Article

Improving early language and literacy skills: Differential effects of an oral language versus a phonology with reading intervention

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Abstract

This study compares the efficacy of two school-based intervention programmes (Phonology with Reading (P + R) and Oral Language (OL)) for children with poor oral language at school entry. Following screening of 960 children, 152 children (mean age 4;09) were selected from 19 schools on the basis of poor vocabulary and verbal reasoning skills and randomly allocated to either the P + R programme or the OL programme. Both groups of children received 20 weeks of daily intervention alternating between small group and individual sessions, delivered by trained teaching assistants. Children in the P + R group received training in letter-sound knowledge, phonological awareness and book level reading skills. Children in the OL group received instruction in vocabulary, comprehension, inference generation and narrative skills. The children's progress was monitored at four time points: pre-, mid- and post-intervention, and after a 5-month delay, using measures of literacy, language and phonological awareness. The data are clustered (children within schools) and robust confidence intervals are reported. At the end of the 20-week intervention programme, children in the P + R group showed an advantage over the OL group on literacy and phonological measures, while children in the OL group showed an advantage over the P + R group on measures of vocabulary and grammatical skills. These gains were maintained over a 5-month period. Intervention programmes designed to develop oral language skills can be delivered successfully by trained teaching assistants to children at school entry. Training using P + R fostered decoding ability whereas the OL programme improved vocabulary and grammatical skills that are foundations for reading comprehension. However, at the end of the intervention, more than 50% of at-risk children remain in need of literacy support.

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... Most kindergarten phonics-focused interventions, using a real-life (Schneider et al., 2000;Elbro and Petersen, 2004;Bowyer-Crane et al., 2008;Van Otterloo and Van Der Leij, 2009) or a digital game-based approach (Regtvoort and Van Der Leij, 2007;Macaruso and Walker, 2008;Kegel et al., 2009;Kegel and Bus, 2012;Savage et al., 2013;Piquette et al., 2014) generally yielded direct short-term effects on trained skills, e.g., word decoding and letter knowledge (LK). Findings of interventiondriven PA improvements were rather mixed. ...
... Evidence exists that reading development not only influences PA, but also other phonological abilities, e.g., rapid naming (RAN) (Peterson et al., 2018), verbal short-term memory (VSTM) (Nation and Hulme, 2011;Demoulin and Kolinsky, 2016), and broader language skills (Kolinsky, 2015;Hulme et al., 2019). None of the aforementioned studies which explored these relationships however, determined generalization (Schneider et al., 2000;Elbro and Petersen, 2004;Regtvoort and Van Der Leij, 2007;Bowyer-Crane et al., 2008;Van Otterloo and Van Der Leij, 2009). These findings raise the idea that phonics-based intervention effects in pre-readers are rather training specific. ...
... Moreover, these results also assured that the AC game did not accidentally train any of the reading-related variables. Our promising findings support prior preventive (Brem et al., 2010) and non-preventive GraphoGame research (McTigue et al., 2019), and other studies using real-life or digital game-based phonics interventions in kindergarten (Schneider et al., 2000;Elbro and Petersen, 2004;Regtvoort and Van Der Leij, 2007;Bowyer-Crane et al., 2008;Kegel et al., 2009;Van Otterloo and Van Der Leij, 2009;Kegel and Bus, 2012;Savage et al., 2013;Piquette et al., 2014). Moreover, although we did not directly compare the GG-FL approach with other approaches within the same study, our results correspond to the general advice to use a phonics-based approach when targeting decoding skills (National Institute of Child Health Human Development, 2000;Snowling and Hulme, 2011;Galuschka et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Dyslexia is targeted most effectively when (1) interventions are provided preventively, before the onset of reading instruction, and (2) remediation programs combine letter-sound training with phoneme blending. Given the growing potential of technology in educational contexts, there has been a considerable increase of letter-sound trainings embedded in digital serious games. One such intervention is GraphoGame. Yet, current evidence on the preventive impact of GraphoGame is limited by the lack of adaptation of the original learning content to the skills of pre-readers, short training duration, and a restricted focus on explicitly trained skills. Therefore, the current study aims at investigating the impact of a preventive, and pre-reading adapted GraphoGame training (i.e., GraphoGame-Flemish, GG-FL) on explicitly trained skills and non-specifically trained phonological and language abilities. Following a large-scale screening (N = 1225), the current study included 88 pre-reading kindergarteners at cognitive risk for dyslexia who were assigned to three groups training either with GG-FL (n = 31), an active control game (n = 29), or no game (n = 28). Before and after the 12-week intervention, a variety of reading-related skills were assessed. Moreover, receptive letter knowledge and phonological awareness were measured every three weeks during the intervention period. Results revealed significantly larger improvements in the GG-FL group on explicitly trained skills, i.e., letter knowledge and word decoding, without finding transfer-effects to untrained phonological and language abilities. Our findings imply a GG-FL-driven head start on early literacy skills in at-risk children. A follow-up study should uncover the long-term impact and the ability of GG-FL to prevent actual reading failure.
... 8). Bowyer-Crane et al. (2008) compared the effects of an intervention program focused on letter-sound knowledge, phonological awareness, and book-level reading to an oral language intervention that provided instruction in vocabulary, comprehension, inference generation, and narrative skills. They found that after 20 weeks, as expected, the preschool children who received the phonology and reading intervention had improvements in word-level reading and the preschool students who received the oral language intervention had significantly stronger vocabulary and grammatical skills. ...
... In fact, the children in the treatment group performed at a comparable level to their peers in reading comprehension after receiving the intervention. Clarke et al. (2010), Bowyer-Crane et al. (2008, and Fricke et al. (2013) provided oral language instruction in individual or small group arrangements. On a much larger scale, LARRC et al. (2019) examined the impact of a language-focused whole-classroom intervention on the language skills and reading comprehension of 938 first-through third-grade students. ...
... A number of conclusions can be drawn from the current literature. First, there is a growing body of research that shows oral language interventions improve reading comprehension (Bowyer-Crane et al., 2008;Clarke et al., 2010;Fricke et al., 2013;LARRC et al., 2019). Second, the Story Champs studies (Kirby et al., 2021;Petersen et al., 2020; suggest that narrativefocused oral language instruction may impact written language (i.e., reading comprehension and writing). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effects of a multitiered system of language support (MTSLS) on kindergarteners' narrative retelling, personal stories, writing, and expository language. Method Participants were 686 kindergarten students from four school districts in the United States. Twenty-eight classrooms were randomly assigned to treatment ( n = 337 students) or control ( n = 349 students) conditions. The treatment group received 14 weeks of oral narrative language instruction using Story Champs, a multitiered language program. Classroom teachers delivered large group (Tier 1) instruction for 15–20 min a day for 4 weeks. After this short-duration whole-class instruction, speech-language pathologists began small group Story Champs (Tier 2) intervention with a random sample of students who did not make adequate progress from the large group instruction ( n = 49). These students received Tier 2 intervention for 20 min twice a week in addition to continued Tier 1 instruction. Results Results indicated that the students in the treatment group had significantly higher scores on all outcome measures compared to the students in the control group. Analyses of outcomes from the 49 students who received Tier 2 intervention compared to a matching sample of at-risk control students revealed that the treatment group had significantly higher scores on narrative retells, personal stories, and expository retells. When compared to matched average-performing and advanced-performing control peers, the students who received Tier 2 intervention had significantly higher narrative retell scores and no longer had significantly lower personal story, expository, or writing scores. Conclusion This effectiveness study demonstrated that MTSLS can lead to meaningful improvements in kindergarteners' oral and written language skills, even helping at-risk students catch up to high-achieving peers.
... Melalui mendengar, anak mampu menyimpan berbagai informasi untuk menyelesaikan tugas-tugasnya di sekolah. Bercerita juga merupakan contoh kegiatan untuk meningkatkan kemampuan menyimak atau mendengarkan (Bowyer-Crane et al., 2008). ...
... Metode tunjukkan dan ceritakan dilihat mampu meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara ekspresif yang mampu memantau penggunaan kosakata dan tata bahasa anak serta mendorong anak untuk menjawab pertanyaan dan mencari informasi dengan mengajukan pertanyaan (Bowyer-Crane et al., 2008). Dickinson dan McCabe (2001) menambahkan bahwa keterampilan kosakata dan tata bahasa yang merupakan dua kemampuan dasar yang mampu mengukur kemampuan membaca. ...
... Dickinson dan McCabe (2001) menambahkan bahwa keterampilan kosakata dan tata bahasa yang merupakan dua kemampuan dasar yang mampu mengukur kemampuan membaca. Oleh sebab itu metode tunjukkan dan ceritakan dilakukan untuk memantau penggunaan kosakata dan tata bahasa anak yang merupakan dua kemampuan dasar yang mampu memprediksi kemampuan membaca (Bowyer-Crane, et al., 2008;Dickinson & McCabe, 2001). ...
Article
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Reading readiness is one of the skills given to early childhood through playing while learning. Kindergarten children are given assignments in the form of worksheets and the teacher will ask those children to read and then mention the words back on their worksheet. If the learning system to read like this were practiced repeatedly, the child will get bored. Reading readiness can be done through telling stories and using flash cards. One of the behaviors that show the child is in the reading readiness stage is when a child who is able to use spoken language to express an object. This can be realized through the show and tell method, which is a method that provides opportunities for children to learn new things through storytelling and listening to stories from their friends. This study aims to see the application of the show and tell method on reading readiness of kindergarten children. Participants in this study were 16 TK B students in PAUD FL which were divided into two groups, namely EG (Experiment Group) and CG (Control Group). Participants will be provided with an adapted Reading Readiness Assessment test kit and an Expressive Vocabulary Test as additional analysis given at the beginning and end of the study. The data analysis used an independent sample t-test which resulted that the method show and tell was ineffective for the reading readiness of kindergarten children (t = 1,678; p = 0.114) but the method show and tell was effective in increasing the number of children’s word to describe something (t = 4.961; p = 0.001) and children's vocabulary (t = 4,797; p = 0.002). Kesiapan membaca merupakan salah satu keterampilan yang diberikan kepada anak usia dini melalui kegiatan bermain sambil belajar. Anak TK diberikan tugas dalam bentuk lembar kerja dan meminta anak untuk membaca lalu menuliskan kembali kata yang ada pada lembar kerja tersebut. Apabila sistem belajar membaca seperti ini dilakukan berulang, maka anak akan merasa jenuh. Kesiapan membaca dapat dilakukan dengan cara bercerita, mendongeng dan penggunaan media flash card. Salah satu perilaku yang menunjukkan anak berada dalam tahap kesiapan membaca adalah anak mampu menggunakan bahasa lisan untuk menceritakan suatu objek. Hal ini dapat diwujudkan dalam metode tunjukkan dan ceritakan, yaitu metode yang memberikan peluang bagi anak untuk belajar hal baru melalui kegiatan bercerita dan mendengarkan cerita teman sekelompoknya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat efektivitas penerapan metode tunjukkan dan ceritakan terhadap kesiapan membaca anak TK. Partisipan pada penelitian ini adalah 16 murid TK B di PAUD FL yang dibagi menjadi dua kelompok, yaitu KE (Kelompok Eksperimen) dan KK (Kelompok Kontrol). Partisipan akan diberikan alat tes Reading Readiness Assessment yang telah diadaptasi serta Expressive Vocabulary Test sebagai analisis tambahan yang diberikan pada awal dan akhir penelitian. Analisis data menggunakan uji beda yang menunjukkan hasil bahwa metode tunjukkan dan ceritakan tidak efektif terhadap kesiapan membaca anak TK (t = 1.678; p = 0.114) namun metode tunjukkan dan ceritakan efektif untuk meningkatkan jumlah kata anak (t = 4.961; p = 0.001) dan jumlah kosakata anak (t = 4.797; p = 0.002).
... Since language forms the ways of thought, language contributes to cognitive development (Nelson, 1996;Deák, 2014;Song et al., 2014;Tamis-LeMonda, Shannon et al, 2004). As this contribution can be amplified or accelerated by reading, which advances vocabulary and then cognitive development, language comprehension skills are the determinants of reading comprehension skills (Bowyer-Crane, Snowling, Duff et al., 2008;Griffin, Hemphill, Camp et al., 2004;Hulme & Snowling, 2014;Sullivan & Brown, 2015;Snowling & Hulme, 2005;Whorrall & Cabell, 2016). It has been reported that oral-language skills serve as the key element affecting emergent literacy and subsequent reading attainment because of a developmental continuity of oral-language, phonological sensitivity and print-knowledge (Dickinson & Anastasopoulos, 2003). ...
... As a restricted code engenders the use of short sentences and unorganized paragraphs with simple lexicon due to its context-based orientation (Bernstein, 1971(Bernstein, , 1981, predictably, its holders, like our underachieving students, were unable to handle such complexities as uncontext-led theses. More importantly, as these relations denote a principle that language comprehension skills are the foundation of reading comprehension skills (Bowyer-Crane, Snowling, Duff et al., 2008;Griffin, Hemphill, Camp et al., 2004;Hulme & Snowling, 2014;Sullivan & Brown, 2015;Snowling & Hulme, 2005;Whorrall & Cabell, 2016), this finding explicates how literacy serves as a proxy connecting spoken language and written language. ...
Article
Drawing upon the rules of recognition and realization, this study sets out to explore why underachieving students cannot answer math test items correctly and how to improve their attainment in such tests. In order to accomplish this goal, 27 in-depth interviews were conducted. The findings show that these students were unable to exercise these rules due to a combination of structural constraints embedded within question texts and their restricted literacy skills. To address these two issues, textual configurations need to move, at least temporarily, from an uncontext-based form to a context-based style that better aligns with the students’ everyday life experiences. Their literacy skills could be enhanced through constructive strategies, such as development of reading and answering techniques, and practice.
... Experimental studies indicate that training these foundational skills is indeed effective in helping to improve children's early literacy development. In a United Kingdom-based randomized controlled trial, Bowyer-Crane et al. (2008) evaluated an intervention program fostering phoneme awareness and letter-sound knowledge in 4-year-old children with poor oral language proficiency. Results showed that, in comparison to an active oral language control group, children in the early literacy intervention group made significantly more improvements in phoneme awareness, decoding and single word reading. ...
... Notably, that study used the same HLL training program as Pfost et al. (2019) but did not include activities to foster letter-sound knowledge. Several key studies suggest that interventions combining phoneme awareness with lettersknowledge training are more effective than the isolated training of phonological awareness (Hatcher et al., 1994;Bus and van IJzendoorn, 1999;Schneider et al., 2000;Bowyer-Crane et al., 2008). Furthermore, the program that was evaluated in the current study had been particularly adapted to the needs of multilingual learners. ...
Article
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Phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge underpin children's early literacy acquisition. Promoting these foundational skills in kindergarten should therefore lead to a better response to formal literacy instruction once started. The present study evaluated a 12-week early literacy intervention for linguistically diverse children who are learning to read in German. The study was set in Luxembourg where kindergarten education is in Luxembourgish and children learn to read in German in Grade 1 of primary school. One hundred and eighty-nine children (mean age = 5;8 years) were assigned to an early literacy intervention in Luxembourgish or to a business-as-usual control group. Trained teachers delivered the intervention to entire classes, four times a week, during the last year of kindergarten. The early literacy program included direct instruction in phonological awareness and letter-knowledge, while promoting print and book awareness and literacy engagement. Children were assessed pre-intervention, immediately post-intervention and at a nine-months delayed follow-up using measures in Luxembourgish and in German. At the end of the intervention, children in the intervention group performed significantly better than the control group on phonological awareness and letter-knowledge measures in Luxembourgish and the gains in phonological awareness were maintained at nine months follow-up. The effects generalized to measures of phonological awareness, word-level reading comprehension and spelling in German (effect sizes d > .25), but not to German word-level reading, at delayed follow-up. Intervention programs designed to support foundational literacy skills can be successfully implemented by regular teachers in a play-based kindergarten context. The findings suggest that early literacy intervention before school entry can produce educationally meaningful effects in linguistically diverse learners.
... Children in one group received training in letter-sound knowledge, phonological awareness and book level reading skills while the other group received instruction in vocabulary, comprehension, inference generation and narrative skills. After the intervention period, children 28 in the first group scored higher on measures of oral language development and those in the second group made significant gains in vocabulary development, however, "more than 50% of at-risk children remain in need of literacy support" (Bowyer-Crane et al., 2008). Further, Bowyer-Crane et al. stated although there is a great amount of research in phonology, "there is a dearth of evidence regarding interventions for children at risk of reading comprehension difficulties because of delays and difficulties in vocabulary and grammatical processes, and little is known about preventing reading comprehension" (p. ...
... 422). Findings indicate while vocabulary instruction is vital for reading comprehension, support in oral language skills provided greater overall literacy performance (Bowyer-Crane et al., 2008). Duff and Clark (2011) conducted a literature review focusing on dyslexia and reading comprehension impairment and found evidence of a causal relationship between oral language and reading comprehension. ...
... Since the results of the National Reading Panel were published in 2000 (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2000), remediation programmes, especially in the United States, began to include training on five basic skills: phonemic awareness, decoding (alphabetic principle), fluency, vocabulary and comprehension. After reviewing various programmes, Scammaca, Vaughn, Roberts, Wanzek, and Torgesen (2007) observed that successful interventions included explicit training on phonemic awareness and decoding (phonics) (e.g., Bowyer-Crane et al., 2008). ...
... The CAIP's effectiveness in facilitating literacy skills might have arisen from three key properties. First, according to the most successful interventions (phonics; e.g., Bowyer-Crane et al., 2008), training was focused on phonemic awareness and decoding. In this case, the predominant role of syllables in reading and accessing the Spanish lexicon led us to promote the learning of the different syllable types graded by complexity. ...
Article
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Difficulties in implementing effective instruction for at‐risk students arise from two challenges: the transfer of evidence‐based knowledge and the lack of economic resources. Computer‐assisted programmes offer a suitable solution, providing quality instruction using low‐cost resources. Thirty‐two first‐grade students with early learning difficulties were identified and paired based on at least three of the pre‐intervention reading measures (reading efficiency of monosyllabic and disyllabic items, words, pseudowords and text reading speed). Each pair was assigned to one of two different intervention programmes: a computer‐assisted intervention programme (CAIP) focused on syllables or the programme provided by the Spanish State School Assistance Services (SSAS). Every week, the CAIP participants received in pairs four 15‐min training sessions on syllable decoding plus one 30‐min group comprehension session. The CAIP was delivered by trainee students. The SSAS programme typically consisted of a 1‐hr individual or in small groups sessions per week delivered by trained practitioners. Both programmes were administered for 11 weeks. The CAIP intervention showed better results than the SSAS intervention for both decoding and comprehension, with moderate to large effect sizes.
... l'oral et à l'écrit Bianco et al., 2012 ;Bowyer-Crane et al., 2008 ;Fricke et al., 2013), mais l'effet ne se transfère pas toujours à la compréhension à l'écrit (Capodieci et al., 2021 ;Fricke et al., 2017). Au contraire des études ayant eu un effet positif, l'entrainement proposé pour le groupe contrôle actif n'enseignait pas de stratégie. ...
... La question est de savoir si un entrainement plus précoce auprès des lecteurs débutants pourrait être bénéfique et prévenir les difficultés d'interprétation des pronoms et de compréhension de la lecture. Certaines recherches ont en effet montré qu'un entrainement à la compréhension orale et aux compétences narratives avec des enfants de 4 à 5 ans, avant l'apprentissage de la lecture, peut améliorer et prévenir dans une certaine mesure les difficultés de compréhension en lecture(Bianco et al., 2012 ;Bowyer-Crane et al., 2008 ;Fricke et al., 2013). Cependant, ces entrainements se déroulaient sur un temps long (semestre ou année) et portaient sur l'enseignement de diverses compétences et stratégies de compréhension. ...
Thesis
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L’apprentissage de la lecture est une activité complexe qui requiert, au CP, un enseignement explicite et structuré, souvent guidé par une méthode de lecture (i.e., un ensemble d’outils pour l’enseignant et les élèves) éditée. Une équipe pluridisciplinaire, composée d’enseignants, de chercheurs et d’un éditeur (les Éditions Hatier), a choisi de proposer une nouvelle méthode de lecture pour le CP, basée sur les preuves : la méthode Lili CP. Une telle méthode se doit d’être utile (efficace) pour les apprentissages des élèves, mais elle doit aussi être utilisable (facile à prendre en main) et acceptable (compatible avec la classe) pour les enseignants et les élèves, afin de pouvoir être largement adoptée. L’objectif principal de cette thèse était d’évaluer l’utilité, l’utilisabilité et l’acceptabilité de certains outils et de certaines séquences de la méthode en cours de conception, afin d’identifier des pistes concrètes d’amélioration.Notre recherche a débuté par une analyse des pratiques des potentiels futurs utilisateurs. Un questionnaire diffusé à large échelle a mis en évidence la grande diversité des pratiques enseignantes au CP et les principaux critères de choix d’une méthode de lecture. Une étude a révélé l’excellent niveau d’utilisabilité et d’acceptabilité du matériel original d’entrainement à la combinatoire prévu dans Lili CP. Deux interfaces différentes du guide pédagogique au format web ont été comparées, en terme d’utilisabilité et d’acceptabilité également, permettant de dégager la pertinence de certains choix de présentation pour la future méthode. Dans une étude expérimentale, nous avons évalué l’efficacité d’une séquence d’enseignement explicite de la compréhension conçue pour Lili CP, sur les acquis des élèves dans ce domaine. La comparaison à un groupe contrôle actif (i.e., ayant suivi une autre séquence, plus classique, d’enseignement de la compréhension) a démontré l’intérêt de ce type de séquence pour la compétence entrainée.Enfin, deux versions (basique et gamifiée) de l’application numérique ECRIMO, développée pour Lili CP et visant à entrainer l’écriture de mots en autonomie, ont été évaluées sur les trois dimensions d’utilité, d’utilisabilité et d’acceptabilité. L’application, dans ses deux versions, obtient d’excellents scores d’utilisabilité et d’acceptabilité. Les entrainements avec ECRIMO, dans ses deux versions, se sont révélés aussi efficaces qu’un entrainement à l’encodage sous forme d’exercices classiques de dictée dirigés par l’enseignant. Dans tous les groupes entrainés, les progrès en encodage sont plus importants que dans le groupe contrôle et sont visibles surtout chez les élèves ayant déjà un bon niveau d’encodage en début de CP. Enfin, pour ces élèves, la version basique a engendré un progrès plus important que la version gamifiée.Ce travail doctoral apporte une démonstration de la possibilité et de l’intérêt de conduire une évaluation intégrée des outils éducatifs qui doivent être étudiés dans les trois dimensions d’utilité, d’utilisabilité et d’acceptabilité, avant leur diffusion à grande échelle sur le terrain. Il se conclut par la proposition d’une nouvelle démarche intégrée de conception et d’évaluation d’outils pédagogiques.
... We put particular emphasis on the need for training studies in 1990, and this need has been met to some extent across languages (e.g., Byrne & Fielding-Barnsley, 1995;Bowyer-Crane et al., 2008;Hatcher et al., 1994;Schneider et al., 1997Schneider et al., , 2000. Training studies are the optimal way of testing for causal connections in developmental psychology. ...
... Research has found that children with language difficulties can make significant gains, and maintain them, in reading comprehension if they are provided with a programme that targets their oral language difficulties (e.g., Bowyer-Crane et al., 2008;Clarke et al., 2010). It is not just children with SCD that will benefit from this type of instruction. ...
Article
The simple view of reading (SVR) predicts that reading difficulties can result from decoding difficulties, language comprehension difficulties, or a combination of these difficulties. However, classification studies have identified a fourth group of children whose reading difficulties are unexplained by the model. This may be due to the type of classification model used. The current research included 209 children in Grades 3–5 (8–10 years of age) from New Zealand. Children were classified using the traditional approach and a cluster analysis. In contrast to the traditional classification model, the cluster analysis approach eliminated the unexplained reading difficulties group, suggesting that poor readers can be accurately assigned to one of three groups, which are consistent with those predicted by the SVR. The second set of analyses compared the three poor reader groups across 14 measures of reading comprehension, decoding, language comprehension, phonological awareness, and rapid naming. All three groups demonstrated reading comprehension difficulties, but the dyslexia group showed particular weaknesses in word processing and phonological areas, the SCD group showed problems deriving meaning from oral language, and the mixed group showed general deficits in most measures. The findings suggest that the SVR does have the potential to determine reading profiles and differential intervention methods.
... It becomes very difficult or rather impossible for the child to master reading and spelling without learning adequate letter-sound correspondence [14 -15]. Rote learning (without the use of phonetic cues) might help in earlier years, however, as the syllabus increases according to the grade level, a child without adequate knowledge of letter-sound correspondence will find it extremely difficult to maintain adequate performance in academics [16]. ...
Article
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To diagnose Specific Learning Disability (SLD) in India, only 'NIMHANS Specific Learning Disability Battery (NSB)' is accepted for assessment and certification of disability. Earlier editions of the NSB used 'functioning at three standards below the current class of the child' to arrive at a diagnosis of SLD, and was simple to administer and interpret. Given these, majority of psychologists used it in their routine assessments, and in most of the cases, it was relatively easy to diagnose SLD with this battery. A major limitation faced when using the NSB was that it had test items only till the 7th grade. In the updated NSB, there are test items till the 10th grade, which is definitely a big upgrade. However, as the battery is relatively concise and does not clearly describe the nuances of assessment and interpretation in marginal and complex scenarios, some young psychologists and research scholars might find it difficult to diagnose SLD. Some of these scenarios are, when the child shows problems in academics but does not exactly fulfil the NSB criteria; when the child is having problems with second language instead of the first language; when the child is from an international curriculum; when the child is studying in a class higher than grade 10; when comprehension appears to be impaired; and/or the issue of whether or not to have so many subtypes of SLD. This article highlights some of these issues, discusses and attempts to provide possible solutions with respect to assessment and interpretation.
... Notably, early language difficulties have been shown to elevate the risk of various deleterious outcomes across the life course [22]. Specifically, early language skills have been linked to key markers of subsequent health and development, including academic achievement [23], literacy skills [24,25], and emotional and behavioral outcomes [26,27]. There has also been growing attention to social factors that explain disparities in language skills among children [26,28], with several public awareness and action campaigns designed to elevate public consciousness concerning the importance of enhancing children's language skills and expanding access to high-quality environments that support language skill development among vulnerable children [29][30][31]. ...
Article
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Objective: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) is a serious public health concern with the potential to interfere with various components of healthy child development. Even so, there has been limited nationally representative research investigating these connections. The current study examines the relationship between ETS and language difficulties among toddlers and preschool-aged children in the United States. Method: Data are derived from the 2018 National Survey of Children's Health and facilitate strategic comparisons between different forms of ETS-namely, children who live with family members who smoke vs. children whose family members smoke inside the housing unit. Results: The findings reveal a robust association between family members smoking inside the housing unit and both receptive and expressive language difficulties, but only among male children. After adjusting for covariates, smoking inside the housing unit is associated with a 182% increase in the rate of early composite language difficulties among male children. These associations persist even when compared to male children who live with smoking family members who do not smoke inside the housing unit. Conclusions: The findings suggest a need for interventions designed to reduce ETS in households with young children and increase targeted language skill training for vulnerable children in an effort to enhance child development and well-being. To maximize this effort, we advocate for interdisciplinary teams, including medical and public health practitioners, educators, and researchers, to work together to develop and implement evidence-based strategies to limit ETS in homes and facilitate healthy language development among young children.
... With appropriate levels of support and resources, such models can be effectively delivered by Speech and Language Therapy Assistants (Boyle, McCartney, O'Hare, & Forbes, 2009), teachers (Pence, Justice, & Wiggins, 2008), specialist teaching assistants (Mecrow et al., 2010) and mainstream classroom assistants (Bowyer-Crane et al., 2008) withstanding, collaboration and positive social relationships between those involved in policy and services for children with speech, language and communication needs bring benefits (McKean et al., 2017). ...
Article
Children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) have a significant deficit in spoken language ability which affects their communication skills, education, mental health, employment and social inclusion. The present study reports findings from a survey by EU network COST ACTION 1406 and aims to explore differences in service delivery and funding of SLT services for children with DLD across Europe and beyond. The survey was completed by 5024 European professionals. COST countries were grouped into Nordic, Anglo-Saxon, Continental, Mediterranean, Central/Eastern and Non-European categories. The use of direct, indirect and mixed interventions, and their relationship to funding available (public, private or mixed) were considered for further analysis. The results revealed that direct therapy and public funding was the most prevalent across countries. Significant differences were seen between country categories in funding of services. However, therapy type was predicted by country category but not funding, nor its interaction with the country category. The lack of variation in results implies that other factors than evidence-based practices, practitioners experience, and patient preferences, drive choices in therapy. More research is needed to gain a better understanding of factors affecting the choice of therapy.
... Programs across East Asia (Butler, 2015) all explicitly treat English in elementary school as the initial step in preparing students for successful learning in secondary schools. Programs focused on phonemic awareness and connections between written and oral language have been demonstrated as effective for promoting literacy among both L1 (Bowyer-Crane et al., 2008) and L2 (Szabo, 2010) learners. In order to prepare students for the reading-based, test-focused environment set by many secondary education curricula (Butler, 2015), elementary language education programs must necessarily support students in developing an awareness of the phonemic representations of the new language. ...
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Phonemic awareness is a necessary but not sufficient skill for language development. Phonemic awareness is therefore a critical factor for initial foreign language learning leading to ultimate attainment of literacy in the new language. The current study presents a test of phonemic awareness applied to the Japanese elementary school EFL environment. Two-hundred and sixty-eight students enrolled in grades three through six in a public elementary school completed a fifteen item test of initial word sounds. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results comparing scores across the four cohorts indicated clear differences between the grades. Students' phonemic awareness increased in non-stepwise fashion, with clear increases across two year periods. Results indicate the potential for testing phonemic awareness in EFL settings with non-alphabetic L1 learners.
... Several earlier randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have assessed the efficacy of different variants of the NELI programme. In an initial small-scale study, Bowyer Crane et al. (2008) showed that children with language weaknesses who received a 20-week version of the NELI language intervention programme made more progress in vocabulary and grammatical skills than children receiving a phonology and reading skills programme. Fricke, Bowyer-Crane, Haley, Hulme, and Snowling (2013) evaluated a 30-week version of the programme spanning Nursery (preschool) and Reception, finding large effects of the intervention (d = .80 ...
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Background: It is well established that oral language skills provide a critical foundation for formal education. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Nuffield Early Language Intervention (NELI) programme in ameliorating language difficulties in the first year of school when delivered at scale. Methods: We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) in 193 primary schools (containing 238 Reception classrooms). Schools were randomly allocated to either a 20-week oral language intervention or a business-as-usual control group. All classes (N = 5,879 children) in participating schools were screened by school staff using an automated App to assess children's oral language skills. Screening identified 1,173 children as eligible for language intervention: schools containing 571 of these children were allocated to the control group and 569 to the intervention group. Results: Children receiving the NELI programme made significantly larger gains than the business-as-usual control group on a latent variable reflecting standardized measures of language ability (d = .26) and on the school-administered automated assessment of receptive and expressive language skills (d = .32). The effects of intervention did not vary as a function of home language background or gender. Conclusions: This study provides strong evidence for the effectiveness of a school-based language intervention programme (NELI) delivered at scale. These findings demonstrate that language difficulties can be identified by school-based testing and ameliorated by a TA delivered intervention; this has important implications for educational and social policy.
... Crane et al., 2008). Reading skills in turn facilitate children's engagement with texts and production of their own writing, on which formal academic assessment often depends. ...
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The quality of a child’s early language and communication environment (ELCE) is an important predictor of later educational outcomes. However, less is known about the routes via which these early experiences influence the skills that support academic achievement. Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n=7,120) we investigated relations between ELCE (<2 years), literacy and social adjustment at school entry (5 years), structural language development and social development in mid-primary school (7-9 years), and, literacy outcomes (reading and writing) at the end of primary school (11 years) using structural equation modelling. ELCE was a significant, direct predictor of social adjustment and literacy skills at school entry and of linguistic and social competence at 7-9 years. ELCE did not directly explain variance in literacy outcomes at the end of primary school, instead the influence was exerted via indirect paths through literacy and social adjustment aged 5, and, language development and social development at 7-9 years. Linguistic and social skills were both predictors of literacy skills at the end of primary school. Findings are discussed with reference to their potential implications for the timing and targets of interventions designed to improve literacy outcomes.
... These positive results are also reinforced with similar studies (Ekpo, Udosen, Afangideh, Ekukinam & Ikorok, 2010;Inaja, Ubi & Anagbogu, 2012;Eshiet, 2016;Zaidi, Aftab, Naeem & Naheed, 2016;Nasrawi & Al-Jamal, 2017;Savage, Georgiou, Parrila & Maiorino, 2018;Dussling;2018) in which the use of proper conditions and materials also seemed to improve pupils' reading skills (Ekpo et al., 2010). Bowyer-Crane et al. (2008) mention that pupils who participated in this particular study based on the teaching of phonology and reading significantly improve their phonological awareness and reading skills with a positive effect on their emergent literacy. The results of a study carried out by Callinan & Van der Zee (2010) also reveal that after a nine-week implementation of the method, pupils were able to recognize more words and pseudo-words as well as individual phonemes. ...
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Phonics is well established in the English-speaking world, but to date it has been implemented to only a limited extent in contexts where English is a foreign language. This study aimed at evaluating the appropriateness of phonics for developing literacy skills of Spanish learners of English. An experimental pre-test-post-test design was used to determine the method's added value. The sample consisted of two equivalent groups in a Span-ish bilingual state primary school, a control and a treatment group, where a phonic method was implemented by the researcher. Data were collected through tests measuring emergent Spanish and English literacy skills. Non-parametric tests and correlations were used for data analysis. The treatment group presented a significant improvement in phonological awareness , naming and letter and pseudo-word reading in the Spanish and English post-test. These 7-year-old children attained a level in English literacy skills equivalent to English children aged 5.8. The findings also suggested a positive transference of skills between English word reading and Spanish pseudo-word reading. The present study can serve as a possible proposal to help improve our Spanish bilingual programmes through the use of phonics in the early years in order to increase learners' English reading level.
... Future studies should shed light on whether early intervention to oral language skills can promote reading comprehension. For example, Bowyer-Crane et al. (2008) demonstrated that children with difficulties in oral language skills at the beginning of school who received an intervention based on oral language showed better performance on measures of vocabulary. In addition, Aukrust (2007) reported that the qualities of vocabulary used by teachers in preschool children could predict second language skills (e.g., vocabulary). ...
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The current study aimed at investigating the performance of bilingual children with English as an additional language (EAL) on language and literacy measures compared to monolinguals across the first four years of primary school in the U.K. Moreover, it addressed whether bilinguals and monolinguals’ performance on reading comprehension was consistent with the Simple View of Reading. An additional area of interest was to examine the extent to which use of and exposure to both heritage and majority language affected the development of the children’s reading comprehension in both of their spoken languages. A total of forty bilingual and forty monolingual children were assessed in oral language skills and decoding in Year 1 and Year 3 in primary school. After one school year, they were assessed in oral language skills, decoding, and reading comprehension in Year 2 and Year 4. The results showed that the bilinguals performed better than the monolinguals in decoding in all years, suggesting that exposure to a first language with transparent orthography (Greek) may benefit the development of word reading skills. However, the bilinguals scored lower in oral language skills and reading comprehension than their monolingual peers. This finding underlined the significant role of oral language skills in the development of bilinguals’ reading comprehension. Both oral language skills and decoding contributed to reading comprehension in bilinguals but the effects of oral language skills on reading comprehension were stronger than the effects of decoding. Finally, we found that language use of the minority language outside the home could significantly predict reading comprehension in the minority language, underlining the importance of language exposure through complementary schools and other activities outside the home to the maintenance and development of the heritage language.
... Several studies have demonstrated that oral narrative language in particular is strongly related to reading comprehension (Barton-Hulsey et al., 2017;Catts et al., 2016;Griffin et al., 2004;Hogan et al., 2011). Furthermore, there is emerging evidence that oral narrative language intervention can have a causal impact on reading comprehension (Bowyer-Crane et al., 2008;Clarke et al., 2010). ...
Article
This early-stage feasibility study investigated the effects of a multitiered oral narrative language intervention on oral language, reading comprehension, and writing. Twenty-eight second-grade students participated in this quasi-experimental control group study with assignment at the classroom level. The independent variable was large- and small-group oral narrative language intervention that required students to retell increasingly complex stories that were strategically crafted to include academic language typically found in grade-level reading material. Story grammar, causal adverbial subordinate clauses, elaborated noun phrases, adverbs, and the acquisition of word meanings through context were explicitly taught. Students' performance on proximal measures of oral narrative retells, as well as distal measures of reading comprehension and writing, was assessed at pretest and posttest. Statistically significant differences between the treatment and control groups were found on all outcome measures using nonparametric analyses. Large- and small-group multitiered oral narrative instruction improved not only oral narrative language but also reading comprehension and written composition.
... At Tier 1, successful professional development for education staff was at least 8 hours (in the Starling et al., 2012 study), but more often closer to 50-60 hours in Snow et al. (2014) and studies in the meta-analysis by Markussen-Brown et al. (2017) and accompanied by individual coaching or observation sessions. Tier 2 studies involved relatively intensive initial training (four days in Fricke et al., 2013;Bowyer-Crane et al., 2008) followed by regular (fortnightly), on-going training, support and monitoring for staff delivering programmes. The studies at Tier 3A demonstrating good outcomes for children had high levels of support for parents (Tosh et al., in press), or professionals who were employed and supervised directly by the SLT service or research team (Boyle et al., 2009;Mecrow et al., 2010). ...
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Background: Paediatric SLT roles often involve planning individualised intervention for specific children (provided directly by SLTs or indirectly through non-SLTs), working collaboratively with families and education staff and providing advice and training. A tiered approach to service delivery is currently recommended, whereby services become increasingly specialised and individualised for children with greater needs. Aims : To examine 1) evidence of intervention effectiveness for children with language disorders at different tiers and 2) evidence regarding SLT roles; and to propose an evidence-based model of SLT service delivery. Methods: Controlled, peer-reviewed studies, meta-analyses and systematic reviews of interventions for children with language disorders are reviewed and their outcomes discussed, alongside the differing roles SLTs play in these interventions. We indicate where gaps in the evidence base exist and present a possible model of service delivery consistent with current evidence, and a flowchart to aid clinical decision making. Main Contribution: The service delivery model presented resembles the tiered model commonly used in education services, but divides individualised (Tier 3) services into Tier3A: indirect intervention delivered by non-SLTs, and Tier 3B: direct intervention by an SLT. We report the evidence for intervention effectiveness and which children might best be served by each tier, the role SLTs could take within each, and the evidence of effectiveness of these roles. Regarding universal interventions provided to all children (Tier 1) and those targeted at children with language weaknesses (Tier 2), there is growing evidence that approaches led by education services can be effective when staff are highly trained and well-supported. There is currently limited evidence regarding additional benefit of SLT-specific roles at Tiers 1 and 2. With regard to individualised intervention (Tier 3): children with complex or pervasive language disorders progress significantly following direct individualised intervention (Tier 3B), whereas children with milder or less pervasive difficulties can make progress when intervention is managed by an SLT, but delivered indirectly by others (Tier 3A), provided they are well-trained, -supported and -monitored. Conclusions: SLTs have a contribution to make at all tiers, but where prioritisation for clinical services is a necessity, we need to establish the benefits and cost-effectiveness of each contribution. Good evidence exists for SLTs delivering direct individualised intervention, and we should ensure that this is available to those children with pervasive and/or complex language impairments. In cases where service models are being provided which lack evidence, we strongly recommend that SLTs investigate the effectiveness of their approaches.
... At Tier 1, successful professional development for education staff was at least 8 hours (in the Starling et al., 2012 study), but more often closer to 50-60 hours in Snow et al. (2014) and studies in the meta-analysis by Markussen-Brown et al. (2017) and accompanied by individual coaching or observation sessions. Tier 2 studies involved relatively intensive initial training (four days in Fricke et al., 2013;Bowyer-Crane et al., 2008) followed by regular (fortnightly), on-going training, support and monitoring for staff delivering programmes. The studies at Tier 3A demonstrating good outcomes for children had high levels of support for parents (Tosh et al., in press), or professionals who were employed and supervised directly by the SLT service or research team (Boyle et al., 2009;Mecrow et al., 2010). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Paediatric SLT roles often involve planning individualised intervention for specific children (provided directly by SLTs or indirectly through non-SLTs), working collaboratively with families and education staff and providing advice and training. A tiered approach to service delivery is currently recommended, whereby services become increasingly specialised and individualised for children with greater needs. Aims : To examine 1) evidence of intervention effectiveness for children with language disorders at different tiers and 2) evidence regarding SLT roles; and to propose an evidence-based model of SLT service delivery. Methods: Controlled, peer-reviewed studies, meta-analyses and systematic reviews of interventions for children with language disorders are reviewed and their outcomes discussed, alongside the differing roles SLTs play in these interventions. We indicate where gaps in the evidence base exist and present a possible model of service delivery consistent with current evidence, and a flowchart to aid clinical decision making. Main Contribution: The service delivery model presented resembles the tiered model commonly used in education services, but divides individualised (Tier 3) services into Tier3A: indirect intervention delivered by non-SLTs, and Tier 3B: direct intervention by an SLT. We report the evidence for intervention effectiveness and which children might best be served by each tier, the role SLTs could take within each, and the evidence of effectiveness of these roles. Regarding universal interventions provided to all children (Tier 1) and those targeted at children with language weaknesses (Tier 2), there is growing evidence that approaches led by education services can be effective when staff are highly trained and well-supported. There is currently limited evidence regarding additional benefit of SLT-specific roles at Tiers 1 and 2. With regard to individualised intervention (Tier 3): children with complex or pervasive language disorders progress significantly following direct individualised intervention (Tier 3B), whereas children with milder or less pervasive difficulties can make progress when intervention is managed by an SLT, but delivered indirectly by others (Tier 3A), provided they are well-trained, -supported and -monitored. Conclusions: SLTs have a contribution to make at all tiers, but where prioritisation for clinical services is a necessity, we need to establish the benefits and cost-effectiveness of each contribution. Good evidence exists for SLTs delivering direct individualised intervention, and we should ensure that this is available to those children with pervasive and/or complex language impairments. In cases where service models are being provided which lack evidence, we strongly recommend that SLTs investigate the effectiveness of their approaches.
... The picture changes if we consider the impact of such instruction in conjunction with other activities. Many stud ies have indicated that phonological awareness instruction is more effective when linked to instruction about print and meaning (e.g., Ball & Blachman, 1991;BowyerCrane et al., 2008;Byrne & FieldingBarnsley, 1989;Cunningham, 1990;Gillon, 2000;Hatcher, Hulme, & Ellis, 1994;Schuele & Boudreau, 2008;Stuebing, Barth, Cirino, Francis, & Fletcher, 2008). Theories of reading can easily explain these results. ...
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Can the science of reading contribute to improving educational practices, allowing more students to become skilled readers? Much has been learned about the behavioral and brain bases of reading, how students learn to read, and factors that contribute to low literacy. The potential to use research findings to improve literacy outcomes is substantial but remains largely unrealized. The lack of improvement in literacy levels, especially among students who face other challenges such as poverty, has led to new pressure to incorporate the science of reading in curricula, instructional practices, and teacher education. In the interest of promoting these efforts, the authors discuss three issues that could undermine them: the need for additional translational research linking reading science to classroom activities, the oversimplified way that the science is sometimes represented in the educational context, and the fact that theories of reading have become more complex and less intuitive as the field has progressed. Addressing these concerns may allow reading science to be used more effectively and achieve greater acceptance among educators.
... When analysing the gains in listening comprehension, the intervention group showed significant differences, while the control group did not, which is surprising when considering that oral language effects are not usually affected by such brief interventions (see Clarke et al., 2010;Bowyer-Crane et al., 2008). This could be influenced by the evidence that in shallow orthographies, oral comprehension has a heavier influence on reading comprehension from earlier ages when compared to deeper orthographies such as English (Florit and Cain, 2011). ...
Article
This experimental study aimed to influence reading comprehension skills through the development of one or both components of the Simple View of Reading (decoding and listening comprehension), by using a differentiated instruction approach. Reading comprehension skill gains were compared in an intervention group versus a control, after the delivery of a program designed to target one or both of such components. Fifty-four children from two 1st grade classrooms in a public school in Mexico were screened for difficulties in decoding and listening comprehension at the end of the school year. At the beginning of 2nd grade, 27 students identified with difficulties were randomly assigned to either an intervention (n = 14) or a control group (n = 13). Students selected for the targeted intervention attended the sessions aimed at their specific needs: five students with poor decoding only received the Phonological and Orthographic Awareness sessions of the intervention (9 sessions); seven students with poor listening comprehension only attended the Oral Vocabulary sessions (5 sessions); two students with mixed difficulties attended the full program (14 sessions). A 2 × 2 mixed analysis of variance showed that the interaction between the Time and Group variables had a significant effect, i.e. students in the intervention group had significantly higher scores in the post-test evaluation with respect to their baseline and compared to the growth observed in the control group. Results are discussed concerning their implications for teaching practices and for the use of strategies that target reading specific difficulties in students using both oral and written language.
... Enfin, aucune étude n'a concerné l'effet d'un entraînement précoce en compréhension orale sur les capacités de compréhension orale et écrite ultérieures, auprès d'enfants avec un TSLO. Ce type d'études effectué auprès de populations moins ciblées a pourtant montré des résultats très encourageants (Bianco et al., 2012;Bowyer-Crane et al., 2008). 55 Par exemple, planifier les actions nécessaires pour écrire un mot dicté. ...
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Cette thèse porte sur les capacités de lecture des enfants souffrant de troubles spécifiques du langage oral (TSLO). Elle tente de préciser les processus à l’oeuvre lors de la lecture de mots isolés chez ces enfants, en analysant leurs compétences langagières écrites en lien avec leurs compétences orales. Dans un premier temps, nous présentons les principaux acquis de la littérature à ce propos. Puis nous exposons quatre études expérimentales réalisées auprès d’enfants avec un TSLO ainsi qu’auprès d’enfants au développement typique, sur les sujets suivants : (1) la reconnaissance de mots écrits isolés en lecture à voix haute, (2) la reconnaissance de mots écrits isolés en lecture silencieuse, (3) la compréhension de mots écrits, (4) et les facteurs prédictifs de la lecture. Les résultats les plus marquants indiquent qu’en reconnaissance de mots écrits, les enfants avec un TSLO présentent un retard d’un peu plus de trois ans, en lecture à voix haute comme en lecture silencieuse. En tant que groupe, leur procédure de lecture phonologique apparaît moins efficiente que leur procédure orthographique. L’hétérogénéité interindividuelle demeure toutefois importante. Les enfants qui souffrent des troubles phonologiques expressifs les plus sévères sont ceux dont la procédure phonologique est la plus altérée. Quant à la compréhension de mots écrits isolés, elle apparaît coûteuse en termes de ressources de traitement. Enfin, les facteurs prédictifs de la lecture des enfants avec un TSLO sont identiques à ceux des enfants au développement typique, à l’exception d’un facteur original : chez les enfants avec un TSLO, l’instabilité phonologique est prédictive des capacités de lecture, contrairement aux enfants contrôles. Ce facteur mériterait de plus amples recherches.
... Several experiments revealed gains stemming from phonological and phonemic awareness instruction for kindergarten students. In the United Kingdom, instruction in letter-sound knowledge, phoneme awareness with blending and segmenting, and exercises in lettersound knowledge and phoneme awareness while listening to storybooks were beneficial for students' reading and writing skills (Bowyer-Crane et al., 2008). Another study provided 21 h of instruction in phonemic awareness, rhyming, alliteration, letter, and spelling generating significant gains (Craig, 2006). ...
Article
Can mobile games foster the early literacy skills of children in poverty? This pioneering study examines the barriers faced to implement an evidence-based, game-enhanced educational phonological and phonemic awareness program in 12 public schools serving students in poverty in a developing country. The deployment team adequately mitigated barriers such as the lack of proper information and communication technologies and school staff shortages. School interruptions due to sports events, three strikes, and rain that flooded the streets where children in poverty lived challenged the implementation of the intervention. In addition to discussing barriers we faced in the implementation, we also examined the mobile-based intervention's efficacy on 351 kindergarten students' word reading and writing skills. The experimental group children grew 3.63 times more than the control group in reading (d = 0.67) and 2.78 times more in writing (d = 0.36). Compared to 495 high-quality interventions, the Papyrus Play effect size ranked above 90% of them. Its per-pupil cost is equivalent to one percent of the average educational intervention cost. Compared with 104 reading interventions conducted in kindergarten, the Papyrus Play effect size was 3.35 times stronger than the reading intervention benchmark.
... With appropriate levels of support and resources, such models can be effectively delivered by Speech and Language Therapy Assistants (Boyle, McCartney, O'Hare, & Forbes, 2009), teachers (Pence, Justice, & Wiggins, 2008), specialist teaching assistants (Mecrow et al., 2010) and mainstream classroom assistants (Bowyer-Crane et al., 2008) withstanding, collaboration and positive social relationships between those involved in policy and services for children with speech, language and communication needs bring benefits (McKean et al., 2017). ...
... Although they ultimately concern reading comprehension, sentence development and spelling, many basic skills are necessary for a child to reach a good level of text comprehension and to create written texts. Whitehurst and Lonigan (1998) divided these abilities into two domains: inside-out skills and outside-in skills; this division is currently used in the psychology of reading and writing (e.g., Bishop & Snowling, 2004;Bowyer-Crane et al., 2008). Inside-out skills concern multiple specific abilities connected with word decoding (e.g., letter knowledge, phoneme awareness), and outside-in skills concern vocabulary and grammatical skills. ...
Article
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You can download the article for free until the 13th of July 2022 using this link: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1f7kn3AhveuoCN Background Previous research reveals relations between theory of mind (ToM) and cognitive outcomes, but mostly among typically developing children. Aim To study these relations in children with developmental difficulties, this longitudinal study investigated the cognitive consequences of ToM in deaf or hard-of-hearing (DHH) children. Methods and procedures One hundred and thirty-four (X = 9.2 years) participants were assessed in three waves, i.e., one wave every ten months. The participants completed the ToM scale, language and literacy skills (LLS) tests, the academic self-concept in language (ASC-L) questionnaire, and the sensitivity to criticism measure. Outcomes and results The results revealed that high levels of children’s ToM ability predicted higher levels of LLS 20 months later. Mediators of this association were sensitivity to criticism and ASC-L. Controlling for LLS at T1, ASC-L at T2 mediated the relations between ToM and LLS at T3. Moreover, sensitivity to criticism predicted ASC-L, and sensitivity to criticism and ASC-L mediated the relation between ToM and LLS at T3. That is, children who were sensitive to criticism and held positive views of their academic self were also better skilled in ToM and in LLS. Conclusions and implications Our results can help improve the education of DHH students.
... Οι διεπιστημονικές ομάδες λειτουργούν από κοινού, επικοινωνούν συστηματικά, ανταλλάσουν πληροφορίες και συνεργάζονται με τις οικογένειες και μεταξύ τους για να επιτύχουν στόχους σωστά ιεραρχημένους. Οι αναλύσεις παρατήρησης (Bowyer-Crane et al., 2011) παιδιών με προβλήματα λόγου από τους Bowyer-Crane et al. (2008) έδειξε ότι η εντατική παρέμβαση από ένα υψηλό εκπαιδευμένο και καλά υποστηριζόμενο εκπαιδευτικό προσωπικό μπορεί να βελτιώσει την κατανόηση του λεξιλογίου και της γλωσσικής έκφρασης του παιδιού με προβλήματα λόγου και ομιλίας. ...
... Similarly, Justice et al. (2010) found that the positive effect of code focused interventions did not extend to children's meaning focused skills. Also, Bowyer-Crane et al. (2008) reported that children who received a code focused intervention, outscored children who received a meaning-focused intervention on measures of letter knowledge and phonological awareness and vice versa on measures of vocabulary and grammar. ...
Article
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This study examined the effects of a classroom-focused intervention on different domains of early literacy. The intervention consisted of shared e-book reading combined with a print referencing technique done via a SMART board. The specific goal of the study was to examine whether children could be instructed simultaneously in print knowledge, phonological awareness, and vocabulary, without a loss of impact on the development of either skill. Results revealed significantly larger gains with high effect sizes in print knowledge (ηp² = .474) and phonological awareness (ηp² = .370) when children received the print referencing e-book intervention compared to the control conditions. Print referencing did not hinder children’s learning of new words, but enhanced vocabulary to the same extent, or even higher, as e-books typically do in kindergarten when print referencing is not involved. The findings indicate that e-book reading merged with print referencing is a beneficial method for enhancing essential early literacy skills simultaneously. The learning tool is particularly efficient for a tailor-made educational setting, as it allows differential attention to students and lessens the workload for teachers.
... Typical PA tasks involve segmenting a word into its constituting syllables or phonemes, blending syllables or phonemes into a word, or replacing a syllable or phoneme within a given word or pseudoword. The important role of PA in reading is further confirmed by studies reporting that dyslexic children show a PA deficit (Melby-Lervåg et al., 2012;Vellutino et al., 2004), and that training in PA can improve reading skills (Bowyer-Crane et al., 2008). A fourth skill that taps into phonological processes-and also predicts early reading acquisition-but has received far less attention than PA, is verbal shortterm memory (STM). ...
Article
Reading acquisition is based on a set of preliteracy skills that lay the foundation for future reading abilities. Phonological awareness-the ability to identify and manipulate the sound units of oral language-has been reported to play a central role in reading acquisition. However, current evidence is mixed with respect to its universal contribution to reading acquisition across orthographies. This longitudinal study examines the development and contribution of phonological awareness to early reading skills in Spanish, a transparent orthography. The results of a comprehensive battery of phonological awareness skills in a large sample of children (Time 1 n = 616, 296 females, mean age 5.6, from middle to high socioeconomic backgrounds; Time 2 n = 397) with no reading experience at study onset suggest that the development of phonological awareness is delayed in Spanish. Furthermore, our results show that phonological awareness does not contribute to the prediction of reading acquisition above and beyond other preliteracy skills. Letter knowledge indexes children's ability to identify phonemes and thus takes a more central role in the prediction of early reading skills. Therefore, we underscore the need to thoughtfully address the distinctive features of the reading acquisition process across orthographies, which should be taken into account in models of reading and learning to read. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... Similarly, working memory deficits observed among children with specific maths problems provide support for the hypothesis that memory systems are critical for maths (Szucs et al., 2013). Such theories are appealing due to the simplicity of assuming a "core deficit" (Astle & Fletcher-Watson, 2020) and their direct implications for intervention (e.g., phonological interventions for struggling readers, Bowyer-Crane et al., 2008). ...
Article
Mutualistic theories assume that the mastering of a skill, either cognitive or academic, supports and amplifies the development of other such abilities. The current study uses network science to model cross-sectional associations between cognitive and academic performance in two age-matched developmental cohorts. One cohort was a community sample drawn from the general school population, while the other included struggling learners. The community sample outperformed the struggling learners across all measures. Network models suggested that although the tasks were similarly interrelated across cohorts, there were some notable differences in association strength: Academic skills were more closely coupled in the community sample, while maths was more strongly related to cognitive skills in the struggling learners. We demonstrate the utility of network models as an analytic framework that is consistent with contemporary theories of learning difficulties and the nature of the relationship between cognitive and learning skills more broadly.
... The NARA was originally designed to measure reading comprehension but has also been used as a measure of listening comprehension, whereby stories are read aloud to participants by the researcher and children are asked questions to gauge their comprehension of the stories (as used by Bowyer-Crane et al., 2008;Cain & Bignell, 2014;Nation, Cocksey, Taylor, & Bishop, 2010). All passages used were fiction and told stories about a protagonist's actions. ...
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Theory of mind has been shown to be important for listening comprehension for children at a range of ages. However, there is a lack of longitudinal evidence for a relationship between early theory of mind and later listening comprehension. The aim of this study was to examine whether preschool theory of mind has a longitudinal direct effect on later listening comprehension over and above the effects of concurrent theory of mind. A total of 147 children were tested on measures of theory of mind, working memory, vocabulary, and grammatical knowledge at Time 1 (mean age = 4;1 [years;months]) and Time 2 (mean age = 5;11). In addition, at Time 2 listening comprehension, comprehension monitoring, and inference making measures were taken. Data were fitted to concurrent and longitudinal models of listening comprehension. Concurrent findings at Time 2 showed theory of mind to have a direct effect on listening comprehension. However, longitudinal findings showed that earlier theory of mind in preschool (Time 1) did not have a direct effect on listening comprehension 22 months later; instead, there was only an indirect effect of earlier theory of mind on later listening comprehension via concurrent theory of mind (Time 2). Taken together, the results give further support for the importance of theory of mind for listening comprehension but show that there are limited additional benefits of early theory of mind acquisition. Implications for the development of children’s listening comprehension are discussed.
... With appropriate levels of support and resources, such models can be effectively delivered by Speech and Language Therapy Assistants (Boyle, McCartney, O'Hare, & Forbes, 2009), teachers (Pence, Justice, & Wiggins, 2008), specialist teaching assistants (Mecrow et al., 2010) and mainstream classroom assistants (Bowyer-Crane et al., 2008) withstanding, collaboration and positive social relationships between those involved in policy and services for children with speech, language and communication needs bring benefits (McKean et al., 2017). ...
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Background Children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) have a significant deficit in spoken language ability which affects their communication skills, education, mental health, employment and social inclusion. Aim The present study reports findings from a survey by EU network COST ACTION 1406 and aims to explore differences in service delivery and funding of SLT services for children with DLD across Europe and beyond. Methods and procedures The survey was completed by 5024 European professionals. COST countries were grouped into Nordic, Anglo-Saxon, Continental, Mediterranean, Central/Eastern and Non-European categories. The use of direct, indirect and mixed interventions, and their relationship to funding available (public, private or mixed) were considered for further analysis. Outcomes and results The results revealed that for direct therapy, there were more cases than expected receiving private funding. For indirect therapy, fewer than expected received private and more than expected public funding. For mixed therapy, fewer cases than expected received private funding. Conclusions and implications The results implies that other factors than evidence-based practices, practitioners experience, and patient preferences, drive choices in therapy. More research is needed to gain a better understanding of factors affecting the choice of therapy.
... The attainment of proficiency in reading and writing, a critical gateway to literacy and a fuller participation in society, is a major challenge to schoolchildren in all languages Lee & Jonson-Reid, 2016;Saiegh-Haddad, 2012;Share & Bar-On, 2018;Torgesen, 2002;Vellutino et al., 2007). Early intense and systematic exposure to the oral language, prior to school, is often found beneficial and can facilitate the acquisition of reading and writing abilities in early school years (Bowyer-Crane et al., 2008;Bryant et al., 1989;Fricke et al., 2013;Kaiser & Roberts, 2011;Maclean et al., 1987;Sénéchal & LeFevre, 2002;Snow et al., 1998;Storch & Whitehurst, 2002;Vellutino et al., 2007). ...
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Oral language proficiency in kindergarten can facilitate the acquisition of reading and writing. However, in diglossic languages, like Arabic, the large gap between the spoken and the formal, modern standard (MSA) varieties of the language may restrict the benefits of oral language proficiency to subsequent literacy skills. Here, we tested, in a randomized controlled study, whether an intervention program, implemented in kindergarten, that familiarized the children with rhymes presented in MSA through recitation, facilitated reading and spelling in first grade. We also tested whether engaging the children in recitation affords an advantage over repeated listening by itself and whether rhymes directly referring to the alphabet impart additional advantages. The children were assigned to one of four intervention conditions (10 sessions, 2 months) wherein they either recited or repeatedly listened to nursery rhymes that were either related or unrelated to the alphabet, or engaged in nonlinguistic activities (control). A year later, all intervention groups read faster compared to a control group (nonlinguistic activity). The two recitation groups gained in reading accuracy, reading efficiency, and spelling; spelling gains were found also in children who only listened to alphabet-related rhymes. The reciting groups were superior to the listening groups in all study measures (reading and spelling). The results suggest long-term contributions from structured interventions based on oral rhyme repetition, in kindergarten, to reading and spelling in first grade. Vocal recitations in kindergarten can benefit the mastering of literacy skills even in a language that differs from the one spoken in the child's home. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... The objective of the training was to improve language comprehension by working on a series of essential components at the word, sentence and discourse level, together with verbal working memory and semantic fluency. It should be noted that a crucial component of the programme has been the inclusion of discourse and the emphasis on inferential comprehension, in line with previous proposals such as those of the Nuffield Early Language Intervention (NELI) programme (Bowyer-Crane et al., 2008;Hulme et al., 2020;West et al., 2021) and especially that formulated by Dawes et al. (2019). Indeed, retelling and story generation activities that favoured narrative cohesion and coherence, supported by open-ended questions and visual support (pictures, drawings, icons, and graphic organizers) and pictographic planning (Spencer & Petersen, 2020) were implemented. ...
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Background There is a clear predominance of programmes aimed at improving aspects related to language production in pupils with developmental language disorder (DLD). However, programmes aimed at improving their receptive skills are limited. Aims The main aim was to assess the effectiveness of an intervention programme for oral language comprehension skills in preschoolers with typical development (TD) and pupils with DLD. Methods & Procedures Participants were 99 five-year-old pupils, with and without DLD, divided into four groups: two control groups (TD-C = 25; DLD-C = 25) and two experimental groups (TD-T = 24; DLD-T = 25), from schools on the Spanish island of Tenerife. The study used, as pre- and post-measures, the receptive language subtests of the CELF-4-Spanish: Concepts and Following Directions, Word Classes—Receptive and Sentence Structure, as well as two tasks assessing comprehension of paragraphs and narratives. Due to the strong link between oral comprehension skills and executive functions, working memory and semantic fluency are included in this research. The Backward Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) and Semantic Fluency subtest of the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT) were used to assess working memory and semantic fluency, respectively. The intervention programme followed a multitiered system of support (MTSS) model, with 95 sessions lasting 60 min each delivered jointly by teachers and speech and language therapists, and focused on lexical–semantic, morphological, syntactic and narrative skills; inferences; verbal working memory; and semantic fluency. Outcomes & Results The results showed, as expected, that pupils diagnosed with DLD initially performed worse on oral language comprehension and executive functions than pupils with TD. Further, the DLD-T and TD-T groups showed greater gains following the programme, especially in word classes—receptive, sentence structure, verbal working memory and semantic fluency. Finally, a significant positive correlation was found between the gains obtained by the participants in verbal working memory and semantic fluency, with the gains obtained in the three CELF-4-Spanish subtests. Conclusions & Implications An intervention programme applied at an early age fosters oral language comprehension skills and executive functions in pupils with DLD and TD. The intervention organized at different levels of support, following an MTSS model, showed clear progress of the DLD and TD groups in oral language comprehension and executive functions. What this paper adds Pupils with DLD present deficits in linguistic comprehension and executive functions. There are many intervention programs focused on improving language production skills. It is also necessary to consider the skills underlying language problems in pupils with DLD. Oral language, inference, working memory and semantic fluency activities improve comprehension. A collaborative and inclusive intervention of teachers and speech language therapists. Psycholinguistic and neuropsychological skills training should become part of the academic curriculum as early as preschool age. What is already known on the subject Pupils with DLD show problems related to both comprehension and production language. However, there is a clear predominance of programs just aimed at improving aspects related to language production. Clinical implications of this study An intervention program applied at an early age fosters oral language comprehension skills and executive function in pupils with DLD. The intervention organized at different levels of support, following an adaptation of the Response Tier Intervention models, showed clear progress of the DLD in comprehension oral language and executive functions.
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Background: Despite the fact that literacy instruction is a main focus of primary education, many children struggle to meet nationally set standards. Aims: We aimed to test which components of a comprehensive reading programme (ABRACADABRA: https://eur03.safelinks.protection. Outlook: com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fdoi.org%2F10.1186%2FISRCTN18254678&data=04%7C01%7Cjanet.vousden%40ntu.ac.uk%7C880280e0b00749df855308d94068a0bb%7C8acbc2c5c8ed42c78169ba438a0dbe2f%7C1%7C0%7C637611640381216902%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C1000&sdata=%2B4U9sGfofkyCPEY7lWz8n3TPoMOAeJMXyFwdhW6EpUw%3D&reserved=0) mediated the effect of the programme on nationally assessed literacy outcomes. Sample: Following blind allocation, 516 Year 1 pupils from 40 schools were randomized to the programme group, and 908 Year 1 pupils, to a control condition. Methods: Pupils in the programme completed 20 weeks of instruction in grapheme/phoneme knowledge, decoding, and comprehension. Control children received regular classroom instruction. Results: Children in the programme group were significantly better at these taught skills after the programme finished (effect sizes: grapheme/phoneme knowledge, β = .33, 95% CI [0.09-0.57]; decoding, β = .26, 95% CI [0.09-0.43]; and comprehension, β = .26, 95% CI [0.05-0.47]). Improvements in the programme group's decoding and comprehension skills fully mediated the improvements in national literacy assessments serving as a delayed post-test 12 months after the programme. Programme group pupils were 2.3 (95% CI [1.4-4.1]) times more likely to achieve/exceed the expected standard in reading, and 1.8 (95% CI [1.2-2.6]) times more likely to achieve/exceed the expected standard in writing due to an increase in the trained skills. Conclusions: These results provide strong evidence that a programme that incorporates decoding and comprehension instruction for typically developing beginning readers improves distal educational outcomes in reading and writing through increasing proficiencies targeted by the reading programme.
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Developing the fundamentals of a foreign language is a major focus of most elementary school language programs (Butler, 2015). One of the established key fundamentals for all later language studies comes in the form of awareness and understanding of the sounds commonly used in the new language, commonly known as phonological awareness (PA). Findings regarding the impact of PA across alphabetic languages are long-standing and robust (Sawyer & Fox, 1991; Treiman et al., 2019). Students who understand that words are composed of individual sounds and that those sounds follow patterns develop better ultimate language skills (Melby-Lervåg et al., 2012). In studies comparing second/foreign language learners and L1 learners, the primary differences in learners’ abilities can be traced back to general language aptitude, one portion of which includes an awareness of phonemes (Melby-Lervåg & Lervåg, 2014). Other cross-national studies of language acquisition show an important role for PA across languages (Moll et al., 2014; Treiman et al., 2019). Importantly, elementary school foreign language programs are often designed as a method for developing fundamentals that later lead to literacy (Butler, 2005). Many public education programs across East Asia (Butler, 2015) explicitly treat English in elementary school as the initial step in preparing students for successful language learning in secondary schools. Programs focused on phonemic awareness and connections between written and oral language have been demonstrated as effective for promoting literacy among both L1 (Bowyer-Crane et al., 2008) and L2 (Szabo, 2010) learners. In order to prepare students for the reading-based, test-focused environment set by many secondary education curricula (Butler, 2015), elementary language education programs must necessarily support students in developing an awareness of the phonemic representations of the new language.
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This article reports on 2 studies with kindergarten and first-grade children from a low-achieving elementary school that provided vocabulary instruction by the students' regular classroom teacher of sophisticated words (advanced vocabulary words) from children's trade books that are typically read aloud. Study 1 compared the number of sophisticated words learned between 52 children who were directly taught the words and 46 children who received no instruction. As expected, children in the experimental group learned significantly more words. Study 2, a within-subject design, examined 76 children's learning of words under 2 different amounts of instruction, either 3 days or 6 days. In Study 2, the vocabulary gains in kindergarten and first-grade children for words that received more instruction were twice as large. Student vocabulary was assessed by a picture test where students were presented with pictures that represented different words and were asked to identify which picture represented the word that the tester provided. The verbal test was similar but used a sentence description of a scenario instead of a picture. The instructional implications for which words to teach and how to teach them to young children are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Positive long-term effects of phoneme awareness training in kindergarten were found in this study with children of dyslexic parents. Thirty-five at-risk children (attending 26 different classes) participated in an intensive 17-week program in their regular kindergarten classes designed to help them improve in phoneme awareness. Follow-up measures indicated that the trained children outperformed 47 untrained at-risk controls in both word and nonword reading in Grades 2, 3, and 7. For the very poorest readers, significant effects were found--even in Grade 7 reading comprehension. However, the trained at-risk children were found to lag behind a 2nd control group of 41 not-at-risk children in most aspects of reading. Treatment-resistant children had relatively poor phonological representations of known words. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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We present a longitudinal intervention study of children experiencing difficulties in the early stages of learning to read. Our subjects, 7-year-old poor readers, were divided into 4 matched groups and assigned to 1 of 3 experimental teaching conditions: Reading with Phonology, Reading Alone, Phonology Alone, and a Control. Although the Phonology Alone group showed most improvement on phonological tasks, the Reading with Phonology group made most progress in reading. These results show that interventions to boost phonological skills need to be integrated with the teaching of reading if they are to be maximally effective in improving literacy skills.
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This study examined teaching phonemic awareness by embedding sound talk within meaningful literacy experiences of shared reading and writing. Small groups of 5 and 6-year-old children were seen three times a week for seven weeks. Four phonemic awareness tasks – first and last sound identification, sound segmentation and deletion – were targeted in each session, with scaffolding fitting task difficulty and individual child ability. Results showed that such naturalistic instruction lead to gains in phonemic awareness compared to a no-treatment control group for both the treatment group as a whole and for a subgroup of children with lower literacy levels. Treatment-specific improvement was evident in three of the four phonemic awareness tasks: first sound identification, last sound identification, and sound segmentation. Additional observations of language and literacy benefits for this emergent literacy approach were also identified.
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Developmental dyslexia and specific language impairment (SLI) were for many years treated as distinct disorders but are now often regarded as different manifestations of the same underlying problem, differing only in severity or developmental stage. The merging of these categories has been motivated by the reconceptualization of dyslexia as a language disorder in which phonological processing is deficient. The authors argue that this focus underestimates the independent influence of semantic and syntactic deficits, which are widespread in SLI and which affect reading comprehension and impair attainment of fluent reading in adolescence. The authors suggest that 2 dimensions of impairment are needed to conceptualize the relationship between these disorders and to capture phenotypic features that are important for identifying neurobiologically and etiologically coherent subgroups.
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In a quantitative meta-analysis, the effects of phonological awareness training on reading were shown. In a homogeneous set of U.S. studies with a randomized or matched design, the combined effect sizes for phonological awareness and reading were d = 0.73 (r = .34, N = 739) and d = 0.70 (r = .33, N = 745), respectively. Thus, experimentally manipulated phonological awareness explains about 12% of the variance in word-identification skills. The combined effect size for long-term studies of the influence of phonological awareness training on reading was much smaller, d = 0.16 (r = .08, N = 1,180). Programs combining a phonological and a letter training were more effective than a purely phonological training. Furthermore, training effects were stronger with posttests assessing simple decoding skills than with real-word-identification tests. In sum, phonological awareness is an important but not a sufficient condition for early reading.
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Although they often have significant difficulties in other areas, most children with specific language impairment (SLI) have special difficulties with the understanding and use of grammar. Therefore, most of these children will require an intervention program that targets comprehension or production of grammatical form. Language interventionists are faced with the difficult task of developing comprehensive intervention programs that address the children's grammatical deficits while remaining sensitive to their other existing and predictable social, behavioral, and academic problems. The purpose of this article is to present and justify 10 principles that we regard as essential for planning adequate interventions for children with language-learning problems. These principles are relevant for all children with problems in the use of grammar, but they are especially appropriate for 3- to 8-year-old children with SLI. Although all of our examples are from English, the principles we have chosen are sufficiently broad to cut across many linguistic and cultural boundaries.
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The authors present the results of a 2-year longitudinal study of 90 British children beginning at school entry when they were 4 years 9 months old (range = 4 years 2 months to 5 years 2 months). The relationships among early phonological skills, letter knowledge, grammatical skills, and vocabulary knowledge were investigated as predictors of word recognition and reading comprehension. Word recognition skills were consistently predicted by earlier measures of letter knowledge and phoneme sensitivity (but not by vocabulary knowledge, rhyme skills, or grammatical skills). In contrast, reading comprehension was predicted by prior word recognition skills, vocabulary knowledge, and grammatical skills. The results are related to current theories about the role of phonological, grammatical, and vocabulary skills in the development of early reading skills.
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This study evaluated the effectiveness of an intervention for reading-delayed children in Year-1 classes. METHODS: A sample (N = 77) of children drawn from 14 schools representing those with the weakest reading skills were randomly allocated to one of two groups. A 20-week intervention group received the intervention for two consecutive 10-week periods, while a 10-week intervention group only received the intervention for the second 10 weeks of the study. The programme was delivered in daily 20-minute sessions that alternated between small group (N = 3) and individual teaching. The programme combined phoneme awareness training, word and text reading, and phonological linkage exercises. RESULTS: The children receiving the intervention during the first 10-week period made significantly more progress on measures of letter knowledge, single word reading, and phoneme awareness than children not receiving the intervention. However, the children who only received the intervention during the second 10-week period made rapid progress and appeared to catch up with the children who had been given the more prolonged intervention. Failure to respond to the intervention was predicted by poor initial literacy skills and being in receipt of free school meals. CONCLUSION: A reading intervention programme delivered on a daily basis by trained teaching assistants is an effective intervention for children who show reading delays at the end of their first year in school. However, around one-quarter of the children did not respond to this intervention and these children would appear to need more intensive or more prolonged help to improve their reading skills.
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This book sets out to integrate recent exciting research on the precursors of reading and early reading strategies adopted by children in the classroom. It aims to develop a theory about why early phonological skills are crucial in learning to read, and shows how phonological knowledge about rhymes and other units of sound helps children learn about letter sequences when beginning to be taught to read. The authors begin by contrasting theories which suggest that children's phonological awareness is a result of the experience of learning to read and those that suggest that phonological awareness precedes, and is a causal determinant of, reading. The authors argue for a version of the second kind of theory and show that children are aware of speech units, called onset and rime, before they learn to read and spell. An important part of the argument is that children make analogies and inferences about these letter sequences in order to read and write new words.
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To clarify the role of decoding in reading and reading disability, a simple model of reading is proposed, which holds that reading equals the product of decoding and comprehension. It follows that there must be three types of reading disability, resulting from an inability to decode, an inability to comprehend, or both. It is argued that the first is dyslexia, the second hyperlexia, and the third common, or garden variety, reading disability.
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As this publication is a full book, it cannot be freely shared. If you wold like to purchase a copy, you can do so at https://www.guilford.com/books/Bringing-Words-to-Life/Beck-McKeown-Kucan/9781462508167
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In this paper, we discuss the relative contribution of several theoretically relevant skills and abilities in accounting for variance in both word reading and text comprehension. We present data from the first and second waves of a longitudinal study, when the children were 7 to 8 years, and 8 to 9 years old. In multiple regression analyses, we show that there is a dissociation between the skills and abilities that account for variance in word reading, and those that account for variance in text comprehension. The pattern of results is very similar at both time points. Significant variance in comprehension skill is accounted for by measures of text integration, metacognitive monitoring, and working memory. By contrast, these measures do not account for variance in word reading ability, which was best accounted for by a phoneme deletion task. The implications of these findings for our understanding of the development of reading ability, children’s problems in text comprehension and for remediation will be discussed.
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Intended for teachers and administrators, this book examines systematic observation of reading behaviors and reading recovery procedures to help children with reading problems. Part one deals with systematic observation, beginning with a discussion of the reading process and reading programs. Following that, it describes the use of the diagnostic survey--including strategies both for using the "running record" and for testing--and concludes with strategies for summarizing the diagnostic survey results. Part two focuses on reading recovery--a program for early intervention--and includes chapters on organizing to prevent reading failure, reducing reading difficulties with a second chance to learn, understanding the various aspects of the reading recovery program, reading recovery teaching procedures, and deciding when to discontinue children from the program. The final chapter contains summaries of six projects that make up the program and a summary of the entire reading recovery program. The appendixes contain summary sheets, test score sheets, reading recovery teaching sheets (for New Zealand children), and a stanine score summary sheet. (EL)
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Sought to determine whether the Reading Recovery Program would be more effective if systematic instruction in phonological recoding skills were incorporated into the program. First-grade at-risk readers were divided into 3 matched groups of 32 children each; a modified Reading Recovery group, a standard Reading Recovery group, and a standard intervention group. The children in the modified Reading Recovery group received explicit code instruction involving phonograms. Results indicated that, although both Reading Recovery groups achieved levels of reading performance required for discontinuation of the program, the modified Reading Recovery group reached these levels of performance much more quickly. Results further indicated that the children selected for Reading Recovery were particularly deficient in phonological processing skills and that their progress in the program was strongly related to the development of these skills. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The relative effectiveness of 3 instructional approaches for the prevention of reading disabilities in young children with weak phonological skills was examined. Two programs varying in the intensity of instruction in phonemic decoding were contrasted with each other and with a 3rd approach that supported the children's regular classroom reading program. The children were provided with 88 hr of one-to-one instruction beginning the second semester of kindergarten and extending through 2nd grade. The most phonemically explicit condition produced the strongest growth in word level reading skills, but there were no differences between groups in reading comprehension. Word level skills of children in the strongest group were in the middle of the average range. Growth curve analyses showed that beginning phonological skills, home background, and ratings of classroom behavior all predicted unique variance in growth of word level skills. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Emergent literacy consists of the skills, knowledge, and attitudes that are developmental precursors to reading and writing. This article offers a preliminary typology of children's emergent literacy skills, a review of the evidence that relates emergent literacy to reading, and a review of the evidence for linkage between children's emergent literacy environments and the development of emergent literacy skills. We propose that emergent literacy consists of at least two distinct domains: inside-out skills (e.g., phonological awareness, letter knowledge) and outside-in skills (e.g., language, conceptual knowledge). These different domains are not the product of the same experiences and appear to be influential at different points in time during reading acquisition. Whereas outside-in skills are associated with those aspects of children's literacy environments typically measured, little is known about the origins of inside-out skills. Evidence from interventions to enhance emergent literacy suggests that relatively intensive and multifaceted interventions are needed to improve reading achievement maximally. A number of successful preschool interventions for outside-in skills exist, and computer-based tasks designed to teach children inside-out skills seem promising. Future research directions include more sophisticated multidimensional examination of emergent literacy skills and environments, better integration with reading research, and longer-term evaluation of preschool interventions. Policy implications for emergent literacy intervention and reading education are discussed.
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Background: This study evaluated the effectiveness of an intervention for reading-delayed children in Year-1 classes. Methods: A sample (N = 77) of children drawn from 14 schools representing those with the weakest reading skills were randomly allocated to one of two groups. A 20-week intervention group received the intervention for two consecutive 10-week periods, while a 10-week intervention group only received the intervention for the second 10 weeks of the study. The programme was delivered in daily 20-minute sessions that alternated between small group (N = 3) and individual teaching. The programme combined phoneme awareness training, word and text reading, and phonological linkage exercises. Results: The children receiving the intervention during the first 10-week period made significantly more progress on measures of letter knowledge, single word reading, and phoneme awareness than children not receiving the intervention. However, the children who only received the intervention during the second 10-week period made rapid progress and appeared to catch up with the children who had been given the more prolonged intervention. Failure to respond to the intervention was predicted by poor initial literacy skills and being in receipt of free school meals. Conclusion: A reading intervention programme delivered on a daily basis by trained teaching assistants is an effective intervention for children who show reading delays at the end of their first year in school. However, around one-quarter of the children did not respond to this intervention and these children would appear to need more intensive or more prolonged help to improve their reading skills.
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A novel behavioural screening questionnaire, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), was administered along with Rutter questionnaires to parents and teachers of 403 children drawn from dental and psychiatric clinics. Scores derived from the SDQ and Rutter questionnaires were highly correlated; parent-teacher correlations for the two sets of measures were comparable or favoured the SDQ. The two sets of measures did not differ in their ability to discriminate between psychiatric and dental clinic attenders. These preliminary findings suggest that the SDQ functions as well as the Rutter questionnaires while offering the following additional advantages: a focus on strengths as well as difficulties; better coverage of inattention, peer relationships, and prosocial behaviour; a shorter format; and a single form suitable for both parents and teachers, perhaps thereby increasing parent-teacher correlations.
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Emergent literacy consists of the skills, knowledge, and attitudes that are developmental precursors to reading and writing. This article offers a preliminary typology of children's emergent literacy skills, a review of the evidence that relates emergent literacy to reading, and a review of the evidence for linkage between children's emergent literacy environments and the development of emergent literacy skills. We propose that emergent literacy consists of at least two distinct domains: inside-out skills (e.g., phonological awareness, letter knowledge) and outside-in skills (e.g., language, conceptual knowledge). These different domains are not the product of the same experiences and appear to be influential at different points in time during reading acquisition. Whereas outside-in skills are associated with those aspects of children's literacy environments typically measured, little is known about the origins of inside-out skills. Evidence from interventions to enhance emergent literacy suggests that relatively intensive and multifaceted interventions are needed to improve reading achievement maximally. A number of successful preschool interventions for outside-in skills exist, and computer-based tasks designed to teach children inside-out skills seem promising. Future research directions include more sophisticated multidimensional examination of emergent literacy skills and environments, better integration with reading research, and longer-term evaluation of preschool interventions. Policy implications for emergent literacy intervention and reading education are discussed.