availability of the testosterone patch, sustained increases in the serum testosterone levels will be readily achieved and could theoretically significantly affect the behaviour of subclinical prostate cancer. At the present time, testosterone replacement therapy in hypogonadal men is of proven clinical benefit; this is not the case, however, for eugonadal men with symptoms attributed to the andropause. The symptoms of the andropause fatigue can readily be explained by stress and there is no scientifically valid, placebo-controlled study that shows any benefit for testosterone supplements in this not uncommon group of patients.
Article
A progressive decrease in androgen production is common in males after middle age. The resulting clinical picture has been erroneously named male menopause or andropause. A more appropriate designation is androgen decline in the aging male (ADAM). The syndrome is characterized by alterations in the physical and intellectual domains that correlate with and can be corrected by manipulation of the androgen milieu. We review the epidemiological aspects of aging and endocrinological manifestations of ADAM, and provide recommendations for treatment and monitoring of these patients. We performed MEDLINE, Pubmed, Current Contents and Pharmaceutical Abstracts searches of relevant peer reviewed publications on andropause, male climacteric, adult hypogonadism and aging. In addition, conference proceedings were researched to provide a more complete review of the literature. Information was scrutinized and collated, and contributory data were reviewed and summarized. ADAM is a clinical entity characterized biochemically by a decrease not only in serum androgen, but also in other hormones, such as growth hormone, melatonin and dehydroepiandrosterone. Clinical manifestations include fatigue, depression, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and alterations in mood and cognition. The onset of ADAM is unpredictable and its manifestations are subtle and variable, which has led to a paucity of interest in its diagnosis and treatment. Urological practice commonly includes a large proportion of men older than 50 years. Therefore, it is important for urologists to recognize the manifestations of and be familiar with evaluations necessary to document ADAM as well as its treatment and monitoring.
Article
In the human male, testosterone is the major circulating androgen. More than 95% of circulating testosterone is secreted by the testis with a production rate of 6-7 mg/day. The clinical effects of androgens are numerous, and testosterone deficiency is associated with a number of clinical abnormalities. Overt hypogonadism results in reductions in bone mineral density, alterations in body composition and effects on mood, aggressive behaviour, cognitive function, sexual function and several factors important for cardiovascular risk. Androgen replacement in this context is clearly beneficial, and numerous studies have demonstrated improvements in bone and muscle mass, reductions in body fat, and positive effects on quality of life following treatment. The benefits of therapy in men with milder degrees of hypogonadism, and elderly men with "physiological" testosterone deficiency, are less clear-cut, and the appropriate biochemical cut-off below which replacement should be offered has not been clearly defined. Several options are available for androgen replacement in adult men. Oral testosterone, intramuscular injections, subcutaneous implants and transdermal therapy have all been used. Each mode of delivery has advantages and drawbacks and the choice between them will often depend on patient reference. Recent advances include the development of longer-acting intramuscular preparations, which offer more stable androgen levels with fairly infrequent injections, and testosterone gel which appears to provide transdermal replacement without a high incidence of skin reactions. This article will examine the evidence concerning the impact of male hypogonadism and the response to androgen therapy. The question of who to treat will be addressed with particular reference to mild hypogonadism and hypogonadism in the elderly. Finally, an overview of the different modes of replacement therapy will be presented.
Article
Tribulus terrestris (TT) has long been used in the traditional Chinese and Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of various ailments and is popularly claimed to improve sexual functions in man. Sexual behaviour and intracavernous pressure (ICP) were studied in both normal and castrated rats to further understand the role of TT containing protodioscin (PTN) as an aphrodisiac. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups of 8 each that included distilled water treated (normal and castrated), testosterone treated (normal and castrated, 10 mg/kg body weight, subcutaneously, bi-weekly) and TT treated (castrated, 5 mg/kg body weight, orally once daily). Decreases in body weight, prostate weight and ICP were observed among the castrated groups of rats compared to the intact group. There was an overall reduction in the sexual behaviour parameters in the castrated groups of rats as reflected by decrease in mount and intromission frequencies (MF and IF) and increase in mount, intromission, ejaculation latencies (ML, IL, EL) as well as post-ejaculatory interval (PEI). Compared to the castrated control, treatment of castrated rats (with either testosterone or TT extract) showed increase in prostate weight and ICP that were statistically significant. There was also a mild to moderate improvement of the sexual behaviour parameters as evidenced by increase in MF and IF; decrease in ML, IL and PEI. These results were statistically significant. It is concluded that TT extract appears to possess aphrodisiac activity probably due to androgen increasing property of TT (observed in our earlier study on primates).
The metabolism of DHEA. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and aging
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A clinical study on the effect of Tribulus terrestris (Tribestan) on the semen profile in males with low sperm count and low motility
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A clinical study on the effect of Tribulus terrestris (Tribestan) on the semen profile in males with low sperm count and low motility
  • Balanathan
Pharmacokinetic studies of Tribestan. Anniversary Scientific Session’35 Chemical Pharmaceutical Research Institute
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The effect of testosterone on androgen receptors and human penile growth
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Pharmacokinetic studies of Tribestan. Anniversary Scientific Session’35 Chemica
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