Anti-proliferative and anti-remodeling effect of beclomethasone dipropionate, formoterol and salbutamol alone or in combination in primary human bronchial fibroblasts

Allergy and Respiratory Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.
Allergy (Impact Factor: 6.03). 05/2008; 63(4):432-7. DOI: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2007.01582.x
Source: PubMed


Bronchial asthma is characterized by lower airway inflammation and remodelling. Anti-inflammatory treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) provides the mainstay of asthma therapy together with bronchodilation induced by short- and long-acting inhaled beta(2)-agonists. Lower airway fibroblasts may play a critical role in airway inflammation and remodelling, suggesting that they might represent an important target for the major anti-asthmatic drugs. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP), salbutamol and formoterol either alone or in combination on in vitro cultures of human bronchial fibroblasts.
Fibroblasts were cultured in the presence of pro-inflammatory and proliferative stimuli, BDP, salbutamol and formoterol. The effects of drugs on cell proliferation were ascertained by (3)H-thymidine incorporation. CD90 and CD44 expression were detected by flow cytometry and fibronectin secretion using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique.
This study showed that BDP alone has significant anti-proliferative effects on lung fibroblasts treated with basic fibroblast growth factor and the combination of BDP with formoterol or salbutamol strengthen these effects. Short-acting beta(2)-agonist (SABA) or long-acting beta(2)-agonist (LABA) by themselves did not show any significant effect on the different cultures. CD44 and CD90 expression and fibronectin production were modulated by pro-inflammatory and proliferative stimuli; the addition of the drugs brought them back near to the basal level.
From this in vitro study, we can conclude that BDP, when combined with salbutamol or formoterol, exhibits enhanced anti-remodelling activity in bronchial fibroblasts, providing new insights on the additive effects of ICS and SABAs and LABAs for asthma therapy.

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Available from: Anna Maria Riccio, Sep 29, 2014
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    • "(R,R) formoterol has 1000-times greater affinity to β2AR than (S,S) enantiomer and shows improved bronchodilator effects compared to formoterol racemate [8]. Recent data demonstrate that, in addition to its function as a bronchodilator, racemic formoterol also acts as an anti-proliferative agent for airway smooth muscle cells [9] and human bronchial fibroblasts [14]. Currently, no information is available about the effects of formoterol in PAVSM cell proliferation as it relates to COPD-associated PH, and comparative effects of racemic formoterol vs. its (R,R) and (S,S) enantiomers on PAVSM cell proliferation are also not examined. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Increased pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle (PAVSM) cell proliferation is a key pathophysiological component of pulmonary vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH). The long-acting β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) agonist formoterol, a racemate comprised of (R,R)- and (S,S)-enantiomers, is commonly used as a vasodilator in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). PH, a common complication of COPD, increases patients’ morbidity and reduces survival. Recent studies demonstrate that formoterol has anti-proliferative effects on airway smooth muscle cells and bronchial fibroblasts. The effects of formoterol and its enantiomers on PAVSM cell proliferation are not determined. The goals of this study were to examine effects of racemic formoterol and its enantiomers on PAVSM cell proliferation as it relates to COPD-associated PH. Methods Basal, thrombin-, PDGF- and chronic hypoxia-induced proliferation of primary human PAVSM cells was examined by DNA synthesis analysis using BrdU incorporation assay. ERK1/2, mTORC1 and mTORC2 activation were determined by phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2, ribosomal protein S6 and S473-Akt using immunoblot analysis. Results We found that (R,R) and racemic formoterol inhibited basal, thrombin- and chronic hypoxia-induced proliferation of human PAVSM cells while (S,S) formoterol had lesser inhibitory effect. The β2AR blocker propranolol abrogated the growth inhibitory effect of formoterol. (R,R), but not (S,S) formoterol attenuated basal, thrombin- and chronic hypoxia-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but had little effect on Akt and S6 phosphorylation levels. Formoterol and its enantiomers did not significantly affect PDGF-induced DNA synthesis and PDGF-dependent ERK1/2, S473-Akt and S6 phosphorylation in human PAVSM cells. Conclusions Formoterol inhibits basal, thrombin-, and chronic hypoxia-, but not PDGF-induced human PAVSM cell proliferation and ERK1/2, but has little effect on mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling. Anti-proliferative effects of formoterol depend predominantly on its (R,R) enantiomer and require the binding with β2AR. These data suggest that (R,R) formoterol may be considered as potential adjuvant therapy to inhibit PAVSM cell proliferation in COPD-associated PH.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Respiratory research
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    • "Goulet et al. found that corticosteroids and LABAs had opposing effects on matrix protein deposition in the presence of serum and their combination counteracted each other [8]. In contrast, also in fibroblasts, Descalzi et al. reported corticosteroids had significant antiproliferative effects and that combination with LABAs strengthened these effects [9]. Todorova et al. reported that corticosteroids reduced and the combination with LABAs "
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Persistent asthma is characterized by airway remodeling. Whereas we have previously shown that neither β2-agonists nor corticosteroids inhibit extracellular matrix (ECM) protein release from airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells, the effect of their combination is unknown and this forms the rationale for the present study. Methods. ASM cells from people with and without asthma were stimulated with TGFβ1 (1 ng/ml) with or without budesonide (10−8 M) and formoterol (10−10 and 10−8 M), and fibronectin expression and IL-6 release were measured by ELISA. Bronchial rings from nonasthmatic individuals were incubated with TGFβ1 (1 ng/ml) with or without the drugs, and fibronectin expression was measured using immunohistochemistry. Results. Budesonide stimulated fibronectin deposition, in the presence or absence of TGFβ1, and this was partially reversed by formoterol (10−8 M) in both asthmatic and nonasthmatic cells. Budesonide and formoterol in combination failed to inhibit TGFβ-induced fibronectin in either cell type. A similar pattern of expression of fibronectin was seen in bronchial rings. TGFβ1-induced IL-6 release was inhibited by the combination of drugs. Conclusion. Current combination asthma therapies are unable to prevent or reverse remodeling events regulated by ASM cells.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Journal of Allergy
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    • "Moreover, although very effective in reducing airway inflammation, the efficacy of glucocorticosteroids in attenuating airway fibrosis is still controversial.16–18 Few studies have investigated the effect of short-acting β2-agonists on fibroblast proliferation and also with contrasting results.19,20 In this study, we were interested to examine the effect of salbutamol as a paradigm of short-acting β2-agonists and dexamethasone and as a paradigm of glucocorticosteroids and their combination on human fetal lung and adult bronchial fibroblast proliferation by themselves and in the presence of mast cells or eotaxin as stimulators. "
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    ABSTRACT: Asthma is characterized by bronchial hyperreactivity and airway remodeling. Subepithelial fibrosis, a feature of remodeling, is accompanied by activation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, with excessive proliferation and increased collagen, extracellular matrix protein, and profibrogenic cytokine production. Mast cells are important in the development of asthma and its fibrotic changes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the direct effect of the drugs most frequently used in asthma, that is, glucocorticosteroids (dexamethasone) and shortacting β(2)-agonists (salbutamol), on human lung fibroblast proliferation when unstimulated or activated by mast cells or eotaxin. Subconfluent human fetal lung or bronchial fibroblasts were incubated with different concentrations of the drugs (24 h) 6 activators, and [(3)H]-Thymidine was added (24 h) to measure their proliferation. IL-6 production in the supernatants of confluent monolayers cultured in the presence of the drugs or forskolin (24 h) was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Both drugs alone and in the presence of the activators enhanced fibroblast proliferation in a seemingly synergistic way for both fetal and bronchial fibroblasts. Dexamethasone was found to decrease IL-6 production, while salbutamol increased it. These observations if corroborated by in vivo data may possibly account for the deleterious effect of long-term therapy with β(2)-bronchodilators and inhaled glucocorticosteroids on the natural history of asthma.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · World Allergy Organization Journal
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