Article

A Kinetic and Electromyographic Comparison of the Standing Cable Press and Bench Press

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Abstract

This study compared the standing cable press (SCP) and the traditional bench press (BP) to better understand the biomechanical limitations of pushing from a standing position together with the activation amplitudes of trunk and shoulder muscles. A static biomechanical model (4D Watbak) was used to assess the forces that can be pushed with 2 arms in a standing position. Then, 14 recreationally trained men performed 1 repetition maximum (1RM) BP and 1RM single-arm SP exercises while superficial electromyography (EMG) of various shoulder and torso muscles was measured. The 1RM BP performance resulted in an average load (74.2 +/- 17.6 kg) significantly higher than 1RM single-arm SP (26.0 +/- 4.4 kg). In addition, the model predicted that pushing forces from a standing position under ideal mechanical conditions are limited to 40.8% of the subject's body weight. For the 1RM BP, anterior deltoid and pectoralis major were more activated than most of the trunk muscles. In contrast, for the 1RM single-arm SP, the left internal oblique and left latissimus dorsi activities were similar to those of the anterior deltoid and pectoralis major. The EMG amplitudes of pectoralis major and the erector muscles were larger for 1RM BP. Conversely, the activation levels of left abdominal muscles and left latissimus dorsi were higher for 1RM right-arm SP. The BP emphasizes the activation of the shoulder and chest muscles and challenges the capability to develop great shoulder torques. The SCP performance also relies on the strength of shoulder and chest musculature; however, it is whole-body stability and equilibrium together with joint stability that present the major limitation in force generation. Our EMG findings show that SCP performance is limited by the activation and neuromuscular coordination of torso muscles, not maximal muscle activation of the chest and shoulder muscles. This has implications for the utility of these exercise approaches to achieve different training goals.

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... Different approaches have recently been proposed to increase core muscle activation during traditional resistance exercises. One of those is to perform exercises unilaterally instead of bilaterally (1,2,8,13,14). Theoretically, when performing an exercise unilaterally, the contralateral side has to increase muscle activation to avoid postural sway due to the increased torque in the trunk created by the external load. ...
... The highest activation of upper erector spinae was found on the contralateral side When comparing our results for rectus abdominis with strength exercise studies, several have found increased activation on the contralateral side during unilateral execution (2,13,14). However, those studies used upper body exercises with the external load lateral to the truncus (shoulder-or chest presses). ...
... Copyright © 201 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. 5 15 muscle activation during uni-and bilateral execution of strength exercises of the leg, shoulder and chest muscles (1,13,14). These previous studies demonstrated an increased activation of the contralateral side when performing the exercise unilaterally instead of bilaterally. ...
Article
The aim of the study was to compare the electromyographic activity of rectus abdominis, oblique external, lower and upper erector spinae at both sides of the truncus in one- and two-armed kettlebell swing. Sixteen healthy men performed ten repetitions of both exercises using a 16 kg kettlebell in randomized order. For upper erector spinae, the activation of the contralateral side during one-armed swing was 24% greater than the ipsilateral side during one-armed (p < 0.001) and 11% greater than two-armed swing (p = 0.026). Further, the activation in two-armed swing was 12 - 16% greater than for the ipsilateral side in one-armed swing (p < 0.001). For rectus abdominis; however, 42% lower activation of the contralateral side was observed during one-armed swing compared to ipsilateral sides during two-armed swing (p = 0.038), and 48% compared to the ipsilateral side during one-armed swing (p = 0.044). Comparing the different phases of the swing, most differences in the upper erector spinae were found in the lower parts of the movement while for the rectus abdominis the differences were found during the hip extension. In contrast, similar muscle activity in lower erector spinae and external oblique between the different conditions were observed (p = 0.055 - 0.969). In conclusion, performing the kettlebell swing with one arm resulted in greater neuromuscular activity for the contralateral side of the upper erector spinae and ipsilateral side of the rectus abdominis, and lower activation of the opposite side of the respective muscles.
... Both sport and various activities of daily living (ADLs) require individuals to create pushing forces while standing. Most noticeably, this is seen in highly physical sports, like football or wrestling, but the same relative movement is seen when someone pushes a car or moves furniture around their home (Santana, Vera-Garcia & McGill, 2007). Traditionally, in order to train the muscles involved in these movements, people perform exercises like the bench press. ...
... Thus, the principle of specificity is not being fully utilized and the effects of training may not fully crossover. Secondly, there are many factors that limit one's ability to develop pressing strength while standing, including stability and neuromuscular control of the core musculature, the individual's weight, the base of support the individual utilizes, and the direction in which the pressing motion is performed (Santana, Vera-Garcia & McGill, 2007). Since a traditional bench press is not performed standing up, these factors are not addressed. ...
... Since a traditional bench press is not performed standing up, these factors are not addressed. In particular, any given individual can usually only produce a standing pushing force of about 40.8% of their body weight (Santana, Vera-Garcia & McGill, 2007), whereas it is not uncommon for an individual to be able to lift greater than their body weight in a supine bench press. Additionally, when performing a bilateral, seated pressing motion, the EMG amplitude of core stabilizers, such as the rectus abdominis and external obliques, is reduced significantly when compared to a standing, unilateral pressing motion (Saeterbakken & Fimland, 2012). ...
Article
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Training the bench press exercise on a traditional flat bench does not induce a level of instability as seen in sport movements and activities of daily living. Twenty participants were recruited to test two forms of instability: using one dumbbell rather than two and lifting on the COR bench compared to a flat bench. Electromyography (EMG) amplitudes of the pectoralis major, middle trapezius, external oblique, and internal oblique were recorded and compared. Differences in range of motion (ROM) were evaluated by measuring an angular representation of the shoulder complex. Four separate conditions of unilateral bench press were tested while lifting on a: flat bench with one dumbbell, flat bench with two dumbbells, COR Bench with one dumbbell, and COR Bench with two dumbbells. The results imply that there are no differences in EMG amplitude or ROM between the COR bench and traditional bench. However, greater ROM was found to be utilized in the single dumbbell condition, both in the COR bench and the flat bench.
... Literature has compared electromyography (EMG) and kinetic measures such as peak force (PF), power, and one-repetition maximum (1RM) between variations of the bench press (Cotterman, Darby, & Skelly, 2005;Goodman, Pearce, Nicholes, Gatt, & Fairweather, 2008;Koshida, Urabe, Miyashita, Iwai, & Kagimori, 2008;Marshall & Murphy, 2006;McCaw & Friday, 1994;Norwood, Anderson, Gaetz, & Twist, 2007;Saeterbakken & Fimland, 2013;Saeterbakken, Van Den Tillaar, & Fimland, 2011;Santana, Vera-Garcia, & McGill, 2007;Schick et al., 2010;Snarr & Esco, 2013;Uribe et al., 2010;Zemková et al., 2014). Previous investigations comparing the standard bench press to a Smith machine bench press have revealed increasing EMG activity of the antagonist muscle group, as well as trunk musculature, suggesting that additional muscles are recruited to increase stability (Saeterbakken et al., 2011). ...
... It was hypothesized that PF and EMG would be significantly higher in the foot down condition, indicating that the feet play a role in body stabilization and thus force production in the bench press. Force production and 1RM values during bench press variations have been investigated by several studies (Anderson & Behm, 2004;Cotterman et al., 2005;Koshida et al., 2008;Saeterbakken & Fimland, 2013;Saeterbakken et al., 2011;Santana et al., 2007;Stock, Beck, Defreitas, & Dillon, 2010;Zemková et al., 2014). Anderson and Behm (2004) reported a 59.6% decrease in force output of isometric bench press when performed on a Swiss ball. ...
... In addition to kinetic variables, much of the previous research has examined EMG activity with varying stability requirements of upper body presses ( Goodman et al., 2008;Marshall & Murphy, 2006;McCaw & Friday, 1994;Norwood et al., 2007;Saeterbakken & Fimland, 2013;Saeterbakken et al., 2011;Santana et al., 2007;Schick et al., 2010;Snarr & Esco, 2013;Stock et al., 2010;Uribe et al., 2010). Although EMG is typically increased with instability, reduced force output suggests this higher activity is due to joint stabilization. ...
... Literature has compared electromyography (EMG) and kinetic measures such as peak force (PF), power, and one-repetition maximum (1RM) between variations of the bench press (Cotterman, Darby, & Skelly, 2005;Goodman, Pearce, Nicholes, Gatt, & Fairweather, 2008;Koshida, Urabe, Miyashita, Iwai, & Kagimori, 2008;Marshall & Murphy, 2006;McCaw & Friday, 1994;Norwood, Anderson, Gaetz, & Twist, 2007;Saeterbakken & Fimland, 2013;Saeterbakken, Van Den Tillaar, & Fimland, 2011;Santana, Vera-Garcia, & McGill, 2007;Schick et al., 2010;Snarr & Esco, 2013;Uribe et al., 2010;Zemková et al., 2014). Previous investigations comparing the standard bench press to a Smith machine bench press have revealed increasing EMG activity of the antagonist muscle group, as well as trunk musculature, suggesting that additional muscles are recruited to increase stability (Saeterbakken et al., 2011). ...
... It was hypothesized that PF and EMG would be significantly higher in the foot down condition, indicating that the feet play a role in body stabilization and thus force production in the bench press. Force production and 1RM values during bench press variations have been investigated by several studies (Anderson & Behm, 2004;Cotterman et al., 2005;Koshida et al., 2008;Saeterbakken & Fimland, 2013;Saeterbakken et al., 2011;Santana et al., 2007;Stock, Beck, Defreitas, & Dillon, 2010;Zemková et al., 2014). Anderson and Behm (2004) reported a 59.6% decrease in force output of isometric bench press when performed on a Swiss ball. ...
... In addition to kinetic variables, much of the previous research has examined EMG activity with varying stability requirements of upper body presses (Goodman et al., 2008;Marshall & Murphy, 2006;McCaw & Friday, 1994;Norwood et al., 2007;Saeterbakken & Fimland, 2013;Saeterbakken et al., 2011;Santana et al., 2007;Schick et al., 2010;Snarr & Esco, 2013;Stock et al., 2010;Uribe et al., 2010). Although EMG is typically increased with instability, reduced force output suggests this higher activity is due to joint stabilization. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The bench press is a multi-joint exercise commonly used to improve upper body strength. Previous investigations have analyzed kinetic and kinematic variables during different bench press variations. However, no known studies have examined the effect of foot position on force output and muscle activity. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of 3 different foot placements on isometric bench press force and muscle activity. Twenty-one recreationally trained males (age: 22.57 ± 1.36 years; height: 176.95 ± 6.80 cm; body mass: 85.15 ± 12.54 kg) participated in this investigation. Self-reported one-repetition maximum (1RM) of at least body mass was used as inclusion criteria (self-reported absolute 1RM: 119.37 ± 26.44 kg; relative 1RM: 1.40 ± 0.22). Subjects performed the isometric bench press with a normal foot placement with both feet down on the ground (FD), both feet up on the edge of the bench (FU), and both feet resting on an adjacent bench parallel to the ground (FO) in a randomized order. After 2 familiarization trials with FD placement, subjects performed 3 maximum voluntary isometric contractions for approximately 3 s each. Peak force (PF) and average integrated electromyography (avgIEMG) values were recorded for the pectoralis major (PM), anterior deltoid (AD), triceps brachii (TB), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF), and gastrocnemius (G) muscles. PF output for FD, FU, and FO was 1134 ± 295 N, 1182 ± 247 N, and 1161 ± 249 N, respectively. The avgIEMG for the PM with the feet down, up, and out was 1.25 ± 0.50 mV, 1.19 ± 0.46 mV, and 1.20 ± 0.47 mV respectively. The avgIEMG for AD for feet down, up, and out was 3.20 ± 1.18 mV, 3.18 ± 1.23 mV, and 3.12 ± 1.18 mV, respectively. The avgIEMG for TB for feet down, up, and out was 2.26 ± 0.97 mV, 2.17 ± 0.93 mV, and 2.18 ± 0.89 mV, respectively. The avgIEMG for VL for feet up, down, and out was 0.26 ± 0.30 mV, 0.11 ± 0.01 mV, and 0.24 ± 0.25 mV, respectively. The avgIEMG for BF for feet down, up, and out was 0.21 ± 0.22 mV, 0.12 ± 0.05 mV, and 0.16 ± 0.10 mV, respectively. The avgIEMG for G for feet down, up, and out was 0.25 ± 0.14 mV, 0.23 ± 0.11 mV, and 0.20 ± 0.06 mV, respectively. A repeated measures general linear model returned no significant differences between conditions for force or muscle activity. Additionally, a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.54 (sig. = 0.01) indicates a strong relationship between self-reported 1RM and isometric bench press in the foot down position. Different foot positions do not have a significant effect on peak force or muscle activity of upper and lower body muscles during the isometric bench press. In this investigation, the bar was attached to a rack which did not permit lateral, anterior, or posterior motion of the bar. In a free weight bench press where these types of motion are possible, the results may be different. Although force output and muscle activity were not different between isometric conditions, stability may be increased with both feet on the ground during a dynamic movement.
... Kinetic Chain Resistance Training (KCRT) has been widely used to implement a variety of overloads necessary to develop muscular strength, power and/or endurance [1][2][3][4]. KCRT is characterized by total body movements involving a series of multiple rigid and mobile body segments designed to work synergistically in an effort to optimize performance of a given task(s) designed to overload the musculoskeletal system [2]. Here, ground reaction forces are absorbed and transferred in a manner to generate efficiently succinct movement patterns and mimic multi-planer tasks of daily living and sport [1][2][3][4]. ...
... KCRT is characterized by total body movements involving a series of multiple rigid and mobile body segments designed to work synergistically in an effort to optimize performance of a given task(s) designed to overload the musculoskeletal system [2]. Here, ground reaction forces are absorbed and transferred in a manner to generate efficiently succinct movement patterns and mimic multi-planer tasks of daily living and sport [1][2][3][4]. KCRT has been reported to target and promote increases in muscle activation, strength, power, en-durance and proprioception throughout the body [3][4][5]. Such improvements are generally a response of a novel overload and/or the increased frequency and volume of recruited motor units created by multiple body segments acting collectively to manipulate the forces to and from the proximal and distal segments [1][2][3]. ...
... Here, ground reaction forces are absorbed and transferred in a manner to generate efficiently succinct movement patterns and mimic multi-planer tasks of daily living and sport [1][2][3][4]. KCRT has been reported to target and promote increases in muscle activation, strength, power, en-durance and proprioception throughout the body [3][4][5]. Such improvements are generally a response of a novel overload and/or the increased frequency and volume of recruited motor units created by multiple body segments acting collectively to manipulate the forces to and from the proximal and distal segments [1][2][3]. ...
... However, performing chest-press with dumbbells differs from the bench press in kinematics, strength, and muscle activation (Welsch et al. 2005;Saeterbakken et al. 2011;Tillaar and Saeterbakken 2012). Furthermore, unilateral, isoinertial (dynamic) chestpress with loads used to gain strength (< 6RM) has previously been proven difficult to conduct (Santana et al. 2007). Recently, loads (kettlebells and weight plates) have been attached to the barbell using elastic bands to create unstable loads, as the barbell is lowered and lifted, among powerlifters. ...
... Furthermore, greater contralateral activation in the core muscle may be a result of maintaining the hip position on the bench. Similar findings have been observed in the previous studies examining increased stability requirements using unilateral instead of bilateral loads (Saeterbakken and Fimland 2012;Santana et al. 2007). ...
... However, the study had several methodological differences compared to the present which makes the results difficult to compare. The previous studies have examined instability using unstable surfaces (Saeterbakken and Fimland 2013b; Anderson and Behm 2004;Goodman et al. 2008) or unstable loads (Saeterbakken et al. 2011;Welsch et al. 2005;Santana et al. 2007;Kohler et al. 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeTo determine the effects of asymmetric loads on muscle activity with the bench press.Method Seventeen resistance-trained men performed one familiarization session including testing one repetition maximum (1RM) and three 5 repetition maximum (RM) lifts; using symmetric loads, 5% asymmetric loads, and 10% asymmetric loads. The asymmetric loading (i.e., reduced load on one side) was calculated as 5% and 10% of the subject`s 1RM load. In the experimental session, the three conditions of 5RM were conducted with electromyographic activity from the pectoralis major, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, anterior deltoid, posterior deltoid, and external oblique on both sides of the body.ResultsOn the loaded side, asymmetric loads reduced triceps brachii activation compared to symmetric loads, whereas the other muscles demonstrated similar muscle activity between the three conditions. On the de-loaded side, 10% asymmetry in loading resulted in lower pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, and biceps brachii activation compared to 5% asymmetric and symmetric loading. On the de-loaded side, only pectoralis major demonstrated lower muscle activation than symmetric loads. Furthermore, asymmetric loads increased external oblique activation on both sides compared to symmetric loads.Conclusions Asymmetric bench press loads reduced chest and shoulder muscle activity on the de-loaded side while maintaining the muscle activity for the loaded side. The authors recommend resistance-trained participants struggling with strength imbalances between sides, or activities require asymmetric force generation (i.e., alpine skiing or martial arts), to implement asymmetric training as a supplement to the traditional resistance training.
... With the increased interest in functional training, there has been a resurgent interest in cable training systems and a concomitant increase in the production and evolution of these machines. Although cables are part of the linkages within many resistance training machines, cable training machines, where the cables and handles constitute the human with machine interface, are now gaining popularity (2,11,15). The clinical relevance of these machines to functional training is supported by the concept of movement specificity. ...
... In a study that compared cable training with more traditional resistance training modalities, Santana et al. (15) noted that the activation of the chest and shoulder muscles during cable training was dependent on the levels of stabilization afforded by the lower body and core muscles, limiting the levels of muscle activation during the cable chest press compared with the traditional bench press. In addition to the muscle utilization patterns noted above, a second biomechanical consideration associated with targeted training prescription is joint angle specificity. ...
... One explanation for this pattern is the variation in resistance between the 2 exercises (cable, 13. along with the high level of stabilization provided by the plate-loaded machine's seatback. The differences in training loads and muscle activation patterns seen in the current study are reflective of those seen in a similar study performed by Santana et al. (15); however, unequivocal comparison between the 2 studies is limited by their study design, which did not offer a direct comparison of muscle activation patterns between machines and used a single arm rather than bilateral cable press. The higher activity levels for the RA and EO during cable vs. plate machine training is expected because of the need to stabilize the trunk during the standing cable exercise vs. the external stability offered by the cable machine seatback. ...
Poster
Cable machines (CABLE) have become increasingly popular tools for resistance training; however, the relative impacts of plate-loaded machines (PLATE) versus CABLE on muscle utilization patterns and related kinematics is unclear. PURPOSE: To examine differences in muscle activity and kinematics between CABLE and PLATE. METHODS: Healthy participants (9M, 6F, height = 1.75 ± .07 m, mass = 75.70 ± 11.79 kg, age = 24.33 ± 4.88 yrs) completed 5 repetitions of overhead press, bicep curl, and chest press exercises with 8-RM loads on PLATE and CABLE in a randomized order. Muscular activities (rmsEMG, μV) of the pectoralis major (PM), anterior deltoid (AD), biceps brachii long head (BB), rectus abdominus (RA), external oblique (EO), and triceps brachii lateral head (TB) were measured using surface electromyography. Joint range of motion (ROM, rad) of the shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee was recorded using a high speed camera and assessed using Kinovea biomechanical analysis software. Independent-samples t-tests were conducted to examine the differences in rmsEMG and ROM between the CABLE and PLATE for each exercise. RESULTS: Significantly higher rmsEMG values were observed during the biceps curl on CABLE in the PM (Mdiff ± SE = 68.99 ± 25.55, p = .017) and AD (Mdiff ± SE = 77.31 ± 24.10, p = .06), along with greater shoulder ROM (Mdiff ± SE = 7.51 ± 3.44, p = .036). The chest press produced significantly higher rmsEMG on CABLE in the BB (Mdiff ± SE = 120.24 ± 26.59, p < .001), RA (Mdiff ±SE = 39.78 ± 17.47, p = .039), and EO (Mdiff ± SE = 16.05 ± 5.93, p = .017), and significantly higher rmsEMG on PLATE in the TB (Mdiff ± SE = 157.35 ± 31.33, p < .001). CABLE also displayed significantly greater hip ROM (Mdiff ± SE = .037 ± .011, p < .001), knee ROM (Mdiff ± SE = .107, p < .001), and shoulder ROM (Mdiff ± SE = 1.277 ± .080, p < .001) for this exercise. The overhead press produced higher rmsEMG on the CABLE in the BB (Mdiff ± SE= 117.32 ± 25.82, p < .001) and EO (Mdiff ± SE = 11.60 ±3.82, p = .009) and significantly greater hip ROM (Mdiff ± SE = .037 ± .011, p < .001), knee ROM (Mdiff ± SE = .107, p < .001), and shoulder ROM (Mdiff ± SE = 1.277 ± .080, p < .001) than PLATE. CONCLUSION: Our results argue for the use of CABLE over PLATE for increased muscle activation and ROM; however, their relative impacts on power, strength and functionality remain undetermined.
... Core muscle activation has been compared in different conditions of strength training exercises. For example, performing exercises in standing instead of seated/supine [17,18] and unilateral instead of bilateral [11,16,[19][20][21] increased the core muscle activation. In addition, several studies have compared the core muscle activation performing different isometric core exercises targeting isolated muscles (i.e. ...
... jogging, stairs climbing or jumping) [32]. The lunge is performed unilaterally and in a standing position which increases the stability requirement of the core [17,18,20] and integrates the core muscles in the kinetic chain with the lower extremity muscles. To our knowledge, only Ekstrom et al. [33] have compared the lunge exercise with traditional core exercises. ...
... Surface EMG electrodes were positioned on the rectus abdominis (3 cm lateral to the umbilicus), the oblique externus (approximately 15 cm from the umbilicus), and the erector spinae (at L1 and 3 cm lateral to the spinous process) (5,17,25). Prior to the placement of the gelcoated self-adhesive electrodes (Dri-Stick Silver Circular sEMG Electrodes AE-131, Neuro-Dyne Medical, USA), the skin was shaved, washed with alcohol, and abraded (17). The electrodes (contact diameter = 11 mm, centre-to-centre distance = 20 mm) were placed on the core contralateral to the side of the dominant leg (5,26). ...
Article
Full-text available
Integrated exercises that mimic daily tasks are generally preferred for improving performance and the later stages of rehabilitation, but it is unknown whether integrated core exercises are better than isolated core exercises at improving muscle activation for hypertrophy. The aim of the study was to compare the electromyographic (EMG) activity in rectus abdominis, oblique externus, and erector spinae while performing three conditions of integrated core exercises (lunges) with three isolated core exercises (prone bridge, side bridge and back extension). The three conditions of lunges were: on a stable surface, unstable surface and with external resistance to the trunk using an elastic band. The external resistance was measured with a force cell and peaked at 75N. After one familiarization session, all exercises were performed in one experimental session in randomized order. The isolated core exercises were performed in 20 seconds and the time performing the five repetitions with lunges was matched (20 seconds). Significantly greater peak normalized EMG activity were observed in the isolated core exercises compared to the three integrated core exercises (P
... With the increased interest in functional training, there has been a resurgent interest in cable training systems and a concomitant increase in the production and evolution of these machines. Although cables are part of the linkages within many resistance training machines, cable training machines, where the cables and handles constitute the human with machine interface, are now gaining popularity (2,11,15). The clinical relevance of these machines to functional training is supported by the concept of movement specificity. ...
... In a study that compared cable training with more traditional resistance training modalities, Santana et al. (15) noted that the activation of the chest and shoulder muscles during cable training was dependent on the levels of stabilization afforded by the lower body and core muscles, limiting the levels of muscle activation during the cable chest press compared with the traditional bench press. In addition to the muscle utilization patterns noted above, a second biomechanical consideration associated with targeted training prescription is joint angle specificity. ...
... One explanation for this pattern is the variation in resistance between the 2 exercises (cable, 13. along with the high level of stabilization provided by the plate-loaded machine's seatback. The differences in training loads and muscle activation patterns seen in the current study are reflective of those seen in a similar study performed by Santana et al. (15); however, unequivocal comparison between the 2 studies is limited by their study design, which did not offer a direct comparison of muscle activation patterns between machines and used a single arm rather than bilateral cable press. The higher activity levels for the RA and EO during cable vs. plate machine training is expected because of the need to stabilize the trunk during the standing cable exercise vs. the external stability offered by the cable machine seatback. ...
Article
Cable resistance training machines are showing resurgent popularity and allow greater number of degrees of freedom than typical selectorized equipment. Given that specific kinetic chains are used during distinct activities of daily living (ADL), cable machines may provide more effective interventions for some ADL, while others may be best addressed using selectorized equipment. This study examined differences in activity levels (rmsEMG) of six major muscles (Pectoralis major, PM; Anterior deltoid, AD; Biceps brachii, BB; Rectus abdominis, RA; External obliques, EO; and Triceps brachii; TB) and kinematics of multiple joints between a cable and standard selectorized machines during the biceps curl, the chest press and the overhead press performed at 1.5s per contractile stage. Fifteen individuals (9M, 6F; mean age ±SD, 24.33 ± 4.88 y) participated. Machine order was randomized. Significant differences favoring cable training were seen for PM and AD during biceps curl, BB, AD and EO for chest press, and BB and EO during overhead press (p<.05). Greater starting and ending angles were seen for the elbow and shoulder joints during selectorized biceps curl, while hip and knee starting and ending angles were greater for cable machine during chest and overhead presses (p<.0001). Greater range of motion (ROM) favoring the cable machine was also evident (p<.0001). These results indicate that utilization patterns of selected muscles, joint angles and ROMs can be varied due to machine application even when similar exercises are employed and therefore these machines can be used selectively in training programs requiring specific motor or biomechanical patterns.
... The diversity in research objectives resulted in variability of observed participants, although all studies referred to RT men but represented different sport disciplines and different performance levels. The included studies were similar in the number of participants (11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22) and their ages (21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30)(31)(32)(33)(34)(35), which means that our outcomes should be interpreted specifically for male subjects of this age group. Although there were differences in the study outcomes, their results provided a sufficient amount of normalized data to answer the first research question and six different conditions that cause changes in muscle activity during the BP. ...
... Therefore, the surface EMG signal must be measured at a known joint angle or at least a known speed of movement, which was reflected in the full text exclusion criteria. Of the studies included in the current review, only one study reported the joint angles in conjunction with EMG during dynamic BP [17]; however, some studies graphically reported the EMG in relation to a percentage of movement phase [30][31][32][33], but they did not provide angle-specific data. One study reported angle-specific muscle activity in an isometric condition with vibration [13]. ...
Article
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Background The bench press exercise (BP) plays an important role in recreational and professional training, in which muscle activity is an important multifactorial phenomenon. The objective of this paper is to systematically review electromyography (EMG) studies performed on the barbell BP exercise to answer the following research questions: Which muscles show the greatest activity during the flat BP? Which changes in muscle activity are related to specific conditions under which the BP movement is performed? Strategy PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library were searched through June 10, 2016. A combination of the following search terms was used: bench press, chest press, board press, test, measure, assessment, dynamometer, kinematics and biomechanics. Only original, full-text articles were considered. Results The search process resulted in 14 relevant studies that were included in the discussion. The triceps brachii (TB) and pectoralis major (PM) muscles were found to have similar activity during the BP, which was significantly higher than the activity of the anterior deltoid. During the BP movement, muscle activity changes with exercise intensity, velocity of movement, fatigue, mental focus, movement phase and stability conditions, such as bar vibration or unstable surfaces. Under these circumstances, TB is the most common object of activity change. Conclusions PM and TB EMG activity is more dominant and shows greater EMG amplitude than anterior deltoid during the BP. There are six factors that can influence muscle activity during the BP; however, the most important factor is exercise intensity, which interacts with all other factors. The research on muscle activity in the BP has several unresolved areas, such as clearly and strongly defined guidelines to perform EMG measurements (e.g., how to elaborate with surface EMG limits) or guidelines for the use of exact muscle models.
... The IMSP also targets very high AD activity such as the peck deck (Rocha, Gentil, Oliveira, & Do Carmo, 2007), bench press (117.2% MVIC; Santana et al., 2007), standing cable press (120.5% MVIC; Santana et al., 2007), Smith machine BP (McCaw & Friday, 1994;Schick et al., 2010), dumbbell press and the flat BP (Saeterbakken, van den Tillaar, & Fimland, 2011). Therefore, we can conclude that all upper limb presses are exercises that significantly activate the AD. ...
... The IMSP also targets very high AD activity such as the peck deck (Rocha, Gentil, Oliveira, & Do Carmo, 2007), bench press (117.2% MVIC; Santana et al., 2007), standing cable press (120.5% MVIC; Santana et al., 2007), Smith machine BP (McCaw & Friday, 1994;Schick et al., 2010), dumbbell press and the flat BP (Saeterbakken, van den Tillaar, & Fimland, 2011). Therefore, we can conclude that all upper limb presses are exercises that significantly activate the AD. ...
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Background: The incline machine shoulder press (IMSP) is an alternative resistance exercise to the bench press associated with throwing performance. The muscle activity during IMSP has not yet been described in females and at different exercises intensities. Objectives: The aim of this present study was to investigate changes in the activity of prime movers during the IMSP in relation to the exercise intensity in female athletes. Methods: Eight female athletes experienced in resistance training were screened for peak electromyography amplitude normalized for maximum voluntary isometric contraction during the IMSP with increasing loads of 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). The selected muscles were the anterior deltoid (AD), pectoralis major (PM), triceps brachii long head (TBlong) and triceps brachii lateral head (TBlat). Results: The results of Friedman ANOVA showed increased muscle activity along with exercise intensity in all prime movers (p <.001). The Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA showed inter-muscle differences at exercise intensity of 40% 1RM (p =.004, η ²p =.52), 60% 1RM (p =.005, η ²p =.55), 80% 1RM (p =.035, η ²p =.46) and 100% 1RM (p =.002, η ²p =.52), where TBlat showed lower activity than other muscle groups at each exercise intensity. The TBlong showed lower activity than the PM and AD at 40% 1RM, and the PM activity was lower than that of AD and TBlong at 100% 1RM. Conclusions: The IMSP is an exercise which activated AD and TBlong more than PM and TBlat during maximal lifting effort. Therefore, the IMSP should be understood as the exercise which might substantially overload the AD and TBlong during maximal lifts. Coaches should use the IMSP if they desire to activate TBlong more than TBlat during upper limb pressing.
... Therefore, the effects after an acute bout of whole-body free-weight resistance exercises on cardiovasculature control should be elucidated. This is important because cardiovascular responses to free-weights may differ in comparison to weight machines since free-weights may have a higher muscular activation in main (9), agonist (25) and/or stabilizing muscles (33). This higher muscle mass involved may lead to a transient increase in central arterial stiffness (11) modulated by increased sympathetic neural activation after exercise (34). ...
... (18,31), which is a novel finding. A candidate for the increased vagal withdrawal in our free-weight protocol in comparison with other protocols with weight machines is the raised glycolytic Copyright ª 2016 National Strength and Conditioning Association A C C E P T E D involvement during the resistance exercise provoked by the higher metaboreflex activation due to a large participation of the main (9), agonist (25) and/or stabilizing muscles (33). In turn, this may provoke a higher parasympathetic withdrawal (28). ...
Poster
Vascular Responses Following an Acute Bout of Resistance Exercise in Resistance-trained Individuals: 1401 Board #54 June 2, 8: 00 AM - 9: 30 AM
... While Fahs et al. (2009) utilized free weights, the exercise regime consisted of the bench press and the biceps curl, not a whole-body routine [8]. The differences in responses of the vasculature after an acute bout of free-weight exercises compared to weight machines may be attributed to greater activation of primary muscles [9], agonist muscles [10], and/or stabilizing muscles [11]. The difference in muscle activation may make it difficult to compare the responses of free-weight exercises to those of weight machines. ...
... In regards to changes that are specific for resistance exercise, a previous study has argued that a large total volume of resistance exercise is essential to the onset of post-exercise hypotension [25]. However, our study, with a low total exercise volume and a higher muscle mass recruitment due to the involvement of the primary [9], agonist [10], and stabilizing [11] muscles of free-weight exercises, may have displaced the importance of the total volume to a secondary role. In this sense, the muscle mass involved is another important co-factor in the onset of post-exercise hypotension [26]. ...
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We determined the effects of an acute bout of free-weight resistance exercise (ARE) on cardiovascular hemodynamics and endothelial function in resistance-trained individuals. Nineteen young, healthy, resistance-trained individuals performed two randomized sessions consisting of ARE or a quiet control (CON). The ARE consisted of three sets of 10 repetitions at 75% 1-repetition maximum for the squat, bench press, and deadlift. Cardiovascular hemodynamics was assessed using finger photoplethysmography. Forearm blood flow (FBF), and vasodilatory capacity markers, were assessed using venous occlusion plethysmography. Forearm vascular conductance was calculated by the division of mean FBF by mean arterial pressure. A two-way ANOVA was used to compare the effects of condition (ARE, CON) across time (rest, recovery). There were significant (p ≤ 0.05) decreases in mean arterial pressure and total peripheral resistance across conditions and time. There were significant condition-by-time interactions (p ≤ 0.05) for heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output after the ARE compared to the CON and rest. FBF was significantly (p = 0.001) increased during the recovery from ARE, as well as vasodilatory capacity markers such as peak blood flow (p = 0.05) and reactive hyperemia-induced blood flow (p = 0.0001). These data suggest that whole-body free-weight exercises acutely reduced blood pressure while simultaneously augmenting FBF, and vasodilatory capacity markers.
... Therefore, the effects after an acute bout of whole-body free-weight resistance exercises on cardiovasculature control should be elucidated. This is important because cardiovascular responses to free-weights may differ in comparison to weight machines since free-weights may have a higher muscular activation in main (9), agonist (25) and/or stabilizing muscles (33). This higher muscle mass involved may lead to a transient increase in central arterial stiffness (11) modulated by increased sympathetic neural activation after exercise (34). ...
... (18,31), which is a novel finding. A candidate for the increased vagal withdrawal in our free-weight protocol in comparison with other protocols with weight machines is the raised glycolytic Copyright ª 2016 National Strength and Conditioning Association A C C E P T E D involvement during the resistance exercise provoked by the higher metaboreflex activation due to a large participation of the main (9), agonist (25) and/or stabilizing muscles (33). In turn, this may provoke a higher parasympathetic withdrawal (28). ...
Article
We investigated the effects of an acute bout of free-weight, whole-body resistance exercise consisting of the squat, bench press, and deadlift on arterial stiffness and cardiac autonomic modulation in sixteen (aged 23±3 yrs; mean±SD) resistance-trained individuals. Arterial stiffness, autonomic modulation and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were assessed at rest and following 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 75% 1 repetition maximum on each exercise with two minutes of rest between sets and exercises. Arterial stiffness was analyzed using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV). Linear heart rate variability (HRV) (log transformed (ln) absolute and normalized units (nu) of low- (LF) and high-frequency (HF) power) and nonlinear heart rate complexity (Sample Entropy (SampEn), Lempel-Ziv Entropy (LZEn)) were measured to determine autonomic modulation. BRS was measured by the sequence method. A 2x2 repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze time (rest, recovery) across condition (acute resistance exercise, control). There were significant increases in cf-PWV (p=0.05), heart rate (p=0.0001), normalized LF (LFnu; p=0.001), and the LF/HF ratio (p=0.0001). Interactions were also noted for ln HF (p=0.006), HFnu (p=0.0001), SampEn (p=0.001), LZEn (p=0.005), and BRS (p=0.0001) such that they significantly decreased during recovery from the resistance exercise compared to rest and the control. There was no effect on ln total power, or ln LF. These data suggest that a bout of resistance exercise using free-weights increases arterial stiffness and reduces vagal activity and BRS in comparison with a control session. Vagal tone may not be fully recovered up to 30 minutes after a resistance exercise bout.
... However, many studies examining aortic wave reflection characteristics after ARE have primarily focused on resistance exercise machines (DeVan et al., 2005;Yoon et al., 2010), with a few exceptions (Fahs et al., 2009). The differences in haemodynamics and aortic wave reflection in response to an acute bout of freeweight exercises compared to resistance exercise machines stem from greater recruitment of primary muscles (Escamilla et al., 2001), agonist muscles (McCaw & Friday, 1994) and/or stabilizing muscles (Santana et al., 2007). This may make it difficult to compare the responses of free-weight resistance exercises to those of resistance exercise machines. ...
... However, we did note a non-significant increase in BSBP (5 mmHg). This non-significant increase in BSBP may result from the greater recruitment of primary muscles (Escamilla et al., 2001), agonist muscles (McCaw & Friday, 1994) and/or stabilizing muscles (Santana et al., 2007) in response to acute bout of free-weight resistance exercise than resistance exercise machines. In addition, the increase in BSBP may have physiological implications for individuals with hypertension which choose to perform high-intensity free-weight resistance exercise. ...
Article
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Aortic wave reflection characteristics such as the augmentation index (AIx), wasted left ventricular pressure energy (ΔEw) and aortic haemodynamics, such as aortic systolic blood pressure (ASBP), strongly predict cardiovascular events. The effects of acute resistance exercise (ARE) using free-weight exercises on these characteristics are unknown. Therefore, we sought to determine the effects of acute free-weight resistance exercise on aortic wave reflection characteristics and aortic haemodynamics in resistance-trained individuals. Fifteen young, healthy resistance-trained (9 ± 3 years) individuals performed two randomized sessions consisting of an acute bout of free-weight resistance exercise (ARE) or a quiet control (CON). The ARE consisted of three sets of 10 repetitions at 75% one repetition maximum for squat, bench press and deadlift. In CON, the participants rested in the supine position for 30 min. Measurements were made at baseline before sessions and 10 min after sessions. A two-way ANOVA was used to compare the effects of condition across time. There were no significant interactions for aortic or brachial blood pressures. Compared to rest, there were significant increases in augmentation pressure (rest: 5·7 ± 3·0 mmHg; recovery: 10·4 ± 5·7 mmHg, P = 0·002), AIx (rest: 116·8 ± 4·2%; recovery: 123·2 ± 8·4%, P = 0·002), AIx normalized at 75 bpm (rest: 5·2 ± 7·6%; recovery: 27·3 ± 13·2%, P<0·0001), ΔEw (rest: 1215 ± 674 dynes s cm−2; recovery: 2096 ± 1182 dynes s cm−2, P = 0·008), and there was a significant decrease in transit time of the reflected wave (rest: 150·7 ± 5·8 ms; recovery 145·5 ± 5·6 ms, P<0·001) during recovery from ARE compared to CON. These data suggest that ARE using free-weight exercises may have no effect on aortic and brachial blood pressure but may significantly alter aortic wave reflection characteristics.
... In analyzing the underlying mechanisms of the sticking region in the bench press movement of a representative subject, Elliott et al. (4) reported alterations in the barbell path, force profile, and myoelectric signals of bench presses performed at differing loads. Santana et al. (25) presented a time history of normalized electromyographic (EMG) amplitudes and trunk kinematics for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) traditional bench press and a standing cable press, of a random subject, to better understand the biomechanical limitations of pushing. Drinkwater et al. (2), on the other hand, employed an optical encoder to determine the power changes during the initial acceleration and sticking region throughout fatiguing repeated bench press training. ...
... These muscle forces are the main cause, apart from gravity forces, of the motion of the upper limbs and the barbell. According to various authors (1,4,21,25), analysis of the internal structure of 4 main shoulder muscles involved in flat bench pressing, indicates that the muscle activity in the descent phase is much less than in the ascent phase. The present findings confirmed these results (Table 2). ...
Article
Kro´ l, H and Goła´s, A. Effect of barbell weight on the structure of the flat bench press. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1321–1337, 2017—In this study, we have used the multimodular measuring system SMART. The system consisted of 6 infrared cameras and a wireless module to measure muscle bioelectric activity. In addition, the path of the barbell was measured with a special device called the pantograph. Our study concerns the change in the structure of the flat bench press when the weight of the barbell is increased. The research on the bench press technique included both the causes of the motion: the internal structure of the movement and the external kinematic structure showing the effects of the motion, i.e., all the characteristics of the movement. Twenty healthy, male recreational weight trainers with at least 1 year of lifting experience (the mean 6 SD = 3.3 6 1.6 years) were recruited for this study. The subjects had a mean body mass of 80.2 6 8.6 kg, an average height of 1.77 6 0.08 m, and their average age was 24.7 6 0.9 years. In the measuring session, the participants performed consecutive sets of a single repetition of bench pressing with an increasing load (about 70, 80, 90, and 100% of their 1 repetition maximum [1RM]). The results showed a significant change in the phase structure of the bench press, as the barbell weight was increased. While doing the bench press at a 100% 1RM load, the pectoralis major changes from being the prime mover to being the supportive prime mover. At the same time, the role of the prime mover is taken on by the deltoideus anterior. The triceps brachii, in particular, clearly shows a greater involvement.
... Previous research has shown that performing resistance exercises unilaterally or bilaterally affects trunk muscle activation differently [3,16,18]. This is generally explained by an increase in the activation of the contralateral side during unilateral exercises to avoid postural sway, especially when the weight is lifted in a trajectory lateral to the trunk. ...
... The lack of differences for the external oblique was in line with our previous study on the Russian swing [2] but not with previous strength exercise studies on the squat, row, and shoulder press [1,3,[16][17][18]. These studies examined more traditional exercises and generally showed that unilateral execution increased the trunk muscle activation on the contralateral side compared to bilateral execution. ...
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The aim of the study was to compare the one-armed vs. two-armed American kettlebell swing on trunk muscle activation. Fifteen resistance-trained men performed ten repetitions of both exercises using a 14-kg kettlebell. Surface EMG from the erector spinae, rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles were collected on both sides of the trunk. The erector spinae activation during the one-armed swing was 14–25% higher on the contralateral compared to the ipsilateral side in both exercises (Cohen’s d effect size [ES]=0.41–0.71, p ˂ 0.001–0.034). Further, the contralateral side was 14% more activated during the two-armed swing compared to the ipsilateral side during the one-armed swing (ES=0.43, p=0.009). For the rectus abdominis muscle, the two-armed swing induced higher activation of the rectus abdominis compared to the one-armed swing on both the contralateral (40%, ES=0.48, p=0.040) and ipsilateral side (59%, ES=0.83, p=0.002). There were no differences for the external oblique muscle (p=0.495–0.662). In conclusion, the trunk activation patterns of the two exercises were different, which could be explained by different biomechanics in the two exercises, and could thus have complimentary effects. We recommend that both unilateral and bilateral execution of the American kettlebell swing is included over time.
... Among different isometric plank exercises, the supine version has demonstrated the highest muscle activity for the back muscles (Ekstrom et al., 2007;Imai et al., 2010;Lehman et al., 2005).Moreover, this exercise can easily be modified to increase muscle activity and level of difficulty. For example, using unilateral variations and unstable bases during the supine plank generally provides greater neuromuscular challenges compared with the regular version of the exercise (Feldwieser et al., 2012).Specifically, unilateral exercises generally shows higher activity than bilateral exercises at both ipsilateral and contralateral sides during planks (Feldwieser et al., 2012), and also higher contralateral activity in other typical upper-body exercises (Saeterbakken and Fimland, 2012;Santana et al., 2007). Regarding the plank exercise, the increased EMG might be a consequence of counteracting gravity forces and counteracting the base support reduction while having to maintain the same position (Feldwieser et al., 2012). ...
... Unilateral exercises enhance contralateral muscle activity to maintain the proper position during the plank exercise (Feldwieser et al., 2012). In line with these idea, previous studies reported greater OBLIQ activation during other exercises as an unilateral dumbbell shoulder press (Saeterbakken and Fimland, 2012), a standing cable press (Santana et al., 2007) or during unilateral battle rope waves (Calatayud et al., 2015) in comparison with bilateral counterparts. ...
Article
Background Exercises providing neuromuscular challenges of the spinal muscles are desired for core stability, which is important for workers with heavy manual labour as well as people recovering from back pain. Purpose This study evaluated whether using a suspended modality increases trunk muscle activity during unilateral or bilateral isometric supine planks. Design Cross-sectional. Methods Twenty university students participated in this cross-sectional study. Each subject performed four different conditions: bilateral stable supine plank, unilateral stable supine plank, bilateral suspended supine plank and unilateral suspended supine plank. Surface electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded for the upper rectus abdominis (UP ABS), lower rectus abdominis (LOW ABS), external oblique (OBLIQ) and lumbar erector spinae (LUMB). Peak EMG of the filtered signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Results No differences between exercises were found for UP ABS, LOW ABS and OBLIQ muscle activity. The unilateral suspended supine plank provided the highest LUMB activity (20% of MVIC) whiles the bilateral stable supine plank provided the lowest activity (11% of MVIC). Conclusions The combination of unilateral variations with a suspended support provides the greatest LUMB muscle activity, while using these variations separately only provides advantages when compared with regular planks.
... Changes in the pattern of muscle activity during the bench press have been well described in the literature, yet no studies have compared EMG activity between women and men. In most of the studies that have examined men, the increase in the activity in the pectoralis major muscle was noticeable from the load of 80% of 1RM [21,24,25], whereas the increase in activity of this muscle in women occurred even at the maximal load. The results obtained in our study show that the increase in the load from 55% to 100% of 1RM during the flat bench press in men leads to an increase in activity of the triceps brachii muscle (long head) and ...
... The motor unit recruitment and firing rate to execute intended movements are regulated by the descending command from the central nervous system and can be modulated by afferent feedback during muscular weakness or fatigue [20]. The activity was recorded for the most important muscles of the shoulder girdle [21] involved in the bench press. These include the pectoralis major (the sternal head), deltoid (anterior head) and triceps brachii (the lateral and long head). ...
Article
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The bench press (BP) is a complex upper body exercise in which substantial external loads can be used, demanding high neuromuscular activity. The aim of this study was to compare electromyographic (EMG) activity between female and male athletes during the flat bench press. Five male and five female athletes participated in this study. The main session included four sets of one repetition of the flat bench press with the load of 55, 70, 85 and 100% of the one-repetition maximum (1RM). The activity of four muscles was analysed: the pectoralis major (PM), the anterior deltoid (AD), the lateral head of the triceps brachii (TBlat) and the long head of the triceps brachii (TBlong). The main finding of the study was that the muscle activity pattern differed between women and men during the bench press depending on the external load. The non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA for males showed differences between the TLpeak values recorded for different loads (55%-100% 1RM) during the bench press (chi-square = 15.3, p = 0.009) and ADpeak (chi-square = 19.5, p = 0.001). The non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA for females showed differences between the ADpeak values recorded for different loads (55%-100% 1RM) during the bench press (chi-square = 12.1, p = 0.018).
... Therefore, it is no surprise that in unstable conditions several studies reported maximal loads (far) below measured values in stable conditions. Sometimes this goes hand in hand with less activation in the target muscles [164,166,167,173,[178][179][180][181][182], and this could actually imply that activity in the core muscles has also been reduced [166,183]. If 1RM is determined in both conditions (stable vs. unstable surface) and training loads are extracted based on these measurements, the problem of light intensities becomes even more obvious. ...
Article
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Over the last two decades, exercise of the core muscles has gained major interest in professional sports. Research has focused on injury prevention and increasing athletic performance. We analyzed the guidelines for so-called functional strength training for back pain prevention and found that programs were similar to those for back pain rehabilitation; even the arguments were identical. Surprisingly, most exercise specifications have neither been tested for their effectiveness nor compared with the load specifications normally used for strength training. Analysis of the scientific literature on core stability exercises shows that adaptations in the central nervous system (voluntary activation of trunk muscles) have been used to justify exercise guidelines. Adaptations of morphological structures, important for the stability of the trunk and therefore the athlete’s health, have not been adequately addressed in experimental studies or in reviews. In this article, we explain why the guidelines created for back pain rehabilitation are insufficient for strength training in professional athletes. We critically analyze common concepts such as ‘selective activation’ and training on unstable surfaces.
... Depending on anthropometric variables and movement technique, muscular activity patterns vary during the BP, but researchers agree that the 3 primary muscle groups involved during the BP include the pectoralis major (PM), anterior deltoid (AD), and triceps brachii (TB) (13,26,28). Although the analysis of muscular activity during the BP has been described extensively in the literature (13,19,20,24,29), research investigating the effects of PE during the BP is scarce. Only 2 studies have assessed muscle activity during the BP before and after PE: one study using 10 repetition maximum (RM) loads for the peck deck as a PE exercise (8) and the other using a 10RM load during the dumbbell fly exercise (2). ...
Article
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Pre-exhaustion (PE) has been applied in resistance training to manipulate the order of performing two resistance exercises, a single joint exercise to momentary exhaustion, followed by a multi-joint movement which includes the same muscle group. This method ensures greater recruitment of muscles or muscle groups in the multi-joint exercise to further increase muscle strength and overcome strength plateaus. The purpose of the present study was to investigate muscle activity by electromyography during high-intensity (95% of 1 repetition maximum) bench press (BP), before and after PE of the pectoralis major (PM), anterior deltoid (AD) and triceps brachii (TB) muscles in order to determine the effects of PE of the prime movers. Eight healthy athletes, experienced in resistance training, participated in the study. There were four sessions of the experiment. Session 1 was aimed at determination of one repetition maximum during a flat BP. Session 2, 3 and 4 consisted of performing a BP after PE of the muscles studied by the incline dumbbell fly, front deltoid raise, and lying triceps extension exercise. Peak concentric TB activation following TB PE (mean ± SD, 147.76 ± 18.6%) was significantly greater by ANOVA (η2=0.82, F=5.45, p=0.004) compared to peak TB activation (114.77 ± 19.4%) before TB PE. The statistical analysis for PM and AD did not show any significant differences. Coaches should not expect the usefulness of PE protocol to elicit higher PM or AD activity or fatigue, but they can use it to increase TB activity before high intensity BP exercise.
... It is worth noting that the external load alters the change in the pattern of muscle activity; for example, at maximal load, the pectoralis major acts as the supportive prime mover while the anterior deltoid becomes the prime mover [9]. Moreover, it should be taken into consideration that muscle activity may change depending on the bench press technique modifications or application of variable resistance [10,11]. Recruitment of motor units and the frequency of stimulations increase in parallel with the increase in external load, resulting in the achievement of the desired muscle tension and greater force [9]. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to compare the muscle activity between the sling shot assisted (SS) and control (CONT) flat barbell bench press for selected external loads of 70%, 85%, 100% one-repetition maximum (1RM). Ten resistance-trained men participated in the study (age = 22.2 ± 1.9 years, body mass = 88.7 ± 11.2 kg, body height = 179.5 ± 4.1, 1RM in the bench press = 127.25 ± 25.86 kg, and strength training experience = 6 ± 2.5 years). Evaluation of peak muscle activity of the dominant body side was carried out using surface electromyography (sEMG) recorded for the triceps brachii, pectoralis major, and anterior deltoid during each attempt. The three-way repeated measure ANOVA revealed statistically significant main interaction for condition x muscle group (p < 0.01; η 2 = 0.569); load x muscle group (p < 0.01; η 2 = 0.709); and condition x load (p < 0.01; η 2 = 0.418). A main effect was also observed for condition (p < 0.01; η 2 = 0.968); load (p < 0.01; η 2 = 0.976); and muscle group (p < 0.01; η 2 = 0.977). The post hoc analysis for the main effect of the condition indicated statistically significant decrease in %MVIC for the SS compared to CONT condition (74.9 vs. 88.9%MVIC; p < 0.01; ES = 0.39). The results of this study showed that using the SS significantly affects the muscle activity pattern of the flat bench press and results in its acute decrease in comparison to an equal load under CONT conditions. The SS device may be an effective tool both in rehabilitation and strength training protocols by increasing stability with a reduction of muscular activity of the prime movers.
... Thus, HS and BP exercises were selected since trunk muscles are more activated in standing free-weight exercises compared with weight machines in which trunk is resting on the backrest (Santana, Vera-Garcia, & McGill, 2007); and also because they mimic real actions that take place in the daily living, such as chair rising or lifting an object to place it on an overhead shelf, respectively. ...
Article
To investigate the short and long time effects of concurrent strength and high intensity interval training (HIIT) on octogenarian COPD patients, nine males (age=84.2 ± 2.8 yrs, BMI=29.3 ± 2.3), with low to severe COPD level (2.1 ± 1.5 BODE index), underwent a supervised 9-week strength and HIIT exercise program. Training had a significant (P<0.05) impact on senior fitness test scores (23-45%), 30m walking speed (from 1.29 ± 0.29 to 1.62 ± 0.33 m/s), leg and chest press 1RM (38 and 45% respectively), maximal isometric strength (30-35%), and 6-minute walking test (from 286.1 ± 107.2 to 396.2 ± 106.5 m) and tended to increase predicted forced vital capacity by 14% (P=0.07). One year after the intervention all training-induced gains returned to their pre-intervention values except for the chest press 1RM (P<0.05). Short-term concurrent strength and HIIT training increases physical fitness in the oldest old COPD patients, and has potential long-term benefits.
... Thus, HS and BP exercises were selected since trunk muscles are more activated in standing free-weight exercises compared with weight machines in which trunk is resting on the backrest (Santana, Vera-Garcia, & McGill, 2007); and also because they mimic real actions that take place in the daily living, such as chair rising or lifting an object to place it on an overhead shelf, respectively. ...
... Thus, HS and BP exercises were selected since trunk muscles are more activated in standing free-weight exercises compared with weight machines in which trunk is resting on the backrest (Santana, Vera-Garcia, & McGill, 2007); and also because they mimic real actions that take place in the daily living, such as chair rising or lifting an object to place it on an overhead shelf, respectively. ...
... According to Professor Stuart McGill's research group 6,7 , a stabilization exercise is any exercise that challenges the spine stability while grooving trunk co-activation patterns that ensure a stable spine. From a practical point of view, these exercises usually consist of holding the spine in a "neutral" position with minimal associated movement, while the trunk is loaded using different strategies, for example: a) moving the upper and/or lower limbs in several positions, such as quadruped (e.g.: "bird-dog") or lying positions (e.g.: "dead-bug") [8][9][10][11][12] ; b) maintaining the pelvis lifted off the floor against gravity in supine, prone or lateral positions (e.g.: "bridging") 8,10,11,13,14 ; c) using different devices such as fitball 9,14-17 , BOSU TM balance trainer 14 , cable pulley machines 18,19 or oscillation poles 20,21 , and d) combining any of the above strategies. ...
Article
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n2p200 The aim of this study was to analyze the trunk muscular response during different variations of some of the most popular stabilization exercises: front-bridge, back-bridge, side-bridge, and bird-dog. Surface electromyography was bilaterally re-corded from rectus abdominis, external and internal oblique and erector spinae during 25 variations of the aforementioned exercises. Compared to the conventional form of the front- and side-bridge, performing these exercises kneeling on a bench or with elbows extended reduced the muscular challenge. Conversely, performing the back-bridge with elbows extended elicited higher muscular activation than the conventional exercise. While bridge exercises with double leg support produced the highest activation levels in those muscles that counteracted gravity, single leg support while bridging increased the activation of the trunk rotators, especially internal oblique. The highest activation levels were found in three exercises: sagittal walkout in a front-bridge position, rolling from right side-bridge into front-bridge position, and side-bridge with single leg support on a BOSUTMbalance trainer. Although the exercises performed on unstable surfaces usu-ally enhanced the muscle activation, performing the exercises on the BOSUTMbalance trainer did not always increase the trunk muscle activity. Overall, this information may be useful to guide fitness instructors and clinicians when establishing stabilization exercise progressions for the trunk musculature.
... Instability applied to resistance training provides different responses than training under stable conditions. Performing resistance exercises on unstable surfaces is reported to increase activation of the core musculature, compared with performing the same exercises under stable conditions, whether the instability is derived from a platform Behm 2004, 2005;Marshall and Murphy 2006b;Santana et al. 2007) or the movement of the limbs Holtzmann et al. 2004;Marshall and Murphy 2006a). However, unilateral resisted actions (whether groundbased or supported on an unstable base) can also provide a disruptive moment arm (torque) to the body, providing an additional means of increasing the core musculature (Behm et al. 2003). ...
... Consider exercises, such as the Paloff press, birddogs, short cable/band rotations, one-arm push-ups, and onearm standing cable presses-all of these are designed to enhance performance of the serape with minimal risk. For example, a staggered stance (left foot forward), contralateral-arm, band or cable press, involves the diagonal core musculature consisting of the right serratus anterior, the right external obliques, left internal obliques, and the left hip flexor/adductor complex (15)(16)(17). ...
Article
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THE PURPOSE OF THIS ARTICLE IS TO EXPAND A CONCEPT SURROUNDING THE ROTATIONAL FUNCTION AND TRAINING OF THE BODY'S CORE. MORE THAN A DECADE AGO, A MODEL WAS PROVIDED BY WHICH TO OBSERVE AND TRAIN THE CORE, WHICH WAS BASED ON A PREVIOUSLY PUBLISHED THEORY REGARDING THE SERAPE EFFECT. THE PURPOSE OF THIS ARTICLE IS TO EXPAND ON THAT MODEL, THE ORIGINAL SERAPE EFFECT, AND TO PROVIDE A MORE COMPLETE MODEL FOR ANALYSIS AND TRAINING OF THE BODY'S CORE.
... The kinematics variables are described by movement acceleration, while the bioelectrical activity can describe the level of muscle excitation. The FBP during 1RM is recognised in importance of electromyography (EMG) mean amplitude for PM, AD and LD (Santana et al., 2007), but their study did not refer to the activity of the TB. In the study of Van Den Tillaar and Ettema (2009), FBP showed the same pattern of muscle activity, yet there were differences in kinematics. ...
Article
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of particular muscle groups during the Flat Bench Press (FBP) with different external loads. Additionally, the authors attempted to determine whether regression models or Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) can predict FBP results more precisely and whether they can optimise the training process. A total of 61 strength-trained athletes performed four single repetitions with 70, 80, 90 and 100% of one repetition maximum (1RM). Based on both kinematic and electromyography results, a regression model and ANNs for predicting the FBP performance was created. In an additional study, 15 athletes performed the training session in order to verify the created model. The results of the investigation show that the created neural models 9-4-1 structure (NRMSE [Normalised Root Mean Squared Error], for the learning series was 0.114, and for the validation and test series 0.133 and 0.118, respectively), offer a much higher quality of prediction than a non-linear regression model (Absolute regression error – Absolute network error =47kg–17kg=30kg).
... They found a stable recruitment pattern between muscles involved in the movement and stabilizing muscles. It has been shown that stabilizing forces are generated by the trunk muscles' activity shortly prior the prime muscles activation (16,36). In the light of these findings, it is reasonable to comprehend why trunk stability is related to the landing A C C E P T E D mechanics and supports the approach of integrated kinetic chain control analysis in this cohort. ...
Article
Sports injuries and athletic performance are complex areas, which are characterized by manifold interdependencies. The landing error scoring system (LESS) is a valid screening tool to examine bilateral jump-landing mechanics. Whereas, the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) items are thought to operationalize flexibility and motor behaviour during low intense bodyweight patterns. The aim of the study was to explore possible interdependency of the diagnostic information of these screening tools. 53 athletes (age 23.3±2.1 yrs.) were tested in a sport scientific lab. In detail, 31 professional soccer players (3 Division) and 22 collegiate athletes were studied. Linear, partial correlational and cluster analysis were performed to examine possible trends. Generally, the sportsmen achieved a LESS score of 6.6±2 and a jumping height of 37±7.8cm. Partial correlational analysis indicates that trunk control (r=0.4; p<0.01) is moderately related to landing mechanics, which in turn was negatively related on LESS height (r=-0.67, p<0.01). In addition, clustering showed by trend, that a higher active straight leg raise (ASLR) score is related to better landing mechanics (ASLR score 1: LESS 6.9±1.8; n=15 vs. ASLR score 3: LESS 5.6±2.1; n=10). On the task-specific level, jump-landing mechanics were directly related to jumping performance in this cohort with poor mechanics. On unspecific analysis level, kinetic chain length (ASLR) and trunk control has been identified as potential moderator variables for landing mechanics, indicating that these parameter can limit landing mechanics and ought to be optimized within the individual´s context. A potential cognitive strategy shift from internal (FMS) to external focus (LESS) as well as different muscle recruitment patterns are potential explanations for the non-significant linear relationship between the FMS and LESS data.
... Used as both a test to measure upper body strength and as one of 3 lifts performed in the sport of powerlifting, the bench press is the focus for many athletes looking to increase upper body strength. Due to its popularity, the bench press has many different forms that are incorporated into various training programs, including inclination of the bench (3) use of machines (16,21,22,23), chains (6,17), and bands (1,5,6,24). Another method is an unstable surface (2,7,9,13,15,25,26) designed to not only work on strength but also add trunk stabilization to the exercise (2,7,11,15,26). ...
Article
Full-text available
The bench press is one of the most commonly used upper body exercises in training and is performed with many different variations, including unstable loads. While there is much research on use of an unstable surface, there is little to none on the use of an unstable load (UL). The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation during the bench press while using a stable load (SL) vs. UL. Twenty resistance trained men (age = 24.1 +/- 2 yrs.; ht = 177.5 +/- 5.8 cm; mass = 88.7 +/- 13.7 kg) completed 2 experimental conditions (SL and UL) at two different intensities (60% and 80% 1RM). UL was achieved by hanging 16kg kettlebells by elastic bands from the end of the bar. All trial lifts were set to a two second cadence with a slight pause at the bottom. Subjects had electrodes attached to 5 muscles (pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, medial deltoid, triceps brachii and latissimus dorsi) and performed three isometric bench press trials to normalize electromyographic data. All five muscles demonstrated significantly greater activation at 80% compared to 60% load and during concentric compared to eccentric actions. These results suggest that upper body muscle activation is not different in the bench press between UL and SL. Therefore, coaches should use their preference when designing training programs.
... Other studies have utilized sEMG to compare which muscles experience the greatest excitation during different exercises (Santana et al., 2007; ...
Preprint
Surface electromyography (sEMG) is a popular research tool in sports and rehabilitation sciences. Common study designs include the comparison of sEMG amplitudes collected from different muscles as participants perform various exercises and techniques under different loads. Based on such comparisons, researchers attempt to draw conclusions concerning the neuro- and electrophysiological underpinning of force production, and hypothesize about possible longitudinal adaptations, such as strength and hypertrophy. However, such conclusions are frequently unsubstantiated and unwarranted. Hence, the goal of this review is to discuss what can and cannot be inferred from comparative research designs as it pertains to both the acute and longitudinal outcomes. General methodological recommendations are made, gaps in the literature are identified, and lines for future research to help improve the applicability of sEMG are suggested.
... Ці м'язи працюють в уступаючому режимі. Тобто, з підвищенням рівня обтяження до 100 %, активність цих м'язів у фазі опускання збільшується[66].За думкою авторів[83], при виконанні жиму штанги лежачи з максимальним обтяженням, велика грудна і передні пучки дельтоподібного м'язи є більш активними, ніж інші м'язи тулуба і верхнього плечового пояса.Польські дослідники[72], окрім того, встановили, що рівень електричної активності великого грудного і переднього пучка дельтоподібного м'яза при виконанні жиму штанги лежачи з вагою 70-90 % обтяження від максимуму були найбільш високими якраз у фазі опускання штанги, а не у фазі її підйому. Що й треба було довести. ...
Book
Full-text available
В магістерській роботі розглядаються питання корекції техніки жиму штанги лежачи спортсменами високої кваліфікації для ефективного подолання «мертвих зон». На основі систематизації особливостей прояву, встановлення критеріїв виявлення та визначення варіантів і механізмів подолання «мертвих зон» у процесі виконання рухової вправи виконано біомеханічне обґрунтування техніки виконання жиму штанги лежачи як засобу наукового обґрунтування подолання «мертвих зон». Доказано, що для даного виду спорту існує декілька зон, які є дискомфортними і в тренувальному процесі, і при здійсненні змагальної дії. Це: дві-три «мертві зони» і одна «несприятлива зона», що є відмінними за технічним сприйняттям прояву, змістом елементів, фізичних залежностей і засобів подолання. Встановлено, що сучасні засоби експериментального і фізичного відтворення спортивного явища з силовою направленістю повинні ґрунтуватися на кінематичних характеристиках руху штанги, механізмах прояву «мертвої зони», технічних прийомах її подолання у поєднанні з особливостями активності м’язів верхніх і нижніх кінцівок, а також окремих елементів і прийомів техніки жиму. Встановлена рекомендація, за якою треба навчитися варіювати силою, що застосовується до штанги, і відмовитися від використання емпіричних даних, щоб у подальшому виконувати корекцію техніки жиму штанги лежачи пауерліфтерів високої кваліфікації, плануючи досягнення належного рівня фізичних кондицій спортсмена і спортивних досягнень. Ключові слова: штанга, техніка жиму, корекція, пауерліфтер, мертві зони, несприятлива зона.
... front crawl swimming included only the rectus abdominis and middle deltoid. The highest muscle activations recorded for the traditional dry-land resistance exercises, that featured in two or more studies, included: pectoralis major (bench press(Schick et al., 2010)), anterior deltoid (bench press(Santana et al., 2007)), middle deltoid (bench press(Schick et al., 2010)), triceps brachii (push up (females only)(Cogley et al., 2005)), infraspinatus (latissimus pull down), latissimus dorsi (pull up(Youdas et al., 2010)), lower trapezius (pull up(Youdas et al., 2010)), biceps brachii (chin up(Youdas et al., 2010)) and brachioradialis (chin up(Dickie et al., 2017)). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Swimming performance requires a whole body coordinated movement to elicit high propulsive forces with the majority of forces produced from the upper body musculature. The current academic literature highlights a range of dry-land resistance exercises that show moderate to strong correlations to swimming performance; however, association does not imply causation. Specificity states that adaptations are specific to the nature of the training stress applied and therefore it is important to highlight the dry-land resistance exercises improving swimming performance. The aim of this research study is to examine the specificity of dry-land resistance exercises to swimming performance. A systematic review of the impact of resistance training on front crawl swimming performance highlighted that low volume, high force, traditional resistance training programmes, showed positive improvement in swimming performance. Neuromuscular adaptations contribute to resistance training exercises improving swimming performance according to several research studies. A review of the specificity between front crawl swimming and dry-land resistance exercises using electromyography (EMG) data highlighted a series of similar prime movers (i.e. latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major, triceps brachii and deltoids) between a range of dry-land resistance exercises. A qualitative study of elite swimming strength and conditioning coaches identified the dry-land resistance exercises most commonly used and deemed most relevant by practitioners and coaches. The bench press and pull up were the two upper body dry-land resistance exercises that coaches ranked highest in terms of improving swimming performance. This prompted an investigation of the specificity of these dry-land resistance exercises to front crawl swimming using EMG data analysis. Following a series of pilot tests, 14 male national and international swimmers were recorded using 2D kinematic analysis to identify event cycles and EMG to investigate muscle activations. The specificity of front crawl swimming to bench press and pull up exercises were examined using temporal coordination , temporal muscle activation overlaps, Functional Data Analysis (FDA) Pearson pointwise correlations, Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) t-tests and Root Mean Square Difference (RMSD). The findings of this research show that while the key prime movers between the bench press and pull up exercises and front crawl swimming are similar, there is limited specificity. The results would also suggest that these exercises are applicable for the general preparation period but not for the specific competition period. The large variability within the data set makes findings difficult to interpret. Future research needs to focus on individual analysis of specificity, as the large variability does not make group analysis techniques representative of the high level of individual variability found within the data set. Greater specificity is required through the development of a coherent biomechanical model of specificity that describes joint angles, angular velocity, torque and muscle activations.
... Teixeira et al. (2011) accomplished 3 sets of 20 repetitions at 50% 1RM on 6 resistance exercises machines, and vagal modulation, measured via LnHF, dropped by 43.5%. It is possible that greater activities of main (Escamilla et al. 2001), agonist (McCaw andFriday 1994), and stabilizing (Santana et al. 2007) muscle groups using higher load, free weights, and/ or multiple resistance exercises in protocols, might lead to greater reduction in vagal modulation compared to low-load resistance exercise with BFR (Okuno et al. 2014). However, it is not surprising that our results demonstrate a significant decrease in vagal modulation compared with other aforementioned studies even though our participants underwent only one free-weight resistance exercise at a lower load with BFR. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Traditional resistance exercise decreases vagal tone up to 30 min after an acute bout of resistance exercise, which may increase the risk of cardiovascular events. However, the effects of resistance exercise with blood flow restriction (BFR) on autonomic modulation are unclear. To evaluate autonomic modulation after resistance exercise with and without BFR in resistance-trained men. Methods Eleven young men volunteered for the study. Autonomic modulation was assessed at rest, 15 (Rec 1), and 25 (Rec 2) minutes after low-load bench press with BFR (LL-BFR), traditional high-load bench press (HL), and a control (CON). Autonomic modulation assessments were expressed as natural logarithm (Ln), and included total power (LnTP), low-frequency power (LnLF), high-frequency power (LnHF), sympathovagal balance (LnLF/LnHF ratio), root mean square of the successive differences (LnRMSSD), and the proportion of intervals differing by > 50 ms from the preceding intervals (LnPNN50). A repeated measures ANOVA was used to evaluate conditions (LL-BFR, HL and CON) across time (Rest, Rec1, and Rec2) on autonomic modulation. Results There were significant condition by time interactions for LnTP, LnHF, and LnRMSSD such that they were reduced during recovery after LL-BFR and HL compared to Rest and CON. There were no interactions in the LnLF, LnLF/LnHF ratio, and LnPNN50. Conclusions These data suggest that LL-BFR and HL significantly alter autonomic modulation up to 30 min after exercise with significant reduction after HL compared to LL-BFR when exercise volume is equated.
... In addition, an alternative method of increasing difficulty and increasing core musculature activation is bilateral versus unilateral training. Previous research has demonstrated that performing unilateral resistance exercise (i.e., standing chest press) increases motor unit recruitment of the spinal and torso stabilization musculature as compared to their bilateral counterparts (12). Furthermore, untrained individuals may exhibit large bilateral deficits resulting in impaired force production (5). ...
Article
This column is intended to provide a thorough analysis with photographs of the proper technique for battle rope conditioning. Specific musculature involvement, benefits of battle rope training, exercise technique, as well as advanced and beginning progressions will be discussed. This dynamic movement is designed to improve cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, endurance, and power. Specific variations for battle rope conditioning can provide various benefits to athletes such as enhancing sport specific movements, increasing grip strength, and addressing unilateral deficits. Thus, the implementation of battle rope conditioning for an exercise regimen should be considered.
... The change in the external load proposed by the authors of this study, resulting from the changes in application of the motion speed substantially affects the changes in the activity patterns and allows for the emphasis on the muscles driving the motor task. In this light, the EMG procedure used in the study represents a somehow innovative approach, but it is consistent with all the reasoning tendencies for this measurement methodology [28,29]. The strong point of the present study is the participants' high level of performance. ...
... Teixeira et al. (2011) accomplished 3 sets of 20 repetitions at 50% 1RM on 6 resistance exercises machines, and vagal modulation, measured via LnHF, dropped by 43.5%. It is possible that greater activities of main (Escamilla et al. 2001), agonist (McCaw andFriday 1994), and stabilizing (Santana et al. 2007) muscle groups using higher load, free weights, and/ or multiple resistance exercises in protocols, might lead to greater reduction in vagal modulation compared to low-load resistance exercise with BFR (Okuno et al. 2014). However, it is not surprising that our results demonstrate a significant decrease in vagal modulation compared with other aforementioned studies even though our participants underwent only one free-weight resistance exercise at a lower load with BFR. ...
... In the sport performance field, besides conventional trunk muscles conditioning through exercises in supine, prone or lateral positions (McGill, 2002;Monfort-Pañego, Vera-Garcia, Sanchez-Zuriaga & Sarti-Martínez, 2009;Santana Vera-Garcia & McGill, 2007), trunk muscular power and speed strength is mainly trained through global actions in standing, for example, cable pulley exercises (press standing cable chop wood, overhead wire pulls, etc.), free weight exercises (squat one-armed kettlebell, kettlebell swing, etc.) or medicine-ball throw exercises (mainly overhead, side and chest medicine-ball throws) (McGill, 2006;Monfort-Pañego, Vera-Garcia, Sanchez-Zuriaga & Sarti-Martínez, 2009). In these actions, the core is central to the kinetic chains and an important structure in the transmission of forces between upper and lower limbs (Borghuis, Hof & Lemmink, 2008;Kibler, Press & Sciacia, 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to analyze trunk and shoulder muscle activation and lumbar spine kinematics of backward and forward phases during both isolated medicine-ball side throws, and medicine-ball side catch and throw sequences. Thirteen recreationally trained men performed three isolated medicine-ball side throws with 1 min rest between repetitions, and three medicine-ball side catch and throw sequences. Surface electromyography signals were collected bilaterally in seven trunk muscles and in the right side for anterior deltoid and pectoralis major. Spine kinematics were measured using an electromagnetic tracking instrument. The results showed that left external oblique and right anterior deltoid activations reached peak levels above 100% MVC during the forward phase highlighting their important role during side medicine-ball throwing. When both exercises were compared, the amplitude of the lumbar motion and the muscle activation in the backward phase were higher during the medicine-ball side catch and throw than in the medicine-ball side throw. According to these results, the medicine-ball side catch and throw is a high demanding plyometric exercise, which seems more appropriate for high performance throwing and striking athletes than for recreationally trained individuals. Suggestions to reduce back injury risk were provided.
... The change in the external load proposed by the authors of this study, resulting from the changes in application of the motion speed substantially affects the changes in the activity patterns and allows for the emphasis on the muscles driving the motor task. In this light, the EMG procedure used in the study represents a somehow innovative approach, but it is consistent with all the reasoning tendencies for this measurement methodology [28,29]. The strong point of the present study is the participants' high level of performance. ...
... In addition to traditional training methods, there are also commonly used training methods in today's training programs and fitness facilities. These are done on different platforms such as bosu ball, pilates ball and thera-band , Santana 2007 or with materials that are complement to open kinetic chain exercises using free weights. More recently, the suspension training system Pro Suspension Training System (TRX) has been added to this group of materials (Gaetz 2004, Holtzmann 2004. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of suspension training on agility and strength performance in elite male basketball players. The study was carried out on Demir İnşaat Büyükçekmece male U-21 basketball players who are the members of one of the U-21 teams of the Turkish Basketball Federation. 20 volunteer basketball players with age of 18,3 ± 0,3 years; the training ages of 6.5 ± 1.3 years; the lengths of 189.45 ± 7.3 cm; weights of 82.9 ± 7.8 kg and body mass index of 23 ± 1.3 were participated in the study. This group was used as both control and experimental group. Following their first tests, the group participating in the study continued their regular routine training for 6 weeks. After six weeks, the second measurements were taken. These measurements were also accepted as the last measurement of the group which was considered as the control group, while those measurements were accepted as the first measurement of the test group. Afterwards, suspension training (TRX) was performed twice a week right along with basketball training for 6 weeks. At the end of six weeks, the tests were repeated and the level of development of the test group was determined. In the study group, right and left hip flexility test, sitting down flexibility test, standing long jump test, vertical jump test, back and leg strength, T-test and 20-meter sprint tests were performed. The obtained data were analyzed in the SPSS program and descriptive statistics, Anova Test and Bonferroni correction were performed. As a result, there was a significant difference in hip flexion, jump, strength and agility tests (p <0.05). According to these results, suspension TRX training was found to have positive effects on elite male basketball players.
... Computing like regression and Big Data brings also new perspectives in the sciences of physical culture. The most important capabilities include: monitoring frequency of brainwaves before and after exercise, matching and optimization of the process of preparation adaptive system for exercise (for athletes) and detecting differences motivated psycho neuronal [15][16]. ...
... The efficiency of an exercise regarding neuromuscular activation can be measured by electromyography (EMG) (Santana, Vera-Garcia, & McGill, 2007). In addition, the interpretation of the EMG signal can be used to aid in the prescription of RT (Crispiniano et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study compares the electromyographic response in the activation of the pectoralis major and anterior deltoid in bench press and pullover exercises. For this, ten male volunteers (23.9 ± 4.4 years of age, 73.3 ± 11.6 kg of body weight, 1.7 ± 0.1 meters, 14.0 ± 4.2% of body fat) with resistance training (>1 year) were measured. In a crossover fashion. All volunteers performed the exercises with 70% of one maximum repetition until failure. An electromyographic comparison was performed between the bench press and pullover exercises, where the pectoralis major and anterior deltoid muscles were monitored. There was no significant difference in pectoralis major activation between the two exercises (384.8 ± 220.6 vs. 232.5 ± 175.3 RMS, p = 0.131). There was a significantly higher activation of AD in bench press exercise (666.9 ± 191.0 vs. 63.5 ± 19.8 RMS, p<0.001). In conclusion, for training the anterior trunk, the bench press showed to be more advantageous compared to the pullover exercise, bench press results in a higher activation of the anterior deltoid muscle fibers and similar activation in the pectoralis major.
... In addition, a strong relationship has been observed between trunk muscle function and functional ability in older adults (Suri, Kiely, Leveille, Frontera, & Bean, 2011). Thus, HS and BP exercises were selected since trunk muscles are more activated in standing free-weight exercises compared with weight machines in which the trunk is resting on the backrest (Santana, Vera-Garcia, & McGill, 2007), and also because they mimic real actions that take place in daily living, such as chair rising or lifting an object to place it on an overhead shelf, respectively. ...
... Other studies have utilized sEMG to compare which muscles experience the greatest excitation during different exercises (Santana et al., 2007; ...
Article
Full-text available
Surface electromyography (sEMG) is a popular research tool in sport and rehabilitation sciences. Common study designs include the comparison of sEMG amplitudes collected from different muscles as participants perform various exercises and techniques under different loads. Based on such comparisons, researchers attempt to draw conclusions concerning the neuro- and electrophysiological underpinning of force production and hypothesize about possible longitudinal adaptations, such as strength and hypertrophy. However, such conclusions are frequently unsubstantiated and unwarranted. Hence, the goal of this review is to discuss what can and cannot be inferred from comparative research designs as it pertains to both the acute and longitudinal outcomes. General methodological recommendations are made, gaps in the literature are identified, and lines for future research to help improve the applicability of sEMG are suggested.
... Skeletal muscles are the primary actuator of the movement and are a real biological system designed to produce mechanical force and cause movement. According to various authors [8,9,10,11], an analysis of the internal structure (the level and duration of electrical activity) of the four main muscles involved in flat bench pressing indicates that activity in the descent phase is much smaller than that in the ascent phase. In our study, this was confirmed only by the bodybuilder's results. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction. In sport technique studies, motion features can be useful as they have a certain defined measure [1]. In this work, we examined the following three features: the structure of the movement (all the characteristics of the movement), the fluency of the movement, and the rhythm of the movement. The aim of the study was to determine the usefulness of the selected movement features in the evaluation of the flat bench press. The protocol of the study included a flat bench press with free weights and a “touch-and-go” technique. Material and methods. The study involved twenty healthy men; however, only two were selected for analysis. The first subject was a 25-year-old powerlifter (body mass = 95 kg; body height = 182 cm; 1-RM in flat bench press = 145 kg). The second one was a 25-year-old bodybuilder (body mass = 77 kg; body height = 175 cm; 1-RM in flat bench press = 100 kg). The subjects performed consecutive sets of a single repetition of flat bench pressing with an increasing load (70, 80, 90, and 100% 1-RM, with the anticipated maximum weight), until the completion of one repetition maximum. Multidimensional movement analysis was made with the measuring system Smart-E (BTS, Italy), which consisted of six infrared cameras (120 Hz) and a wireless module to measure muscle bioelectric activity (Pocket EMG). Results. It was demonstrated that the internal structure of the bench press performed by the bodybuilder and the powerlifter was different. As the time-history of barbell kinematics (the acceleration-time curve) showed, with increased loading of the barbell, the rhythm of the flat bench press changed, and the fluidity of the movement worsened.
Article
Heinecke, ML, Mauldin, ML, Hunter, ML, Mann, JB, and Mayhew, JL. Relationship of barbell and dumbbell repetitions with one repetition maximum bench press in college football players. J Strength Cond Res 35(2S): S66-S71, 2021-Dumbbell training to augment barbell training is gaining popularity. However, information is lacking that details the compatibility of strength and endurance between dumbbell and barbell performances in the same exercise. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to compare the similarity of muscular endurance performance between dumbbell and barbell exercises and to assess the accuracy of predicting one repetition maximum (1RM) barbell bench press from barbell and dumbbell repetitions to fatigue (RTF). College football players (n = 40) performed 1RM barbell bench press and RTF with a 90.9-kg barbell. On separate days, unilateral (45.5 kg) and bilateral dumbbell (90.9 kg) RTF were performed. Barbell RTF (13.8 ± 9.2) were significantly greater (effect size [ES] = 0.14) than bilateral dumbbell RTF (12.5 ± 9.5) but highly correlated (r = 0.96). Unilateral dumbbell RTF were significantly greater (ES = 0.13) for dominant hand (10.8 ± 10.1) than nondominant hand (9.5 ± 9.7) but highly correlated (r = 0.97). Prediction of 1RM barbell bench press was equally effective using a constant weight barbell (r = 0.90) or equivalent weight bilateral dumbbells (r = 0.87) with total errors of 7.3 and 8.2%, respectively. Barbell and dumbbell repetitions with equivalent weights place a similar demand on the upper-body musculature for training and testing purposes in football athletes.
Article
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Objective Numerous abdominal exercises with Swiss ball are used to improve core stability with strengthening and rehabilitation goals. It is claimed that the stability exercises have a greater impact on core muscle activation, but the validity of this claim is still in doubt. Moreover, there is no comprehensive study on the comparison of the core muscles activity in different core stability exercises. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the Electromyography (EMG) activity of core muscles while performing side plank on stable and unstable (Swiss ball) surfaces. Methods Fifteen male students of Allameh Tabataba’i University were selected for the study based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The EMG activity of gluteus medius, rectus abdominis, external oblique, and internal oblique muscles in subjects was recorded while performing side plank exercise on a fixed surface and a Swiss ball (2 sets of 5 seconds with a 30-second rest interval). Results There was a significant difference in the EMG activity of gluteus medius, external oblique and rectus abdominis muscles between two conditions of with and without Swiss ball (P<0.05), but no significant difference was observed in the EMG activity of internal oblique muscle (P>0.05). Conclusion Side plank exercise on the unstable surfaces (Swiss balls) can cause changes in the EMG activity of gluteus medius, rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles compared to when the exercise is performed on stable surfaces, and highly involved the pelvic lumbar muscles effective in maintaining core stability. Therefore, the use of side plank exercise on unstable conditions in a progressive program with gradually increased intensity is recommended which can be effective in strengthening and applying effective muscle contractions useful for core stability.
Research
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The exercise will never hurt you—only improper form causes injury. Master the essentials of proper weight training and be safe while performing the squat, lunge, leg press, lat pulldown, reverse fly, bench press, chest fly, shoulder press, shoulder raise, biceps curl, triceps extension, plank, and more! With over 350 full-color, step-by-step photos, WEIGHT TRAINING WITHOUT INJURY’S unique, revolutionary approach teaches right from wrong at every step with meticulous attention to detail. Stellabotte and Straub’s mission is simple: to enable you to master proper form and prevent injury when lifting weights. This book blends 50 years of experience and success with current scientific research (over 90 peer-reviewed publications are referenced)—all explained simply and organized in a clear format that is easy to follow. The techniques learned here can be applied to exercises found in any bodybuilding, strength training or resistance training manual or program, making WEIGHT TRAINING WITHOUT INJURY indispensable for the beginner, the seasoned gym goer, and the professional trainer.
Article
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The performance of ten elite powerlifters were analyzed in a simulated competition environment using three-dimensional cinematography and surface electromyography while bench pressing approximately 80% of maximum, a maximal load, and an unsuccessful supramaximal attempt. The resultant moment arm (from the sagittal and transverse planes) of the weight about the shoulder axis decreased throughout the upward movement of the bar. The resultant moment arm of the weight about the elbow axis decreased throughout the initial portion of the ascent of the bar, recording a minimum value during the sticking region, and subsequently increased throughout the remainder of the ascent of the bar. The electromyograms produced by the prime mover muscles (sternal portion of pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, long head of triceps brachii) achieved maximal activation at the commencement of the ascent phase of the lift and maintained this level essentially unchanged throughout the upward movement of the bar. The sticking region, therefore, did not appear to be caused by an increase in the moment arm of the weight about the shoulder or elbow joints or by a minimization of muscular activity during this region. A possible mechanism which envisages the sticking region as a force-reduced transition phase between a strain energy-assisted acceleration phase and a mechanically advantageous maximum strength region is postulated.
Article
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There is considerable demand for information on the effectiveness of various resistance exercises for improving physical performance, and on how exercise programs must match functional activities to produce the greatest performance gains (training specificity). Evidence supports exercise-type specificity; the greatest training effects occur when the same exercise type is used for both testing and training. Range-of-motion (ROM) specificity is supported; strength improvements are greatest at the exercised joint angles, with enough carryover to strengthen ROMs precluded from direct training due to injury. Velocity specificity is supported; strength gains are consistently greatest at the training velocity, with some carryover. Some studies have produced a training effect only for velocities at and below the training velocity while others have produced effects around the training velocity. The little, mainly isokinetic, evidence comparing different exercise velocities for improving functional performance suggests that faster exercise best improves fast athletic movements. Yet isometric exercise can improve actions like the vertical jump, which begin slowly. The rate of force application may be more important in training than actual movement speed. More research is needed into the specificity and efficacy of resistance exercise. Test populations should include both males and females of various ages and rehabilitation patients.
Article
This study examined the relationship between 1-RM bench press performance and the 225-lb bench press reps-to-fatigue test. Using NCAA Div. II football players at a north central university (N = 98), this study found that the 225-lb bench press reps-to-fatigue test is a valid estimate of 1-RM performance in trained college football players (r = 0.96, p < 0.001) with a standard error of +/-10.8 lbs (4.9 kg). The estimation of 1-RM bench press performance was improved when repetitions were 10 or less (R2 = 0.85 vs. 0.76). Thus this study supported the validity of the 225-lb bench press reps-to-fatigue test as a submaximal estimate of 1-RM bench press performance in college football players who are familiar with the exercise and sufficiently conditioned to perform reps with 225 lbs. (C) 1998 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine how well self-report (questionnaire=QR) and trained observer (checklist=OBS) data recording methods compared with more expensive video analysis (VID) for estimating various peak physical loading exposure variables on the low backs of 99 employees during work in an automobile assembly plant. The variables studied were L4/L5 spine compression and shear forces, L4/L5 moment, trunk angle, and hand load. Peak low back loads associated with the working postures of, and the applied loads on, each worker were estimated using a 2D biomechanical model that could accommodate inertial forces acting in various directions on the hands independently. Correlations between the VID and OBS methods were greater for each variable than between VID and QR methods, with ranges in coefficients from 0.6 to 0.8, and 0.1 to 0.4, respectively, giving a discouraging impression of the QR, and the OBS method to a lesser degree, for peak low back exposure assessment. Despite the better performance of OBS method for individuals, it was still only able to account for between 36% and 64% of the variance relative to the VID method. When all workers were considered as a single group, compression and shear forces, moment and hand load estimates were the same regardless of method used to collect the data. Self-reported trunk flexion was significantly greater than that reported by trained observers or on video (p<0.0001).Relevance to industry
Article
A biomechanical model of the lumbar spine was used to calculate the effects of abdominal muscle coactivation on spinal stability. To estimate the effects of abdominal muscle coactivation on lumbar spine stability, muscle fatigue rate, and lumbar spine compression forces. The activation of human trunk muscles has been found to involve coactivation of antagonistic muscles, which has not been adequately predicted by biomechanical models. Antagonistic activation of abdominal muscles might produce flexion moments resulting from abdominal pressurization. Qualitatively, antagonistic activity also has been attributed to the need to stabilize the spine. Spinal loads and spinal stability were calculated for maximum and submaximum (40%, 60% and 80%) efforts in extension and lateral bending using a previously published, anatomically realistic biomechanical model of the lumbar spine and its musculature. Three different antagonistic abdominal muscle coactivation patterns were imposed, and results were compared with those found in a model with no imposed coactivation. Results were quantified in terms of the sum of cubed muscle stresses (sigma sigma m3, which is related to the muscle fatigue rate), the maximum compressive loading on the lumbar spine, and the critical value of the muscle stiffness parameter (q) required for the spine to be stable. Forcing antagonistic coactivation increased stability, but at the cost of an increase in sigma sigma m3 and a small increase in maximum spinal compression. These analyses provide estimates of the effects of antagonistic abdominal muscle coactivation, indicating that its probable role is to stabilize the spine.
Article
During muscle contraction, electrical activity necessarily precedes force output, yet models that utilize processed electromyograms sometimes predict force as preceding EMG under rapid ballistic loading conditions. The purpose of this study was to define the frequency response transfer function of the upper and lower erector spinae musculature, at different lengths and tensions, using rectified, low pass filtered EMG. This would enable accurate estimates of force from the processed electromyogram, specifically during impulsive contractions. Abdominal and erector spinae EMG were measured in synchrony with impulsive low back moments in five men. EMG signals were rectified and low pass filtered repeatedly with cut-off frequencies from 1 to 3 Hz at 0.5 Hz increments in order to quantify the frequency response. It was found that EMG signals processed through a simple, Butterworth low pass filter could not produce the measured force output without an additional time shift. These shifts were quantified by cross-correlating EMG and force with increments of 1 ms. In order to define the transfer function of EMG to force, optimal cut-off frequencies were selected two ways: quantitatively by searching for maximum cross correlations coefficients, and qualitatively. Results indicated that the frequency response of both the upper and lower erector spinae can be modelled with a cut-off frequency between 2 and 2.5 Hz and that these values are not significantly modulated by changes in muscle length or tension.
Article
Currently, intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is thought to provide stability to the lumbar spine but the exact principles have yet to be specified. A simplified physical model was constructed and theoretical calculations performed to illustrate a possible intra-abdominal pressure mechanism for stabilizing the spine. The model consisted of an inverted pendulum with linear springs representing abdominal and erector spinae muscle groups. The IAP force was simulated with a pneumatic piston activated with compressed air. The critical load of the model was calculated theoretically based on the minimum potential energy principle and obtained experimentally by increasing weight on the model until the point of buckling. Two distinct mechanisms were simulated separately and in combination. One was antagonistic flexor extensor muscle coactivation and the second was abdominal muscle activation along with generation of IAP. Both mechanisms were effective in stabilizing the model of a lumbar spine. The critical load and therefore the stability of the spine model increased with either increased antagonistic muscle coactivation forces or increased IAP along with increased abdominal spring force. Both mechanisms were also effective in providing mechanical stability to the spine model when activated simultaneously. Theoretical calculation of the critical load agreed very well with experimental results (95.5% average error). The IAP mechanism for stabilizing the lumbar spine appears preferable in tasks that demand trunk extensor moment such as lifting or jumping. This mechanism can increase spine stability without the additional coactivation of erector spinae muscles.
Article
Lifting dynamics and electromyographic activity were evaluated using a biomechanical model of spinal equilibrium and stability to assess cost-benefit effects of antagonistic muscle cocontraction on the risk of stability failure. To evaluate whether increased biomechanical stability associated with antagonistic cocontraction was capable of stabilizing the related increase in spinal load. Antagonistic cocontraction contributes to improved spinal stability and increased spinal compression. For cocontraction to be considered beneficial, stability must increase more than spinal load. Otherwise, it may be possible for cocontraction to generate spinal loads that cannot be stabilized. A biomechanical model was developed to compute spinal load and stability from measured electromyography and motion dynamics. As 10 healthy men performed sagittal lifting tasks, trunk motion, reaction loads, and electromyographic activities of eight trunk muscles were recorded. Spinal load and stability were evaluated as a function of cocontraction and trunk flexion angle. Stability was quantified in terms of the maximum spinal load the system could stabilize. Cocontraction was associated with a 12% to 18% increase in spinal compression and a 34% to 64% increase in stability. Spinal load and stability increased with trunk flexion. Despite increases in spinal load that had to be stabilized, the margin between stability and spinal compression increased significantly with cocontraction. Antagonistic cocontraction was found to be most beneficial at low trunk moments typically observed in upright postures. Similarly, empirically measured antagonistic cocontraction was recruited less in high-moment conditions and more in low-moment conditions.
Article
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relative importance of modelled peak spine loads, hand loads, trunk kinematics and cumulative spine loads as predictors of reported low back pain (LBP). BACKGROUND: The authors have recently shown that both biomechemical and psychosocial variables are important in the reporting of LBP. In previous studies, peak spinal load risk factors have been identified and while there is in vitro evidence for adverse effects of excessive cumulative load on tissue, there is little epidemiological evidence. METHODS: Physical exposures to peak and cumulative lumbar spine moment, compression and shear forces, trunk kinematics, and forces on hands were analyzed on 130 randomly selected controls and 104 cases. Univariable and multivariable odds ratios of the risk of reporting were calculated from a backwards logistic regression analysis. Interrelationships among variables were examined by factor analysis. RESULTS: Cases showed significantly higher loading on all biomechanical variables. Four independent risk factors were identified: integrated lumbar moment (over a shift), 'usual' hand force, peak shear force at the level of L(4)/L(5) and peak trunk velocity. Substituting lumbar compression or moment for shear did not appreciably alter odds ratios because of high correlations among these variables. CONCLUSIONS: Cumulative biomechanical variables are important risk factors in the reporting of LBP. Spinal tissue loading estimates from a biomechanical model provide information not included in the trunk kinematics and hand force inputs to the model alone. Workers in the top 25% of loading exposure on all risk factors are at about six times the risk of reporting LBP when compared with those in the bottom 25%. RELEVANCE: Primary prevention, treatment, and return to work efforts for individuals reporting LBP all require understanding of risk factors. The results suggest that cumulative loading of the low back is important etiologically and highlight the need for better information on the response of spinal tissues to cumulative loading.
Article
This study evaluated the influence of cadence on the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) bench press test for predicting 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press test performance. Fifty-eight medical students (37 men, 21 women) were evaluated for anthropometric variables (age, height, weight, fat-free mass, and percent fat), 1RM bench press, and 2 cadence tests of muscular endurance performed at cadences of 30 and 60 repetitions per minute (reps.min(-1)). Each test was performed on a separate day, with 5 days rest in between. There was no significant difference among the number of repetitions performed at each cadence by men, whereas women performed significantly more repetitions at the slower cadence. Repetitions at either cadence were good predictors of 1RM bench press in both genders (men: 30 reps.min(-1), r(2) = 0.757, standard error of the estimate [SEE] = 8.0 kg; 60 reps.min(-1), r(2) = 0.884, SEE = 8.2 kg; women: 30 reps.min(-1), r(2) = 0.754, SEE = 3.1 kg; 60 reps.min(-1), r(2) = 0.816, SEE = 2.7 kg). The addition of anthropometric dimensions to the regression equations did not improve predictive accuracy. Using both fast and slow cadences, the YMCA bench press test can provide a valid estimation of 1RM performance in untrained young men and women.
Article
The purpose of the study was to determine the accuracy of 11 prediction equations in estimating the 1 repetition maximum (1 RM) bench press from repetitions completed by collegiate football players (N = 69) using 225 lb. The demographic variables race, age, height, weight, fat-free weight, and percent body fat were measured to determine whether these variables increased the accuracy of the prediction equations; race was the most frequently selected variable in the regression analyses. The validity of the prediction equations was dependent upon the number of repetitions performed, i.e., validity was higher when fewer repetitions were completed. Explained variability of 1 RM was slightly higher for all 11 equations when demographic variables were included. A new prediction equation was also developed using the number of repetitions performed and the demographic variables height and fat-free weight.
Article
This study examined ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and electromyography (EMG) during resistance exercise in recreational and novice lifters. Fourteen novice (age = 21.5 +/- 1.5 years) and 14 recreationally trained (age = 21.9 +/- 2.2 years) women volunteered to perform the bench press exercise at 60 and 80% of their 1 repetition maximum (1RM). RPE and EMG were measured during both intensities. Statistical analyses revealed that active muscle RPE increased as resistance exercise intensity increased from 60% 1RM to 80% 1RM (12.32 +/- 1.81 vs. 15.14 +/- 1.74). Integrated EMG also increased as resistance exercise intensity increased from 60% 1RM to 80% 1RM (in the pectoralis major; 98.62 +/- 17.54 vs. 127.98 +/- 29.02). No significant differences in RPE or EMG were found between novice and recreational lifters. These results indicate that RPE is related to the relative exercise intensity lifted as well as muscle activity during resistance exercise for both recreational and novice lifters. These results support the use of RPE as a method of resistance exercise intensity estimation for both types of lifters.
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