Article

The Body Appreciation Scale: Development of psychometric evaluation

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Body image has been conceptualized and assessed almost exclusively in terms of its negative dimensions. Therefore, a measure reflecting body appreciation, an aspect of positive body image, was developed and evaluated via four independent samples of college women. Study 1 (N = 181) supported the Body Appreciation Scale's (BAS) unidimensionality and construct validity, as it was related as expected to body esteem, body surveillance, body shame, and psychological well-being. Study 2 (N = 327) cross-validated its unidimensionality. Study 3 (N = 424) further upheld the construct validity of the BAS, as it was: (a) related as expected to appearance evaluation, body preoccupation, body dissatisfaction, and eating disorder symptomatology and (b) unrelated to impression management. Studies 1 and 3 also indicated that the BAS predicted unique variance in psychological well-being above and beyond extant measures of body image. Study 4 (N = 177) demonstrated that its scores were stable over a 3-week period. All studies supported the internal consistency reliability of its scores. The BAS should prove useful for researchers and clinicians interested in positive body image assessment.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... BA, an important aspect of positive body image [62,63], is an important indicator for measuring the degree to which individuals respect and love their body image [64]. BA encompasses an accepting, favorable, and respectful attitude toward one's body while also rejecting media-promoted appearance ideals as the only form of human beauty [65]. It is closely associated with low negative emotion (i.e., depression and anxiety) [66], an absence of eating disorders [67], and high body satisfaction [68]. ...
... Meanwhile, individuals with high BA tend to focus on their positive internal characteristics [72]. Since they are less likely to be affected by unrealistic body standards [65], they are less likely to internalize the sociocultural thin-ideal body, including viewing or commenting on SNS photos. In addition, empirical research also documented that BA could moderate the relationship between the internalization of general attractiveness and adolescent facial dissatisfaction [28]. ...
... Specifically, individuals with high BA have more positive coping strategies for appearance-related information on media than people with low BA. Since individuals with high BA possess body-related information more positively, with more positive feelings (i.e., respect and love) about their body, they usually invest less in their self-worth in their body or appearance [65,72] than do those with more negative feelings about their body, and they pay less attention to the weight-related information [93] emphasized in the media. Therefore, people with high BA report less BD, even if they view or "like" ideal photos on SNS and internalize the thin-ideal. ...
Full-text available
Article
Objective: According to sociocultural theory, media is associated with detrimental effects on body image. Due to the popularity of social networking sites (SNS) and the prevalence of body image disturbance among young women, the association between them is worth further exploration. This study examined the relationship between photo activity on SNS and body dissatisfaction (BD) and the roles of thin-ideal internalization (TII) and body appreciation (BA) in this relation. Materials and methods: A total of 746 Chinese female undergraduate students (mean age 20.34 ± 1.47 years) completed a questionnaire measuring SNS photo activity, TII, BD, and BA. Results: (1) Photo activity on SNS was positively associated with BD (r = 0.10, p < 0.01), and TII could mediate this relation (β = 0.07, 95% CI = [0.04, 0.10]). (2) Both the direct effect of SNS photo activity on BD (β = -0.08, p < 0.05) and the mediating effect of TII (β = -0.09, p < 0.01) were moderated by BA. Specifically, these associations were more pronounced for students with lower BA. Conclusion: People exposed to ideal photos or images can shape women's body image perception via TII, whether in the age of traditional media or the Internet, and BA did not buffer the effect of ideal photos on internalization. Our findings could provide practical suggestions for rational photo activity on SNS and the intervention for BD.
... Whereas we expect that traditional feminine ideology may be related to use of indirect aggression, which has been hypothesized to be a more acceptable form of aggression for girls and women who hold a traditional view of femininity, we will also examine if body appreciation, which may be considered a characteristic that is inconsistent with traditional feminine ideology, is negatively related to use of indirect aggression. Body appreciation concerns having a positive view of one's body, which contrasts with the construct of body image which concerns negative thoughts and feelings about one's body (Avalos et al., 2005). ...
... The BAS utilizes 13 items to examine an individual's favorable opinions of the body, acceptance of the body regardless of weight, body shape, and imperfections, respect for the body by engaging in self-care behaviors, and protection of the body by resisting unrealistic body images (Avalos et al., 2005). BAS items are rated on a 5-point scale ranging from Never (1) to Always (5). ...
... A sample of items included on the BAS are, "I respect my body, " "Despite its flaws, I accept my body for what it is, " "I am attentive to my body's needs, " and "I engage in healthy behaviors to take care of my body." Avalos et al. (2005) showed that the BAS has good reliability by examining both the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the measure. Cronbach's alpha was used to examine internal consistency, with a resulting value of 0.94. ...
Full-text available
Article
This study was an investigation of the possible relations and interactions between traditional feminine ideology, and social and relational aggression within a sample of female children and adolescents. Participants included 45 female students (8-19 years of age) who completed measures assessing beliefs about and behaviors feminine ideology, body image (including body objectification), relational and social aggression, and interpersonal maturity. Analyzes revealed that participants who rated themselves as having a weaker internalization of the objectification of one’s body (a subtype of traditional feminine ideology) rated themselves as less likely to use socially-aggressive tactics than those with higher levels of body objectification. No other significant findings were noted. Implications for these findings and directions for future research are discussed.
... Body Appreciation Scale (BAS): 14 The BAS is a one-dimensional, 13-item measure of positive body image that covers four characteristics: (1) favorable opinion regarding one's own body; (2) body acceptance in spite of imperfections and body shape; (3) body respect, by tending to the body's needs and adopting healthy behaviors; and (4) protection against unrealistic body ideals portrayed in the media. Items are rated on a five-point scale (1 = Never, 5 = Always), and the BAS has a minimum score of 13 and a maximum score of 65. ...
... Confirmatory factor analysis was the multivariate statistical technique chosen for this study. The BAS factorial structure has already been explored in previous works and a theoretical background of positive body image in men also stablished, 14,15,[18][19][20][21][22][23][24] but not for men with spinal cord injuries. For these reasons, we chose an approach that could contribute towards prediction and theory development, the partial least square (PLS), with path modeling (PM) method. ...
... Theoretically, the positive body image has four common characteristics: (1) favorable opinion about the body; (2) body acceptance, despite the body weight and size; (3) Body respect, with regard to the body needs and the adoption of healthy behaviors; and (4) protection against media-borne messages/ images of "perfect bodies." 14 Adding these to the definition of positive body image, 27 the first two characteristics proposed by Avalos, Tylka, and Wood-Barcalow 14 could be understood in a more simple way: as "selfbody appreciation" -items 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, and 13, which includes liking, accepting, and giving self-value as a person. The two latter characteristics could be operationalized in a factor called "body care" -items 1, 6, 7, 9, 11, and 12, which would include the adoption of health behavior and protective attitudes toward the body. ...
Full-text available
Article
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the Body Appreciation Scale and its psychometric properties: specifically, the validity of its construct and its internal consistency, for persons with spinal cord injuries in Brazil. Method: A non-probabilistic sample of 70 adult men between 18 and 59 years of age who participated in this study. Partial least squares with path modeling, average variance extracted, squared correlation of the factors, bivariate correlation, variance analysis, Cronbach’s alpha test, and a Composite reliability test were conducted to evaluate factor structure, convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and divergent validity and internal consistency, respectively. Results: The confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the 2-factor solution model, predicted by theory. Convergent and discriminant evidence of validity was provided. Internal consistency values were satisfactory. Weak evidence of concurrent and divergent validity were generated. Conclusion: The Body Appreciation Scale appears to be a valid and reliable scale for researchers, especially in samples of physically active men with spinal cord injury. This new scale could be used to evaluate the impact of physical therapy on body image, as well the impact of sports practice. In this way, it could provide relevant information with which physicians, physical therapists, and physical educators can guide their interventions.
... Body appreciation has been identified as a protective factor in the development of eating disorders [15] and is a component of positive body image that focuses on respecting, accepting, approving, and thinking favorably about one's body [16]. High body appreciation scores have been strongly, negatively associated with and related to body dissatisfaction and disordered eating, respectively [16], and body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint are significant longitudinal predictors of disordered eating outcomes [17]. ...
... Body appreciation has been identified as a protective factor in the development of eating disorders [15] and is a component of positive body image that focuses on respecting, accepting, approving, and thinking favorably about one's body [16]. High body appreciation scores have been strongly, negatively associated with and related to body dissatisfaction and disordered eating, respectively [16], and body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint are significant longitudinal predictors of disordered eating outcomes [17]. Since body appreciation may be protective in the development of disordered eating and body appreciation has a negative relationship with eating disorder symptomatology, further investigation is warranted. ...
Dietary restraint and low body appreciation are common among female-identifying undergraduates and are related to the development of disordered eating, which female-identifying undergraduates engage in throughout college. Training students in intuitive eating, an approach that promotes eating by internal cues, may be a way to ameliorate dietary restraint and low body appreciation, ultimately decreasing disordered eating. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a five-week intuitive eating intervention on dietary restraint, body appreciation, and intuitive eating in female-identifying undergraduates. A five-week intuitive eating intervention (NCT0394700) was facilitated by two Registered Dietitians. One treatment group (TG) (n = 7) and one waitlist control group (WLCG) (n = 7) participated in the trial. From baseline to post-intervention, there was a significant decrease in dietary restraint, t(12) = -2.88, p = 0.01, and a significant increase in intuitive eating, t(12) = 4.03, p = 0.002, in the TG compared to the WLCG. The intervention had replicable effects on all outcome variables. Measurements at the five-week follow-up suggested the impact was sustained. This study provides preliminary data suggesting an intuitive eating intervention may help improve disordered eating risk factors by decreasing dietary restraint and increasing intuitive eating in female-identifying undergraduates.
... The Body Appreciation Scale (BAS; Avalos et al., 2005) was the first self-report measure developed to explicitly assess one's positive attitudes towards one's body. The BAS is a 13-item scale, with very good psychometric properties (e.g., Alexias et al., 2016;Avalos et al., 2005;Swami et al., 2015;Tylka, 2013). ...
... The Body Appreciation Scale (BAS; Avalos et al., 2005) was the first self-report measure developed to explicitly assess one's positive attitudes towards one's body. The BAS is a 13-item scale, with very good psychometric properties (e.g., Alexias et al., 2016;Avalos et al., 2005;Swami et al., 2015;Tylka, 2013). The original BAS has important limitations, such as a lack of alignment with advances in body appreciation conceptualization and research as well as the two different versions of the scale that women and men need to complete due to different wording. ...
Article
Body dissatisfaction has received considerable scientific attention, while research about positive body image has been neglected, particularly among adolescents. The aims of the present study were to examine (1) the factor structure of the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2) in a large sample of cisgender, heterosexual and sexual and gender minority adolescents, (2) measurement invariance across language, gender and sexual orientation-based groups, (3) convergent validity with sexuality-related outcomes and (4) one-year temporal stability. Results of a confirmatory analysis among 2419 adolescents (M age =14.6 years, SD=0.62; 52.6% girls) corroborated the proposed one-dimensional factor structure of the scale. The BAS-2 demonstrated adequate reliability and one-year temporal stability. The scale was partially invariant across gender and fully invariant across language and cisgender heterosexual and sexual and gender minority adolescents. Boys (cis and trans) had higher levels of body appreciation than girls (cis and trans), while no significant differences were observed between heterosexual and sexual minority adolescents. The BAS-2 correlated positively with sexual satisfaction and sexual body-esteem as well as negatively with sexual distress. Our findings support the validity and reliability of the BAS-2 in French and English for measuring body appreciation in adolescents.
... The Body Appreciation Scale [4] was administered to establish participants' general body appreciation. The 13-item measure was originally developed and validated for use among women in the U.S, and later for use among men [75]. ...
... This is further supported by the fact that general body appreciation seemed to act as an (inverse) antecedent or protective factor in regard to body dissatisfaction, rather than its inverse [3,72]. In this context, body appreciation is usually defined as more than simple (lack of ) concerns about the body's surface appearance, but also includes features such as the body's capabilities, health and wellbeing, and is regarded as a separate construct to, rather than the obverse of, body dissatisfaction [4]. These results reinforce the argument that body appreciation is an important potential route for intervention to prevent body dissatisfaction. ...
Full-text available
Article
Objective Technological and economic globalisation has been suggested as a cause of increasing rates of body dissatisfaction and eating disorders globally, especially as regards the impact of mass media on internalised body ideals. This process is rarely observed in action, however. The current work investigates multiple aspects of body ideals, body image, sociocultural attitudes and eating attitudes in 62 Creole and Mestizo women living in communities at differing stages of technological development on the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua Method/results In Study 1, women used 3D avatar software to create their own ‘ideal’ body without the constraints of ready-made stimuli. Analyses of resulting avatars showed that components of the ideal body shape (upper and lower body curvaceousness) but not body size (body mass) were associated with levels of film and television consumption. In Study 2, women completed measures of variables in the sociocultural model of eating disorder risk. As expected, body dissatisfaction mediated the relationship between internalisation of sociocultural body ideals and pathological eating attitudes. In contrast, body appreciation reduced pathological eating attitudes, via reduced body dissatisfaction. Finally, Study 3 measured sociocultural influences, body image and eating attitudes at 2 or 3 timepoints per woman; body dissatisfaction covaried with pathological eating attitudes across time. Ethnicity varied in its effects across studies. Discussion Together these data show that even at early stages of media acculturation, women may show similar patterns of association between sociocultural internalisation, body dissatisfaction and eating disorder risk as in high income nations. However, they also demonstrate unique aspects of this population’s body shape ideals, and the independent protective effect of body appreciation.
... Methods of increasing positive body image are of significant practical importance as positive body image predicts such aspects of well-being as self-esteem, optimism, proactive coping, safer sex intentions, sexual satisfaction, general health-related behaviours, and sexual health expectations (Avalos et al., 2005;Grower & Ward, 2018;Robbins & Reissing, 2018;Satinsky et al., 2013;West, 2018). A central variable in the understanding of positive body image is body appreciation (Tylka, 2011). ...
... A central variable in the understanding of positive body image is body appreciation (Tylka, 2011). It refers to several intersecting concepts including respect for one's body, holding favourable opinions about and accepting one's body, and resistance to externally promoted ideals of attractiveness (Avalos et al., 2005;Tylka & Wood-Barcalow, 2015a). Body appreciation has also been found to predict gratitude (Homan & Tylka, 2018), physical activity independent of appearance related motivations (Homan & Tylka, 2014); intuitive eating (i.e., eating according to one's physiological cues of hunger and satiation; Tylka & Kroon Van Diest, 2013); and overall life satisfaction (West, 2018(West, , 2020. ...
Full-text available
Article
Prior research suggests that naturism leads to less social physique anxiety and more positive body image, but that other forms of public nudity (e.g., casual stripping, sexting) may be harmful, particularly for women. Two cross-sectional studies built on those previous findings. Study 1 (N 1 = 6670) found a positive relationship between generalised nude activity and body appreciation which was not moderated by gender. Study 2 (N 2 = 331) found that both naturism and casual stripping predicted more body appreciation, a relationship mediated by less social physique anxiety. Again, these relationships were not moderated by gender. In contrast, sexting did not predict body appreciation and predicted more social physique anxiety, but only in men. These findings highlight that some types of nudity may be more beneficial or harmful than others, and that future research and policy should specify the type of nudity under consideration in order to maximise positive effects.
... The Body Appreciation Scale (BAS) was developed by Avalos et al. [31] to measure the extent to which an individual is satisfied with their body, accepts their body as-is, and takes care of it. Scoring is made based on a 5-point Likert-type scale (1 = Never, 5 = Always). ...
... The demographic characteristics of the participants, their age, height, and body weight were recorded based on self-report. Several scales with established validity and reliability in Turkish were used to determine the criterion validity of the scale, including the Eating Attitudes Test-Short Form (EAT-26) [27,28], the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) [29,30], and the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS) [31,32]. ...
Full-text available
Article
Background The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) is a frequently used scale to evaluate eating behaviors and attitudes. In recent years, its use has increased due to the fact that the use of short forms is more practical. The aim of this study was to validate the short Turkish form of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) including 13 items. Methods The study included 924 adults at a mean age of 30.3 ± 10.93 years. EDEQ-13 was translated and adapted to Turkish according to the Beaton Guidelines. The Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS) were used to analyze their relationships to EDE-Q-13. Results In this study, the rate of the total variance explained by the factors of EDE-Q-13 according to the Explanatory Factor Analysis (EFA) results of the scale was 83.54%. The Cronbach's alpha value of the scale was 0.89, and the Cronbach's alpha values of the 5 subscales were calculated in the range of 0.75–0.94. The criterion validity analysis showed an acceptable correlation between EDE-Q-13 and EAT-26, SWLS, and BAS. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed that the model had fit values that were acceptable or good. Conclusion Both EFA and CFA results showed that it is appropriate to use the Turkish EDE-Q-13. EDE-Q-13 was significantly correlated with eating disturbances, body appreciation, and life satisfaction. In conclusion, the Turkish version of EDE-Q-13 possesses high levels of validity and reliability.
... Avalos, Tylka és Wood-Barcalow (2005) a kérdőív korai változatát annak reményében hozták létre, hogy az majd lehetővé teszi olyan konstruktumok mérését is, melyeket az addig használatos tesztek nem foglaltak magukba. Olyan jellemzők ezek, melyek szorosan kapcsolódnak a testi elégedettséghez, a pozitív testkép mintegy velejárói (Avalos et al., 2005). Definíciójuk szerint tehát a pozitív testkép tulajdonságai a következők: kedvező vélekedés a testről -annak aktuális állapotától függetlenül -, a test elfogadása -súlytól, testformától és a tökéletlenségektől függetenül -, a test tisztelete a szükségleteire való odafigyelés és egészséges szokás kialakítása által, illetve a test védelme a médiában bemuttott irreális testkép elutasítása révén (Avalos et al., 2005). ...
... Olyan jellemzők ezek, melyek szorosan kapcsolódnak a testi elégedettséghez, a pozitív testkép mintegy velejárói (Avalos et al., 2005). Definíciójuk szerint tehát a pozitív testkép tulajdonságai a következők: kedvező vélekedés a testről -annak aktuális állapotától függetlenül -, a test elfogadása -súlytól, testformától és a tökéletlenségektől függetenül -, a test tisztelete a szükségleteire való odafigyelés és egészséges szokás kialakítása által, illetve a test védelme a médiában bemuttott irreális testkép elutasítása révén (Avalos et al., 2005). ...
Article
A kutatás célja, hogy feltárja, van-e jelentősége a látás képességének a testhez és evési szokásokhoz való viszonyulásban, illetve a kérdés elsőkénti vizsgálata magyar mintán. A kutatás 29 látó és 35 látássérült – vak, aliglátó és gyengénlátó – fő bevonásával folyt, a csoportok összehasonlító vizsgálatok mintáját képezték. A kitöltés online zajlott, a kutatási személyek kiválasztása hozzáférés alapon, főként közösségi oldalon és levelezőlistán való megosztással történt. A felvett kérdőívek Tylka és Kroon Van Diest (2013) intuitív evésre vonatkozó (IES-2), illetve Tylka és Wood-Barcalow testi elégedettségre vonatkozó (BAS-2) kérdőívei. A kapott eredmények szerint a látássérült személyek nagyobb elégedetlenséget mutatnak testükkel kapcsolatban a kontroll csoporthoz képest, azonban nincs különbség köztük intuitív evés tekintetében. A látásvesztés időpontja egyik változóra sincs hatással. A testtel való elégedettség és az intuitív evés között látó mintán közepesen erős, pozitív, látássérült mintán nem szignifikáns az együttjárás. Mindezek fényében megállapítható, hogy a látás hiánya, illetve korlátozottsága összességében alacsonyabb testi elégedettséggel jár, de nem okoz problémát a testi jelzésekre támaszkodó étkezési szokások kialakulásában.
... Positive body image represents body appreciation, body pride, and body acceptance [29]. The central facet of positive body image is body appreciation defined as accepting, holding favorable opinions towards, and respecting the body; resisting the sociocultural pressures to internalize stereotyped beauty standards as the only form of human beauty; and appreciating the functionality and unique aspects of the body [30,31]. Studies in adolescents have demonstrated that positive body image was associated with greater selfesteem, body satisfaction, body functionality, less favorable attitudes towards cosmetic surgery, sexual objectification, less internalization of appearance ideals, and higher intuitive eating [32][33][34][35][36][37][38]. ...
... The same protective role was observed in the association between internalization of thin body ideals and disordered eating. These results are in accordance with the conception of positive body image and previous research suggesting that adolescent body appreciation is associated with higher resistance to sociocultural pressures towards appearance, less internalization of beauty ideals, and more positive eating attitudes and behaviors [29,31,36]. The findings of the present study suggest that disordered eating prevention programs might benefit from including teaching about positive body image. ...
Full-text available
Article
The aim of the present study was to test the moderating role of body appreciation in the mediation model of media pressures, internalization of appearance ideals, and disordered eating in adolescents. One thousand four hundred and twelve Lithuanian adolescents (40.4% were boys, age range: 15–18 years) participated in the cross-sectional study. The mean age of the sample was 16.9 (SD (standard deviation) = 0.5) for girls and 17.0 (SD = 0.4) for boys. Adolescents completed a questionnaire consisting of measures of body appreciation (Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2)), disordered eating (Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire 6 (EDE-Q 6)), attitudes towards sociocultural pressures towards appearance (Sociocultural Attitudes towards Appearance Questionnaire 4 (SATAQ-4)), and time browsing internet for leisure purposes. To assess the primary hypotheses, moderated mediation models were tested separately in boys and girls. In girls, body appreciation moderated associations between media pressures and internalization of thin body ideals and between internalization of thin appearance ideals and disordered eating. In boys, body appreciation moderated only the association between media pressures and disordered eating. The effect of media pressures on disordered eating was the highest in boys with the lowest body appreciation. Body appreciation protects adolescent girls from internalization of thin appearance ideals in the presence of media pressures and from disordered eating in the case of internalization of thin body appearance ideals. In boys, body appreciation provides a protective effect from media pressures towards appearance to disordered eating behaviors. The findings of the present study could inform intervention programs that aim to prevent disordered eating, strengthen positive body image, and promote healthy eating in adolescent girls and boys. Specific programs might be beneficial in preventing disordered eating in boys with low body appreciation.
... It is theoretically described as a multifaceted construct consisting of six core components: (1) appreciation of the function, health, and characteristics of the body, (2) body acceptance and love, even if not completely satisfied with all aspects of the body (3) a broad conceptualization of beauty (i.e., perceiving beauty based on a variety of looks, appearances, body sizes/shapes, and inner characteristics); (4) adaptive investment in appearance (i.e., enhancing one's natural features via benign methods, such as grooming behaviors), (5) inner positivity that influences outer demeanor (i.e., a feeling that you are beautiful and worthwhile, which may radiate outward to positive feelings, body confidence, and adaptive behaviors) and (6) filtering information in a body-protective manner (i.e., creating a filter to block out negative body-related images and messages and internalize information that is consistent with PBI; Tylka & Wood-Barcalow, 2015b). Body appreciation -a key element of PBI that involves respecting and appreciating the features, functionality, and health of the body (Avalos et al., 2005) -is linked to diverse indicators of psychological and physical health (for a review see Linardon et al., 2022;Tylka, 2019) and has been proposed as a significant factor in preventing psychosocial problems (Carrard et al., 2019). This makes PBI an important area to develop in adolescence, and body positivity on social media offers a promising approach to enhance it. ...
Full-text available
Article
Body-positive content on social media offers a promising approach to promote positive body image (PBI). However, we need further research in order to better characterize and understand its nature. This study provides a content analysis of adolescents' image-based posts on Facebook. We aimed to determine whether the theoretical six-facet conceptualization of PBI was reflected in adolescents' posts, and whether there were different trends according to gender and time, over a 3-year period. A set of 6,503 images posted by 66 adolescents (51.5% male), were coded for PBI attributes. The results indicate that inner positivity and appreciation of body functionality through involvement in sports and fun activities were the most represented PBI facets. Conversely, imagery representing taking care of the body via healthy food/beverage choices, embracing body diversity, and filtering information in a body-preserving manner, was rarely used to project self-image on Facebook. Gender differences were only found in the appreciation of body functionality via sports activities (more prevalent in boys) and investment in appearance using benign methods, such as the use of cosmetics (more prevalent in girls). Posts addressing appearance and health-promoting self-care behaviors tended to increase in mid-adolescence. We conclude that the adolescents' posts on Facebook reflected several PBI characteristics, with a particular focus on those that enhance a functional view of the body. Future social media and school-level initiatives should prioritize the development of attuned self-care as well as mechanisms to filter messages that could endanger PBI, while also increasing the visibility of the diverse bodies that exist in the world.
... It is theoretically described as a multifaceted construct consisting of six core components: (1) appreciation of the function, health, and characteristics of the body, (2) body acceptance and love, even if not completely satisfied with all aspects of the body (3) a broad conceptualization of beauty (i.e., perceiving beauty based on a variety of looks, appearances, body sizes/shapes, and inner characteristics); (4) adaptive investment in appearance (i.e., enhancing one's natural features via benign methods, such as grooming behaviors), (5) inner positivity that influences outer demeanor (i.e., a feeling that you are beautiful and worthwhile, which may radiate outward to positive feelings, body confidence, and adaptive behaviors) and (6) filtering information in a body-protective manner (i.e., creating a filter to block out negative body-related images and messages and internalize information that is consistent with PBI; Tylka & Wood-Barcalow, 2015b). Body appreciation -a key element of PBI that involves respecting and appreciating the features, functionality, and health of the body (Avalos et al., 2005) -is linked to diverse indicators of psychological and physical health (for a review see Linardon et al., 2022;Tylka, 2019) and has been proposed as a significant factor in preventing psychosocial problems (Carrard et al., 2019). This makes PBI an important area to develop in adolescence, and body positivity on social media offers a promising approach to enhance it. ...
Full-text available
Article
Body-positive content on social media offers a promising approach to promote positive body image (PBI). However, we need further research in order to better characterize and understand its nature. This study provides a content analysis of adolescents’ image-based posts on Facebook. We aimed to determine whether the theoretical six-facet conceptualization of PBI was reflected in adolescents’ posts, and whether there were different trends according to gender and time, over a 3-year period. A set of 6,503 images posted by 66 adolescents (51.5% male), were coded for PBI attributes. The results indicate that inner positivity and appreciation of body functionality through involvement in sports and fun activities were the most represented PBI facets. Conversely, imagery representing taking care of the body via healthy food/beverage choices, embracing body diversity, and filtering information in a body-preserving manner, was rarely used to project self-image on Facebook. Gender differences were only found in the appreciation of body functionality via sports activities (more prevalent in boys) and investment in appearance using benign methods, such as the use of cosmetics (more prevalent in girls). Posts addressing appearance and health-promoting self-care behaviors tended to increase in mid-adolescence. We conclude that the adolescents’ posts on Facebook reflected several PBI characteristics, with a particular focus on those that enhance a functional view of the body. Future social media and school-level initiatives should prioritize the development of attuned self-care as well as mechanisms to filter messages that could endanger PBI, while also increasing the visibility of the diverse bodies that exist in the world.
... Internal consistency of these scales, especially when translated into another language, was found poor to fair, as a reflection of the translation validity that, when tested, was often found poor [11]. Other dedicated scales focus on the positive appreciation of the body, somehow a reverse construct of body dissatisfaction, such as the Body Appreciation Scale [16] and the Body Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults [17]. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ [18]) is the earliest and one of the most used tools aimed at measuring body dissatisfaction, for both clinical and research purposes [19][20][21]. ...
Full-text available
Article
Purpose This study was set up to investigate the reliability, factorial, concurrent, and criterion validity of the Italian version of the 34-item Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and its shorter versions. Methods The study included 231 patients diagnosed with an eating disorder and 58 putatively healthy people (comparison sample). The Italian BSQ-34 was administered to participants together with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. Information on body mass index, caloric intake at baseline, and the number of episodes of self-vomiting per week was also acquired. Results Cronbach’s alpha of BSQ-34 was 0.971 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.965–0.976) in patients and 0.960 (0.944–0.974) in controls. Test–retest stability in patients (n = 69), measured with intraclass correlation coefficient, was 0.987 (0.983–0.991). Confirmatory factor analysis of the single-factor model yielded acceptable fit for all versions of the BSQ. On all BSQ versions, patients scored higher than controls with a large effect size when calculated as Cliff’s delta. BMI and mean caloric intake at baseline had a stronger association with BSQ-34 than levels of anxiety and depression. The analysis with the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve showed that the BSQ-34 distinguished patients with an eating disorder from controls with good accuracy (Area Under the Curve = 86.5; 95% CI 82.2–90.7). Conclusion The Italian version of the BSQ possesses good psychometric properties, in both the long and the shortened versions, and it can be applied to measure body dissatisfaction for both clinical and research purposes. Level of evidence Level III, Evidence obtained from well-designed cohort or case–control analytic studies.
... Evidence from RCTs (Przezdziecki & Alcorso, & Sherman, 2016;Sherman et al., 2018), demonstrates improvements up to 3-months following exposure to My Changed Body, compared to active controls (expressive writing) in body image distress, self-compassion and body appreciation. Body appreciation, an aspect of positive body image which refers to unconditional approval and respect for the body (Avalos et al., 2005), is an important protective factor to consider when addressing negative body image impacts (Schmidt et al., 2019). The Expand Your Horizons program is a similar online structured writing intervention to My Changed Body, which has also been found to strengthen body appreciation (Alleva et al., 2015b), and additionally promote a focus on body functionality (i.e., what the body can do, as opposed to how it looks; Alleva et al., 2015b). ...
Article
Endometriosis is a chronic systemic disease affecting 1 in 10 people assigned female at birth, that can result in appearance-based and functional bodily changes which can negatively impact body image. Empirical evidence supports the body dissatisfaction-driven hypothesis that negative body image leads to greater depressive symptoms; but potential underlying mechanisms are under-researched. This prospective study investigated the mediating role of two theoretically-derived intervening factors, self-esteem and rumination, in individuals living with endometriosis who typically report high rates of body image concerns and depressive symptoms. Initially, 996 participants completed the first online survey (T0) assessing demographic, medical and psychological factors. Of these, 451 completed surveys at 1-month (T1) and 2-months (T2) follow-up assessing self-esteem, rumination and depression. Bootstrapped analyses with full-information maximum likelihood estimation indicated that poor body image (T0) predicted greater depressive symptoms over time (T2). Self-esteem (T1), but not rumination (T1), mediated the body image-depression relationship. These results provide support for the body dissatisfaction-driven hypothesis and further identify that self-esteem is a key meditating factor. This highlights the importance of addressing self-esteem in body image focused interventions.
... We selected The Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2) questionnaire (Tylka and Wood-Barcalow, 2015), a revised version of the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS) (Avalos et al., 2005), to measure personal appreciation and positive attitude toward one's body. It consists of 10 statements, which subjects had to rate on a scale ranging from 1 = never to 5 = always, measuring dimensions like body esteem, body surveillance, body shame, and psychological wellbeing. ...
Full-text available
Article
While prefrontal cortex dysfunction has been implicated in high food cravings, other cortical regions, like the parietal cortex, are potentially also involved in regulating craving. This study explored the effects of stimulating the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on food craving state and trait. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was administered at 1.5 mA for 5 consecutive days. Participants received 20 min of IPL, DLPFC, or sham stimulation (SHAM) each day which consisted of two rounds of 10-min stimulation, divided by a 10-min mindfulness task break. In addition, we studied inhibition and subjective psychological aspects like body image and self-esteem state and trait. To decompose immediate and cumulative effects, we measured the following on days 1 and 5: inhibition through the Go/No-go task; and food craving, self-esteem, and body appreciation through a battery of questionnaires. We found that false alarm errors decreased in the participants receiving active stimulation in the DLPFC (DLPFC-group). In contrast, false alarm errors increased in participants receiving active stimulation in the IPL (IPL-group). At the same time, no change was found in the participants receiving SHAM (SHAM-group). There was a trending reduction in craving trait in all groups. Momentary craving was decreased in the DLPFC-group and increased in IPL-group, yet a statistical difference was not reached. According to time and baseline, self-esteem and body perception improved in the IPL-group. Furthermore, self-esteem trait significantly improved over time in the DLPFC-group and IPL-group. These preliminary results indicate that tDCS modulates inhibition in frontoparietal areas with opposite effects, enhancing it in DLPFC and impairing it in IPL. Moreover, craving is moderately linked to inhibition, self-esteem, and body appreciation which seem not to be affected by neuromodulation but may rely instead on broader regions as more complex constructs. Finally, the fractionated protocol can effectively influence inhibition with milder effects on other constructs.
... Body image and appearance is an important concern for most men and women (Olivardia et al., 2004;Kelley et al., 2010;Runfola et al., 2013). While poor body image is linked to the development of a range of psychological and psychiatric problems, including depression and eating disorders (Freeman et al., 1985;Stice, 2002;Liechty, 2010;Junne et al., 2019), positive body image has been found to have unique associations with well-being, self-care and eating behaviors (Avalos et al., 2005;Andrew et al., 2014;Tylka and Wood-Barcalow, 2015). In Western society, much of the blame for poor body image can be attributed to the cultural emphasis on appearance and the importance attached to attractiveness on the one hand, together with the promulgation of idealized media images that place pressure on women to achieve a comparable aesthetic appearance on the other hand (Levine and Murnen, 2009). ...
Full-text available
Article
We used attractiveness judgements as a proxy to visualize the ideal female and male body for male and female participants and investigated how individual differences in the internalization of cultural ideals influence these representations. In the first of two studies, male and female participants judged the attractiveness of 242 male and female computer-generated bodies which varied independently in muscle and adipose. This allowed us to map changes in attractiveness across the complete body composition space, revealing single peaks for the attractiveness of both men and women. In the second study, we asked our participants to choose the most attractive male and female bodies in a method of adjustment task in which they could independently vary muscle and adipose to create the most attractive body. We asked whether individual differences in internalization of cultural ideals, drive for muscularity, eating disorder symptomatology and depressive symptoms could systematically shift the location of peak attractiveness in body composition space. We found a clear preference by both genders for a male body with high muscle and low adipose, and a toned, low adipose female body. The degree of internalization of cultural ideals predicted large individual differences in the composition of the most attractive bodies.
... It promotes having respect, appreciation, and acceptance of one's bodily appearance and functionality (Wood-Barcalow et al., 2010). Body positive media encourages individuals to (a) have favorable opinions of their body, regardless of their appearance, (b) accept their body regardless of their weight, shape, and size, (c) respect their body by attending to its needs, and (d) protect their body by rejecting images of the "ideal" body D. Bissonette Mink and D.M. Szymanski Body Image 43 (2022) 205-216 depicted in the media (Avalos et al., 2005). Scholars have suggested that exposure to body positive media may retrain the eye towards realistic bodies and aid in defying internalization of appearance ideals (Rodgers et al., 2021). ...
Article
In this study, we examined potential direct, indirect, and moderated effects in the relations between the use of TikTok, a video-based appearance-related social networking site, and body dissatisfaction among a sample of 778 United States’ young adult college women. Results showed that TikTok use was indirectly related to body dissatisfaction through more upward appearance comparison and more body surveillance acting in serial. Contrary to our hypotheses, we also found that exposure to body acceptance and critique of appearance expectations, a facet of exposure to body positive media, and commercial media literacy exacerbated the direct relation between TikTok use and upward appearance comparison and the indirect relations between TikTok use and body dissatisfaction through upward appearance comparison and upward appearance comparison and body surveillance in serial. That is, the relations were significant for those at high and average levels of both acceptance and critique exposure and commercial media literacy, but not for those with low levels. Finally, we found that TikTok use was only associated with upward appearance comparison at average and low levels of peer social media literacy but not high levels. Our findings suggest that regular and consistent use of TikTok may be harmful to women’s body image, and women with higher levels of acceptance and critique exposure and commercial media literacy may be the most vulnerable to these negative effects.
... Positive body image encompasses appreciation, love, respect, and acceptance for the body, even when one is not completely satisfied with all aspects of appearance (Tylka & Wood-Barcalow, 2015b). One key characteristic of this construct is the concept of body appreciation -the ability to relate with one's body in an accepting manner, and to appreciate its functionality and health, resisting the sociocultural pressures to internalize the stereotyped appearance ideals (Avalos et al., 2005;Tylka, 2019). Currently, the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2; Tylka & Wood-Barcalow, 2015a) is considered the most precise measurement of the core construct of positive body image and is, possibly, the most-widely used tool for indexing this construct . ...
Full-text available
Article
Body appreciation, a central aspect of positive body image, recently started to capture the attention of the scientific community as a potential determinant of well-being. However, little is known about onset and early identification in both males and females, as studies on this subject in childhood are still scarce, due in part to a dearth of validated instruments. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to examine the psychometric properties and sex invariance of a Portuguese version of the Body Appreciation Scale-2 for Children (BAS-2C; Halliwell et al., 2017). We also explored the relationship between the BAS-2C and body mass index z-scores (BMIz). Participants were 328 children, ages 9-to-11 years (50.9% girls). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the one-dimensional factor structure had adequate fit, but sex invariance was not supported. Differential item functioning analysis revealed that boys and girls respond differently to item #9, which assesses body comfort. BAS-2C scores evidenced internal consistency and convergent validity with quality of life, healthy eating habits, and body size dissatisfaction. BMIz showed a low ability to predict body appreciation. This study brings support for the use of the BAS-2C in Portuguese-speaking children, but caution is warranted in comparing BAS-2C scores across sexes.
... The Body Appreciation Scale (BAS; Avalos et al., 2005) evaluates the positive body image (e.g., "I respect my body"). The 13 items of the questionnaire are rated on a 5-point scale (1 = Never, 5 = Always) and are averaged to obtain a total score. ...
Full-text available
Article
This study examined the psychometric properties of the Greek version of the Body Image Guilt and Shame Scale (BIGSS) in a community sample (N = 2867) of both genders. A set of questionnaires was administered. It included demographic data, Body Mass Index, the Body Image Guilt and Shame Scale (BIGSS), the Body Appreciation Scale, the Other as Shamer and the Experience of Shame Scale. The best solution for the BIGSS (according to exploratory factor analysis) supported a two-factor structure, similar to that found in the original validation. These two factors reflect body guilt and body shame. One more factor was derived, which corresponds to no body image guilt and shame, and its items serve as fillers in the 15 scenarios of the BIGSS. Cronbach’s α value was .90 for Body Image Shame and .85 for the Body Image Guilt subscales. There was a significant positive correlation of both the Body Image Guilt and the Body Image Shame subscales with the Other as Shamer and the Experience of Shame Scale and a negative one with the Body Appreciation Scale. Gender and BMI significantly predicted the score on the Body Image Guilt and the Body Image Shame subscales and age on the Body Image Guilt subscale. In conclusion, the Greek version of the BIGSS has adequate internal consistency, reliability and construct validity, and it is suitable for research and clinical use.
... Two other articles utilized scales specific to body image. Adithyan et al. (2018) used the Adolescent Body Image Satisfaction Scale (ABISS, Leone et al., 2014) and Ramseyer-Winter et al. (2017) used the Body Appreciation Scale (Avalos et al., 2005). The remainder of the articles used select questions from broader surveys, such as O' Brien et al.'s (2016) sampling of questions from the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI, Millon, 1993) or developed their own questions to assess body image (Feinson & Hornik-Lurie, 2016). ...
Article
Social workers interact in a multitude of settings and likely encounter individuals with body image issues rendering it important to understand the way social workers approach and intervene around body image. This article presents a scoping review to systematically identify and summarize recent literature around body image in the social work literature. Objectives of the current review include a description of the extent, study characteristics, and topical areas of focus among articles meeting inclusion criteria with the intent to identify knowledge gaps and inform directions for future research. A total of 23 articles met inclusion criteria for review. Findings reveal a concentration of conceptual articles compared with empirical studies and a predominance of a psychodynamic lens. Limitations in sample populations and study designs supporting the evidence base for body image in the social work literature were also evident. Considerations for further research and implications for practice and education are discussed.
... Body Image To assess positive body image, we used the Body Appreciate Scale (BAS; [49]), which is a 10-item scale assessing experiences of respect towards or appreciation of their body (e.g., "I feel good about my body"); higher scores indicate more positive body image. Internal consistency for this sample was high (α = 0.95). ...
Full-text available
Article
Background: One type of overnutrition, binge eating (BE; eating an unusually large amount of food with loss of control), is prevalent among older adult women. Yet, little is known about the clinical significance of this eating disorder pathology in older adults, especially in relation to health outcomes used in geriatrics, while controlling for associations with body mass index (BMI). Method: Women (N = 227) aged 60-94 completed two measures of BE and health/wellness questionnaires online. We used multivariable analyses to compare women with Clinical-frequency BE (≥ weekly frequency), Subclinical-frequency BE (< weekly), and No BE on health/wellness outcomes controlling for BMI. We conducted partial correlations controlling for BMI to examine associations between BE severity and health indices. Results: Controlling for BMI, the Clinical-frequency BE group reported poorer health-related quality of life (physical function, role limitations due to both emotional and physical problems, vitality, emotional wellbeing, social function, and pain) and poorer psychological health (depression, body image) compared to both Subclinical-frequency BE and No BE. The Clinical-frequency BE group also reported poorer sleep, nutritious food consumption, general health, and positive affect compared to No BE. Associations between a separate measure of BE severity and health indices confirmed findings from group comparisons. Conclusion: Weekly BE may offer a promising screening benchmark for identifying one type of overnutrition in older women that is associated with numerous indicators of poorer health, independent of the effects of BMI. More research is needed to understand risks for and consequences of BE unique to older adult women. Binge eating (BE; eating an unusually large amount of food with loss of control), is prevalent among older adult women and is associated with health problems in younger populations. Yet, little is known about how BE is related to other health problems in older adults. We compared health behaviors, physical health, health-related quality of life, and psychological health between older adult women who reported weekly or more frequent BE (i.e., Clinical BE), those with low frequency BE (i.e., Subclinical BE), and those with no BE, while accounting for BMI. Older women in the Clinical BE group reported poorer health-related quality of life, more depression symptoms, and worse body image compared to the Subclinical BE and No BE groups. Compared to the No BE group, the Clinical BE group also reported poorer sleep, less frequent consumption of nutritious foods, worse health, and less frequent positive emotions. Using a separate measure of BE severity, we found similar associations with these health outcomes. Engaging in weekly BE may represent one type of overnutrition behavior in older women that is associated with numerous indicators of poorer health. More research is needed to understand risks for and consequences of BE unique to older adult women.
... Gillen, 2015;O'Neill et al., 2018;Ramseyer Winter et al., 2017). Body appreciation has also been found to negatively predict body-related shame (Avalos et al., 2005). Furthermore, body shame and dissatisfaction due to weight-related microaggressions that decrease body appreciation may lead to physical anxiety (Cash et al., 2004), excessive exercise (Yager et al., 2017), unhealthy diet (Slevec and Tiggemann, 2011), and eating disorders (Hoek and van Hoeken, 2003;Stice and Shaw, 2002), which can negatively impact physical and mental health outcomes. ...
Article
This study examined whether body appreciation mediates the relationships between anti-fat microaggression experiences and perceived physical and mental health. Using a cross-sectional survey design, our study included 384 adult cisgender women in the United States. We found that anti-fat microaggression experiences had a negative association with body appreciation, and perceived physical and mental health. Body appreciation had a positive relationship to perceived physical and mental health. Our study further suggests that body appreciation is an important modifiable factor that mediates the relationships between anti-fat microaggression experiences and perceived mental and physical health. Implications for practice and research are discussed.
Article
To help inform post-COVID-19 pandemic practical health policies, the researchers created the COVID-19 vaccine misinformation scale (CVMS). During the COVID-19 pandemic, falsehoods spread online which casted doubt and concerns about the vaccine. Example misconceptions included vaccination leads to greater vulnerability to other illness and would alter someone’s DNA. The researchers performed two large surveys with U.S. participants. The researchers reviewed debunked COVID-19 vaccine falsehoods online. Construction of the CVMS followed standard psychometric scale development steps. Statistical analysis provided support for the 10-item CVMS with satisfactory reliability, discriminant validity, and convergent validity. Predictive validity regression analysis demonstrated the CVMS associated with higher vaccine hesitancy. The prevalence of vaccine misbeliefs broadened pandemic healthcare challenges. On top of existing duties, healthcare workers had to explain vaccine efficacy and safety to dispel fallacies. The researchers discuss implications for the CVMS within the context of motivated reasoning theory.
Full-text available
Article
Body image is an integral aspect of the psychology of the self. Idealized body images are ubiquitous in both traditional media forms (e.g., magazines, television) and social media (e.g., Facebook, Instagram). The classic sociocultural model of body image (i.e., the Tripartite Influence Model) emphasizes pathways between idealized body norms, appearance comparisons, internalization of body ideals, and body dissatisfaction and its outcomes. We summarize the model and identify some issues to be addressed in future work, particularly in light of the immense popularity of social media. We review three topics that are not included in the sociocultural model but that provide a more complete picture of the influence of societal body norms on body image: (1) body shame, (2) positive body image, and (3) self-compassion. Research on the nature, assessment, and relevance of these constructs is reviewed in detail. In terms of clinical applications of these areas of research for individuals at risk of body dissatisfaction, we suggest assessing for and targeting body shame, cultivating facets of positive body image, and teaching strategies for developing self-compassion.
Article
Recently video conferencing has become a daily part of many lives for social interaction, education, work, and various other activities. Research suggests that the use of webcams during these interactions increases the richness of the interaction and therefore impacts the overall quality of the videoconference. Given this, understanding what drives individual choice to display or not display their webcam is important to understand. This research investigates the impact of facial attractiveness in the decision of an individual to display their webcam during a videoconference. A within-subjects experiment of 93 subjects across four treatments is used for this research. Results show that while men are driven by self-views of their own facial attractiveness, women are instead driven by their beliefs about what others think of their facial attractiveness. This provides important information for those who wish to create a richer interaction for the widespread use of videoconferencing tools.
Article
The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between physical activity, body satisfaction, psychological distress, and life satisfaction. In addition, the effects of impulse and compulsive shopping behaviors concerning body satisfaction and psychological distress are analyzed. Two hundred thirty female college students participated in an online survey. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The results indicated that physical activity positively influences body image and ultimately improves life satisfaction. Compulsive shopping negatively affects psychological distress for individuals with poor body image. Physical activity professionals should recognize the factors that will impact one's life satisfaction.
Article
Background Body image concerns are prevalent among young adults, who may be vulnerable to developing body image concerns because of particular risk factors associated with this life period. With technological advancements, digital mobile health (mHealth) apps are cost-effective and scalable interventions. Thus, mHealth apps can be explored as a form of prevention effort to alleviate body image concerns in young adults. Objective In this randomized controlled trial, we examined the effectiveness of a self-guided mHealth app in improving body image and self-compassion in a sample of university students. Methods Participants (N=310) were randomized to a 9-day self-guided body image and self-compassion mHealth app (n=149) and to an active waitlist control group (n=161), where they completed a similarly structured 9-day program on cooperation. Both programs consisted of content learning and activities such as quizzes, with the number and length of activities matched for both programs. Measures were obtained at baseline, upon completion of the programs (after the intervention), and at 4-week follow-up. Results The intervention group for female participants reported significant reduction in body dissatisfaction (P<.001) and improvements in body appreciation (P<.001) and self-compassion (P=.001) compared with the active waitlist control group after the intervention. Similarly, for male participants after the intervention, a significant reduction was found in the intervention group in body dissatisfaction (P<.001) after the intervention as well as improvements in body appreciation (P=.02) and self-compassion (P=.047). The effects were maintained at 4-week follow-up for female participants on body dissatisfaction (P<.001), body appreciation (P<.001), and self-compassion (P=.02) but not for male participants. On body image risk factors, significant reductions were found for female participants after the intervention for thin-ideal internalization (P<.001), peer pressure (P=.002), and media pressure (P<.001) after the intervention, while the effects were only maintained for thin-ideal internalization (P=.008) and media pressure (P=.01) at 4-week follow-up, compared with the active waitlist control group. As for male participants, no intervention effects were found both after the intervention and at follow-up for all body image risk factors of muscularity internalization, peer pressure, and media pressure. Both apps were acceptable and participants engaged equally across the intervention and active waitlist control groups, as indicated on a measure of app engagement (P=.76). Conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence for a self-guided mHealth app in improving body image concerns and self-compassion in young adult university students. Future studies should include longer follow-ups, and examine its effects with the wider populations of young adults. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04977973; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04977973
Article
This study aimed to examine the perceived stress and body image in burn patients and the relationship between these two variables. This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. The study included total of 144 patients who had burn injuries, received treatment in a research and training hospital and were scheduled to be discharged. The data were collected prospectively by the researchers, using descriptive methods, Kruskal Wallis test, paired samples t test, and Pearson's correlation analysis. Of the patients, 59% were between the ages of 18 and 35 years, 68.1% were male, 65.3% had second-degree burns, 77.1% had burn surfaces ranging between 10% and 20% of their body, and 54.9% had autograft surgery. The burn patients aged 51 years and over had higher perceived stress than younger patients, and the difference between them was statistically significant (P < 0.05). As the percentage of burn surface increased, the perceived stress increased, and the perceived body image weakened (P < 0.05). The burn patients with autograft surgery had lower perceived stress and higher perceived body image than those without autograft surgery, and the difference between them was statistically significant (P < 0.01). This study found an inverse relationship between perceived stress and body image in burn patients, which was affected by the percentage of burn surface and autograft surgery. Relevant interventions are suggested to increase perceived body image in burn patients and reduce their perceived stress.
Full-text available
Article
Objective Schools can be an effective arena for food education. The Tasty School is a tailored teacher-driven food education model that provides tools for implementing food education in primary schools. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the Tasty School model on pupils’ eating patterns and experiences. We also aimed to assess the implementation strength of the Tasty School. Design A quasi-experimental study conducted during one school year 2019−2020 in 15 intervention and 10 control schools. The intervention schools implemented the Tasty School food education model. The pupils completed web-based baseline and follow-up questionnaires in class during a school day. The principals were interviewed after the intervention. The data were analyzed using a mixed-effects model for repeated measures, accounting for the implementation strength and selected standardization effects. Setting A total of 25 general Finnish primary schools Participants 1480 pupils from grades 3−6 (age 8–12 years) from five municipalities in Finland. Results Percentages of pupils eating a balanced school meal increased in schools where food education was actively implemented (p=0.027). In addition, pupils’ experience of social participation in school dining strengthened in schools where the Tasty School model was implemented (5-point scale mean from 2.41 to 2.61; p=0.017). Conclusions Healthy eating patterns can be promoted by the active implementation of food education in primary schools. The Tasty School model offers a promising tool for developing healthy eating patterns and increasing social participation among pupils not only in Finland, but potentially in other countries as well.
Article
Humor is considered a coping strategy that is associated with well-being and positive self-esteem. The role of humor in relation to body image and eating behaviors has rarely been investigated. This cross-sectional study ( n = 216) examined the relationship between general coping humor and humor styles targeting the self, namely self-enhancing and self-defeating humor, and body image and eating behaviors. Results showed that adaptive self-enhancing humor was associated with body appreciation and compassion, whilst maladaptive self-defeating humor was related to body criticism, drive for thinness, and emotional eating. General coping humor played almost no role. We also examined humor clusters and found that body appreciation and body kindness were higher in self-enhancers than self-defeaters and higher in humor endorsers than humor deniers. Further, self-defeaters reported more body criticism and emotional eating than self-enhancers, and emotional eating was higher in humor deniers than humor endorsers. This study shows that humor referring to the self is key in the understanding of body image and eating behaviors. Whilst the use of self-enhancing humor can have positive effects on body image, self-defeating humor can play a detrimental role.
Article
Background: It is difficult to predict functional and aesthetic results and provide patient satisfaction after rhinoplasty. Objective: To investigate the effect of nasal obstruction, body appreciation, and acceptance of cosmetic surgery (ACS) in predicting patient satisfaction postrhinoplasty. Methods: We prospectively included 97 consecutive participants who underwent rhinoplasty. We recorded age, gender, marital status, education, and body mass index (BMI), and nasal obstruction symptom evaluation (NOSE) scale, body appreciation scale-2 (BAS-2), acceptance of cosmetic surgery scale (ACSS), and rhinoplasty outcome evaluation (ROE) scale were determined preoperatively and at the 3-month postoperative follow-up. Results: The preoperative and postoperative NOSE, BAS-2, ACSS, and ROE scores differed significantly. The mean ROE score improved from 36.8 preoperatively to 82.1 postoperatively. The ROEpostop score was not correlated significantly with age, BMI, ACSSpreop, BAS-2postop, or ACCSpostop. The BAS-2preop scores were correlated significantly with ACCSpreop and ACSSpostop scores. The NOSEpreop and BAS-2preop scores were significant predictors of the ROEpostop scores in the regression analysis. Conclusion: Preoperative nasal obstruction and body appreciation, but not ACS, are factors that might affect patient satisfaction after rhinoplasty.
Article
Evidence suggests that body appreciation may be a protective factor for eating pathology. However, potential explanatory mechanisms for this association are unclear, as longitudinal studies testing mediational pathways are missing. This longitudinal study tested whether intuitive eating mediates the association between body appreciation and eating pathology. Data were analyzed from 3039 women recruited from an educational platform about disordered eating, many of whom exhibited elevated symptomatology. Measures were administered at baseline (T1), four-month (T2) and eight-month (T3) follow-up. Path analyses were computed to test hypothesized indirect effects. Direct paths from T1 body appreciation to T2 intuitive eating (total and subscale scores) and T3 eating pathology/binge eating were observed. However, only one significant indirect effect emerged: higher T1 body appreciation scores predicted greater decreases in T3 eating pathology and binge eating via its effect on increasing T2 Unconditional Permission to Eat (UPE) subscale scores. Findings suggest that the features of the UPE construct (e.g., eating foods that are desired in a given moment, refusal to dichotomize foods as “good” or “bad,” etc.) may be important mechanisms explaining how and why body appreciation protects against eating pathology. Efforts should be made to enhance body appreciation and intuitive eating in eating disorder prevention programs.
Thesis
The Body Positivity Movement (BP) arose from Fat Liberation and aims to promote body inclusivity and rejection of societal ideals around weight. There is evidence to suggest that BP may be beneficial in reducing risk factors for disordered eating (DE). While this is promising, there is no existing unified and user-generated definition of BP, and little is known about how BP is associated with anti-fat attitudes (AFA). Accordingly, Aim 1 assesses how young adult university students who identify as female define BP and how agreement with BP and fat liberation is associated with risk and protective factors for DE and AFA. Aims 2 and 3 assess how exposure to different types of BP content is associated with changes in risk and protective factors for DE and AFA. For Aim 1, 5000 female identifying undergraduate students between 18-25 years of age were sent recruitment emails via the Registrar’s Office at the University of Michigan to partake in a survey about social media and health. This cross-sectional survey assessed individual definitions and agreement with BP, fat liberation, as well as the following outcomes: eating disorder risk, body dissatisfaction, thin ideal internalization, body appreciation, body functionality appreciation, weight bias internalization, and AFA. For Aims 2 and 3, participants (N=224) were randomly assigned to view 10 condition-specific images and complete a battery of pre- and post-measures. Aim 2 examines if exposure to BP content with or without the presence of bodies compared to control images is associated with positive or negative risk factors for DE and AFA, such as state body satisfaction, state shape satisfaction, state appearance satisfaction, body functionality appreciation and AFA. Aim 3 examines if associations between exposure to BP content and risk and protective factors for DE, and AFA differ by body size of the image, more specifically between exposure to images of fat bodies, mid-size bodies(bodies that might be considered somewhat “overweight” (i.e., would not be categorized as the thin ideal, but are not likely to experience substantial AFA or discrimination)),” or a condition containing both fat and mid-size bodies. Independent repeated measure Analyses of Variance (ANOVAs) are used to examine differences in all outcomes from pre to post stimulus exposure. In Aim 1, it was found that young females (N=379) define BP as being primarily about “body love and confidence,” “appreciation of body diversity,” “not body shaming, “and “body acceptance,” “prioritization of health over beauty,” and the “rejection of societal ideals about weight and shape” (hereafter referred to as mainstream BP). Linear regression models revealed significant associations between agreement with mainstream BP and higher body functionality appreciation and lower AFA. Contrary to the hypothesis, there was a significant association between agreement with mainstream BP and thin ideal internalization. Agreement with fat liberation was associated with higher body functionality appreciation, lower eating disorder risk, and lower AFA. For Aim 2, there were significant increases in all measures of state body satisfaction for all conditions, but no significant effect of condition. In Aim 3, those who viewed images of BP content containing only fat bodies had greater increases in state appearance satisfaction. However, there were increases in all measures of state body satisfaction for all conditions. Findings from this study can be used to help public health professionals utilize mainstream BP and fat liberation to reduce DE risk and AFA.
Article
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a prevalent maladaptive body-focused behavior among youth and young adults. Yoga is associated with improved mindfulness, body image, and self-compassion; all of which are associated with decreased NSSI. This study evaluated the relationship between yoga and NSSI frequency, and if the relationship would be mediated by mindfulness, self-compassion, and/or body appreciation. Participants were recruited from a random sample of university students via email and included those with some yoga experience (N = 384; Mage = 19.98, SD = 2.20). Participants completed an anonymous online survey assessing their levels of yoga participation, NSSI, mindfulness, self-compassion, and body appreciation. Bias corrected serial mediation regression models indicated the relationship between yoga participation and NSSI frequency was significantly mediated by self-compassion followed by body appreciation. Body appreciation was also a significant single mediator of yoga’s relationship with NSSI. Mindfulness was not a significant mediator in any of the analyzes. Yoga practice is associated with reduced NSSI behaviors through its positive relationships with body appreciation and self-compassion. Body appreciation appears to be an important mechanism underlying the link between yoga participation and NSSI behavior suggesting that interventions promoting positive body image, such as yoga, could be innovative strategies for clinicians to consider.
Article
Self-compassion, a style of responding to oneself in times of suffering, is typically measured as a general tendency for how one normally responds using the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003). A contextualized adaptation to the SCS could provide a new understanding of how one responds to suffering by providing a standard frame of reference, is more likely to be more predictive of context outcomes, and reduces intraindividual variance (Baird & Lucas, 2011). How a contextualized assessment of self-compassion compares to the original assessment using parallel measures is unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore the use of a modified SCS adapted for the context of responding to the experience of negative body image (BI-SCS). There were 468 participants who completed the SCS and then wrote about a specific negative body image experience (to prime a negative body image experience) before they completed a modified SCS and related constructs. Confirmatory Factor Analysis supported a bi-factor structure consistent with SCS. Correlations with body image outcomes were stronger for the majority of BI-SCS scores compared to the SCS. Unique explained variance of the BI-SCS supported incremental validity. Results show promising initial evidence supporting the use of the BI-SCS for body-related outcomes.
Full-text available
Article
Background “How do I perceive my own body?“ is a central question during adolescence, which addresses the subjective assessment of body image, called Body Esteem. Although concern about body esteem increases during adolescence, there is a lack of psychometrically validated measures to assess it specifically among Spanish adolescents. Objective This study aims to validate the Body-Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adult populations (BESAA), a widely used measure of body esteem across cultures, among the Spanish adolescent population. Methods The cross-cultural adequacy and acceptability of the Argentinian-Spanish version by Forbes et al., (2012) were pilot tested and the questionnaire was completed by 1,258 students (Mage = 15.56). Next, several psychometric analyses were carried out: exploratory (AFE) and confirmatory (CFA) factorial structure, convergent and discriminant validity, nomological validity, internal consistency, and temporal reliability. Results The AFE and CFA supported a reduced Spanish version of the BESAA of 14 items (BESAA-S) and maintained the original three-factor structure (BE-Weight, BE-Appearance, and BE-Attribution subscales). The BESAA-S showed acceptable internal consistency and strong test-retest reliability. Discriminant validity between subscales was appropriate, and convergent validity was appropriate except for the BE-Attribution subscale. Nomological validity was supported through significant correlations with body appreciation, general self-esteem, sociocultural attitudes towards appearance, and disordered eating symptoms. Body esteem was negatively associated with weight status. Conclusions This study presents a culturally appropriate, shortened Spanish BESAA as a reliable instrument for body esteem assessment among Spanish speaking adolescents.
Article
Body appreciation, defined as accepting, holding favourable attitudes towards, and respecting the body, is the most widely studied facet of positive body image. Despite more than 15 years of research investigating associations between body appreciation and psychological wellbeing constructs, a synthesis of this literature has yet to be performed. We conducted the first systematic review and meta-analysis of research on body appreciation and its psychological correlates. Two-hundred-forty papers were included, of which only eight investigated prospective associations. Random effects meta-analyses were performed on 35 cross-sectional correlates of body appreciation. Prospective associations were reviewed qualitatively. Meta-analyses showed that body appreciation was inversely associated with numerous indices of eating (eating pathology, restraint) and body image disturbances (appearance-ideal internalization, body surveillance, sociocultural pressures), and general psychopathology (depression, anxiety). Body appreciation was positively associated with several adaptive wellbeing constructs (self-esteem, self-compassion, sexual satisfaction). Crucially, pooled associations were still evident after controlling for the influence of negative body image. Qualitative synthesis showed that body appreciation may also promote better wellbeing over time. Findings confirm that body appreciation is consistently associated with better psychological wellbeing. Body appreciation shows promise as a viable intervention target in mental health promotion initiatives and eating disorder prevention programs.
Full-text available
Book
W tej monografii Czytelnik znajdzie 12 prac z trzech obszarów zdrowia kobiet. Pierwszym obszarem będzie problematyka zdrowia w kontekście biomedycznym. Autorzy prezentują wybrane choroby i zagrożenia dla zdrowia kobiet w ujęciu epidemiologicznym i klinicznym, wskazując na specyfikę diagnozy i leczenia chorób kobiecych. Drugi nurt naukowych rozważań odbywa się w odniesieniu do społecznych ról kobiet. Przyjmowane przez kobiety role opiekuńcze: matki, córki, pielęgniarki oznaczają duży wysiłek i generują lęki, napięcie i poczucie odpowiedzialności za zdrowie innych. Ten stres społeczny odciska piętno na zdrowiu subiektywnym i obiektywnym. Trzecim obszarem jest budowanie zdrowia w kontekście kultury współczesnej, kształtowanie wizerunku ciała kobiet, influencerów i followersów, uwypuklając przy tym możliwości „naprawcze” nowoczesnych mediów.
Article
Positive body image may be particularly relevant to assess for Brazilian gay and bisexual men, given the extent of sexual minority stressors (e.g., harassment, discrimination) in Brazilian culture, which can impair one’s self-perception and concept. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2) among Brazilian cisgender gay and bisexual adult men, aged 18–50 years. We evaluated the factor structure using a two-step, split-sample exploratory (EFA; n = 682) and confirmatory factor analytic approach (CFA; n = 727), which supported the one-factor structure of the measure. Additionally, convergent validity, internal consistency, and 2-week test-retest reliability were assessed. The BAS-2 scores showed small to large negative correlations with self-objectification beliefs and behaviors, drive for muscularity and appearance-ideal internalization measures. We also found good internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the measure. Taken together, these results support the use of the BAS-2 in Brazilian cisgender gay and bisexual men and provide an initial understanding of body appreciation and other related constructs among this population.
Article
The present research examined whether and which adaptive body image displays in peers can promote more adaptive body image in self. In two studies, female-identified undergraduates recalled a personally distressing body image event. In Study 1, participants (N = 158) then heard an alleged female-identified peer responding to her own distressing body image event with either self-compassion, self-esteem enhancement, or distraction. Participants across conditions reported increased body acceptance and body image-related self-compassion, and decreased body image distress, but changes did not vary by condition. Study 2 sought to determine which component(s) common to Study 1's conditions explained the benefits participants experienced. Participants (N = 207) listened to an alleged peer: describe body image distress with which she coped adaptively; express body image distress but no adaptive coping; or deny body image distress and relate positively to her body. Hearing a peer cope adaptively with body image distress yielded the greatest body image benefits, whereas hearing a peer deny body image distress was generally least helpful. Results suggest that learning how a peer copes adaptively with body image distress may be most helpful in the face of personal body image distress, and support the overarching theory that adaptive body image may be socially transmissible.
Full-text available
Chapter
Güzellik idealinin doğuştan geldiğine inanılmaktadır. Dokuz aydan daha büyük olmayan bebekler bile yetişkinlerin çekici buldukları yüzlere daha uzun süre bakmaları bu inancı pekiştirmektedir. Kadın güzelliği her zaman insanları kendine çekmiştir. Özellikle güzellik eş seçiminde, üreme potansiyeli ve avantajı olarak yorumlanmıştır. İnsan hayatında güzelin ve güzelliğin her zaman çok önemli bir yeri olması sebebiyle güzellik konusu Sappho, Platoon ve Kant gibi yenilikçi düşünürler arasında çokça tartışılan konulardan biri olmuştur. Antik çağda Yunanlı düşünürler, güzelliğin tanımlanabileceğini savunup, onu düzen, birlik, uyum, oran, ölçü ve iyilik gibi niteliklerin birleşimine indirgerken, bazı modern düşünürler güzelliğin tanımlanamayacağını savunmuşlardır (Gökalp, 2018). Kant’a göre, güzellik, güzelliğin kendisinden başka nedenler olmadan bizim ilgimizi çeker (Buggie ve diğ., 2012).
Article
Background: Body image is a multidimensional concept that involves the mental image of the human body and the feeling of being oneself throughout existence. Treatment for breast cancer causes several bodily changes that affect women's body image. Aims: This meta-synthesis aims to synthesise and interpret primary qualitative studies on the experience of body image in women undergoing treatment for breast cancer. Methods: A qualitative meta-synthesis was conducted employing systematic searches in six databases (PubMed, CINAHL, SCOPUS, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and LILACS). Data analysis was performed according to thematic synthesis. Results: Forty studies were included. Five descriptive themes were identified: (1) actively saying goodbye to body image; (2) the rupture of body image; (3) the sacrifice of body image in exchange for life; (4) body image as a vehicle for social expression; and (5) resignation of the alterated body image. These themes were understood through one analytical theme: Half-woman: body image of the woman with breast cancer. Conclusion: The experience of body image in the context of breast cancer is a dynamic phenomenon, which involves dismissal, rupture, and resignation and occurs mediated by interpersonal contact.
Full-text available
Article
Bu çalışmanın amacı, ergenlik ve genç yetişkinlik dönemlerindeki bireylerin beden imajını ölçmeye ilişkin geçerliği ve güvenirliği kanıtlanmış bir ölçme aracı geliştirmektir. Araştırma grubunu 384 lise öğrencisi oluşturmuştur. Çalışmada uzman görüşüne başvurularak kapsam geçerliği; açımlayıcı (AFA) ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizi (DFA) uygulanarak yapı geçerliği test edilmiştir. Analizler kapsamında IBM SPSS Statistics v20.0 ve Lisrel 8.80 programlarından faydalanılmıştır. AFA sonucunda, toplam varyansın %62’sini açıklayan ve 21 maddeden oluşan 4 faktörlü bir yapıya ulaşılmıştır. Faktörler “Bedeni Olumsuz Algılama”, “Değerlendirme Duyarlılığı”, “Bedeni Olumlu Algılama” ve “Bedeni Değiştirme” olarak isimlendirilmiştir. DFA sonucunda, 21 madde ve 4 faktörlü yapının yeterli uyum indekslerine sahip olduğu belirlenmiştir. Güvenirlik analizlerinde AFA ve DFA örneklemleri için hesaplanan Cronbach Alfa iç tutarlık katsayılarının .92 ile .88 olarak kabul edilebilir değerler arasında yer aldığı görülmüştür. Madde analizi sonucunda ulaşılan bulgular, Beden İmajı Ölçeği’ndeki maddelerin toplam puanı yordama gücünün ve ayırt edicilik düzeylerinin yüksek olduğunu göstermiştir. Beden İmajı Ölçeği’nin ergenler ve genç yetişkinlerin beden imajını ölçmek amacıyla kullanılabilecek geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçme aracı olduğu belirtilebilir.
Full-text available
Book
Annual Review of CyberTherapy and Telemedicine (ARCTT – ISSN: 1554-8716) is one of the official journals of the International Association of CyberPsychology, Training, and Rehabilitation (iACToR). The journal is published annually (once per year) by the Interactive Media Institute (IMI) - a 501c3 non profit organization, dedicated to incorporating interdisciplinary researchers from around the world to create, test, and develop clinical protocols for the medical and psychological community - in cooperation with Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, hosting and maintaining this web site. ARCTT is an Open Access journal that does not charge readers or their institutions for access.
Article
The current study aimed to translate the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2) into Mandarin Chinese and explore its psychometric properties with college students from the Chinese mainland. In Study 1 (N = 840, 415 women, 425 men), an exploratory factor analysis upheld the unidimensional factor structure of the Mandarin Chinese BAS-2, and McDonald’s omega supported the internal consistency reliability of its scores. Evidence of construct validity of the Mandarin Chinese BAS-2 was also accrued via its positive correlations with self-esteem, self-compassion, and body satisfaction as well as negative correlations with BMI, weight discrepancy, negative affect, and body surveillance. Its negative correlation with eating disorder symptomatology and negligible correlation with impression management supported its criterion-related validity and discriminant validity, respectively. Additionally, the Mandarin Chinese BAS-2 contributed unique variance in eating disorder symptomatology and self-esteem beyond the variance explained by BMI and other body satisfaction measures, providing evidence of incremental validity. Study 2 (N = 522, 322 women, 230 men) confirmed its unidimensional factor structure, upheld the internal consistency and stability of its scores over a 3-month period, and supported its measurement invariance between women and men. Taken together, these findings support the cross-cultural validity of the Mandarin Chinese BAS-2 on the Chinse mainland.
Article
Evidence shows interventions can improve positive body image in adult women. This systematic review examined the evidence of efficacy of interventions that aimed to increase positive body image in children and young people aged under 18 years. The authors followed PRISMA guidelines for the review. Searches of CINAHL Plus, Medline, PsychINFO, Wiley Online Library, SCOPUS and grey literature were conducted up to February 2021 and identified 4171 papers. Thirteen studies evaluating 12 interventions, designed for children/adolescents aged 9–18 years, were eligible and evaluated using the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) Quality Assessment Tool. The studies evaluated body appreciation, body-esteem, and embodiment. Studies using cognitive dissonance, peer support, and psychoeducation had evidence of improving body appreciation and body-esteem in adolescent girls. However, evidence of efficacy for younger children and boys was lacking and the studies ranged in methodological quality. Further research should rigorously evaluate positive body image interventions using second-generation measures that assess specific components of positive body image and consider how to promote positive body image in young children and boys.
Article
Past research suggests that sexualized women are dehumanized and viewing sexualized images negatively impacts viewers’ body image; however, plus-size women are mostly absent from this research. The current studies investigate how sexualization impacts dehumanization of plus-size women and participants’ body image. In Study 1 (N = 277, Mage = 19.52, SD =1.77) men and women viewed images of plus-size and thin sexualized and non-sexualized women and rated the women on traits linked to dehumanization. Results indicated that sexualized thin targets were perceived as less human than plus-size sexualized and non-sexualized targets. Plus-size sexualized targets were also perceived as less human than plus-size non-sexualized targets. In Study 2 (N = 500, Mage = 18.98, SD = 1.51) we investigated the impact of viewing sexualized images on participants’ feelings about their own body. Results indicated that sexualization, but not body size, impacted women’s objectified body consciousness. Men’s body esteem was impacted by the body size of the image. Perceived race of the image also impacted feelings of body control for both men and women. Taken together these results highlight that sexualization, at any body size, impacts women’s views about themselves and sexualized women, at any body size, are dehumanized.
Article
While a growing body of literature has examined factors that contribute to Asian Americans’ negative body image, little research has investigated Asian Americans’ body image from a strengths-based perspective. This study thus presents the Pride in Asian American Appearance Scale (PAAAS), which was designed to measure the extent to which Asian Americans feel positively about their own racialized physical appearances as well as those of fellow Asian Americans. Items were developed through an extensive literature review, cognitive interviews, and expert feedback. Exploratory (N = 398) and confirmatory (N = 398) factor analyses suggested a bifactor model, consisting of 24 items comprising a general factor and four group factors: (a) Pride in Asian Features, (b) Preference for Asian American Appearance, (c) Asian Americans as Desirable, and (d) Action Promoting Asians’ Attractiveness. Internal consistency estimates as well as factor determinacies were high and demonstrated that the specified items adequately represented their intended factors. The PAAAS was significantly correlated in theoretically expected directions with collective self-esteem, internalized racist appearance bias, and psychological distress. Implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Article
The applicability of the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2) in a Korean context is still unexplored, even though awareness of the importance of a positive body image has increased in South Korea. The current study examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of a Korean translation of the BAS-2, specifically to (1) translate and culturally adapt the BAS-2 to Korea, (2) confirm its unidimensional construct, and (3) identify its associations with body image and psychological outcomes across sex with a Korean sample. Data from 839 Korean adult men (n = 415) and women (n = 424) were randomly split into two subsamples. Using the exploratory factor analysis to confirmatory factor analysis strategy, the current study showed support for one factor structure of a Korean translation of the BAS-2. Scalar measurement invariance was found between men and women. Further analyses revealed construct validity through associations with measures of muscularity and body fat dissatisfaction (for men), internalization (for women), and appearance evaluation, as well as incremental validity through hierarchical regression analyses predicting life satisfaction and self-esteem. The Korean BAS-2 presented good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The Korean BAS-2 is a reliable and valid measure, allowing for cross-cultural comparisons of body appreciation.
Full-text available
Article
Despite many theorists' assertions and researchers' findings that eating disturbances have personal, sociocultural, and relational correlates, no model of eating disorder symptomatology incorporating all 3 of these domains has been proposed. The purpose of this study, then, was to examine empirically such a model. Personal, sociocultural, and relational variables were chosen, based on their solid relations with eating disorder symptomatology, to be included within the model. Theoretical frameworks and empirical findings were used to specify variable relations and paths, and the model was tested via structural equation modeling with data from 463 college women. As expected, the model fit the data adequately, and sociocultural, personal, and relational variables all made unique contributions within the model. Most model predictions were supported, and personal and relational variables were found to fully mediate the effects of the sociocultural variable on disordered eating scores. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Full-text available
Article
Explores why women in general are more prone to develop bulimia than men and which women in particular have a higher risk of becoming bulimic. Risk factors for bulimia are discussed in terms of sociocultural variables, such as the central role of beauty in the female sex-role stereotype; developmental processes; psychological variables; and biological factors, including genetic determinants of weight, the disregulation of body weight and eating through dieting, affective instability, and family variables. The sociocultural and psychological mediators that contribute to the increased risk of bulimia in this era are discussed, including a shift toward an increased emphasis on thinness, the effects of media attention on dieting and bulimia, fitness, and shifting sex roles. Results indicate that female socialization is a major contributing factor in bulimia. Although significantly fewer men than women currently show evidence of bulimia, it is hypothesized that the general pressure on men to become conscious of physical fitness and appearance, together with certain male subcultures that emphasize weight standards, will lead to an increased incidence of bulimia in men. (5½ p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Full-text available
Article
Although substantial literatures attest to the psychosocial impact of individuals’ physical attractiveness and the centrality of physical self-concept, or body image, to global self-concept, little research has examined the relationship of these two variables to depression. Accordingly, in the present study, 224 college men and women completed affective and cognitive measures of body image, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D), and a single, self-labeling of depression item. Each subject was videotaped, and objective raters reliably evaluated a static, full-body pose of each subject on physical attractiveness. The subjects were classified as depressed (n = 35) or nondepressed (n = 42) on the basis of the conjunctive criteria of self-labeling and extreme groups on the CES-D. As hypothesized, the multivariate and univariate analyses of variance indicated that depressed subjects were less satisfied with their bodies and saw themselves as less physically attractive than was reported by nondepressed subjects. These groups did not differ, however, with respect to observer-rated physical attractiveness. Support was obtained for Beck’s (1973, 1976) cognitive hypothesis that depressed persons negatively distort their body images. However, the results also indicated substantial positive distortion among nondepressed subjects.
Full-text available
Article
Norms and reliability and validity data are presented for an objectively scored Body Esteem Scale. Factor analysis of the scale revealed that body esteem is a multidimensional construct which differs for males and females. For males, the body esteem dimensions dealt with physical attractiveness, upper body strength, and physical condition. For females, the dimensions dealt with sexual attractiveness, weight concern, and physical condition. The three aspects of males' body esteem were more highly intercorrelated than those of the females, indicating a greater degree of body esteem differentiation for females than for males.
Full-text available
Article
Synopsis Psychometric and clinical correlates of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) are described for a large sample of female anorexia nervosa ( N = 160) and female comparison ( N = 140) subjects. An abbreviated 26-item version of the EAT (EAT-26) is proposed, based on a factor analysis of the original scale (EAT-40). The EAT-26 is highly correlated with the EAT-40 ( r = 0·98) and three factors form subscales which are meaningfully related to bulimia, weight, body-image variables and psychological symptoms. Whereas there are no differces between bulimic and restricter anorexia nervosa patients on the total EAT-26 and EAT-40 scores, these groups do indicate significant differences on EAT-26 fractors. Norms for the anorexia nervosa and female comparison subjects are presented for the EAT-26, EAT-40 and the EAT-26 factors. It is concluded that the EAT-26 is a reliable, valid and economical instrument which may be useful as an objective measure of the symptoms of anorexia nervosa.
Full-text available
Article
Research on dispositional optimism as assessed by the Life Orientation Test (Scheier & Carver, 1985) has been challenged on the grounds that effects attributed to optimism are indistinguishable from those of unmeasured third variables, most notably, neuroticism. Data from 4,309 subjects show that associations between optimism and both depression and aspects of coping remain significant even when the effects of neuroticism, as well as the effects of trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem, are statistically controlled. Thus, the Life Orientation Test does appear to possess adequate predictive and discriminant validity. Examination of the scale on somewhat different grounds, however, does suggest that future applications can benefit from its revision. Thus, we also describe a minor modification to the Life Orientation Test, along with data bearing on the revised scale's psychometric properties.
Full-text available
Article
A science of positive subjective experience, positive individual traits, and positive institutions promises to improve quality of life and prevent the pathologies that arise when life is barren and meaningless. The exclusive focus on pathology that has dominated so much of our discipline results in a model of the human being lacking the positive features that make life worth living. Hope, wisdom, creativity, future mindedness, courage, spirituality, responsibility, and perseverance are ignored or explained as transformations of more authentic negative impulses. The 15 articles in this millennial issue of the American Psychologist discuss such issues as what enables happiness, the effects of autonomy and self-regulation, how optimism and hope affect health, what constitutes wisdom, and how talent and creativity come to fruition. The authors outline a framework for a science of positive psychology, point to gaps in our knowledge, and predict that the next century will see a science and profession that will come to understand and build the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to flourish.
Full-text available
Article
This research was intended to further establish convergent and discriminant validity for a recent Body Esteem Scale (BES) which measures different dimensions of body satisfaction in young adults. One hundred and fifty-four male and 193 female undergraduates completed the BES, the Body Consciousness Questionnaire (BCQ), the Self-Esteem Scale, and several questions pertaining to exercise, food intake, and attractiveness. Good convergent and discriminant validity was demonstrated by the Male Upper Body Strength and Physical Condition subscales and by the female Weight Concern, Physical Condition, and Sexual Attractiveness subscales.
Article
This meta-analytic review of prospective and experimental studies reveals that several accepted risk factors for eating pathology have not received empirical support (e.g., sexual abuse) or have received contradictory support (e.g., dieting). There was consistent support for less-accepted risk factors(e.g., thin-ideal internalization) as well as emerging evidence for variables that potentiate and mitigate the effects of risk factors(e.g., social support) and factors that predict eating pathology maintenance(e.g., negative affect). In addition, certain multivariate etiologic and maintenance models received preliminary support. However, the predictive power of individual risk and maintenance factors was limited, suggesting it will be important to search for additional risk and maintenance factors, develop more comprehensive multivariate models, and address methodological limitations that attenuate effects.
Article
Concerns about body shape are common among young women in Western cultures, and, in an extreme form, they constitute a central feature of the eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. To date there has been no satisfactory measure of such concerns. A self-report instrument, the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) has therefore been developed. The items that constitute this measure were derived by conducting semistructured interviews with various groups of women including patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. The BSQ has been administered to three samples of young women in the community as well as to a group of patients with bulimia nervosa. The concurrent and discriminant validity of the measure have been shown to be good. The BSQ provides a means of investigating the role of concerns about body shape in the development, maintenance, and treatment of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.
Article
A framework for hypothesis testing and power analysis in the assessment of fit of covariance structure models is presented. We emphasize the value of confidence intervals for fit indices, and we stress the relationship of confidence intervals to a framework for hypothesis testing. The approach allows for testing null hypotheses of not-good fit, reversing the role of the null hypothesis in conventional tests of model fit, so that a significant result provides strong support for good fit. The approach also allows for direct estimation of power, where effect size is defined in terms of a null and alternative value of the root-mean-square error of approximation fit index proposed by J. H. Steiger and J. M. Lind (1980). It is also feasible to determine minimum sample size required to achieve a given level of power for any test of fit in this framework. Computer programs and examples are provided for power analyses and calculation of minimum sample sizes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This article is concerned with measures of fit of a model. Two types of error involved in fitting a model are considered. The first is error of approximation which involves the fit of the model, with optimally chosen but unknown parameter values, to the population covariance matrix. The second is overall error which involves the fit of the model, with parameter values estimated from the sample, to the population covariance matrix. Measures of the two types of error are proposed and point and interval estimates of the measures are suggested. These measures take the number of parameters in the model into account in order to avoid penalizing parsimonious models. Practical difficulties associated with the usual tests of exact fit or a model are discussed and a test of “close fit” of a model is suggested.
Article
This handbook is a compilation and evaluation of 106 attitude scales for survey research. An introductory chapter outlines the ten chapters and discusses the rationale and background of the project. Chapter 2 reviews survey evidence on the correlates of life satisfaction and happiness in the general public. Chapters 3 through 9 review and reproduce attitude scales dealing with: self esteem and self concept, alienation, authoritarian and dogmatic personality characteristics, seven political attitude scales not in "Measures of Political Attitudes," (SO 001 618), and personal, religious, and social values. Chapter 10 examines three sets of scales for measuring the social desirability response set. Another related document is: Measures of Occupational Attitudes and Occupational Characteristics. (Author/DJB)
Article
[This book] has 2 basic assumptions. The 1st assumption is that assessment is apt to be more sound if based upon meaningful—that is, reliable and valid—information. Second, assessment skills may be developed by improving one's knowledge of tests used to gather meaningful information about people and environments. A primary objective of this book is to help students develop some assessment skills and improve their knowledge about assessment techniques and tests. [This] book focuses on theory and assessment techniques used to assess and understand both the person and the psychological environment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Body image issues are at the core of major eating disorders. They are also important phenomena in and of themselves. Kevin Thompson and his colleagues provide an overview of a wide variety of body image issues, ranging from reconstructive surgery to eating disorders. The book will be a valuable resource for even the most established researchers in the field, as it is filled with data, information about assessment tools, and a thorough treatment of virtually all major theoretical perspectives on the development of body image and their implications for treatment and prevention. At the same time, the authors' decision to include numerous experiential anecdotes makes the book easily accessible to those just entering the field who are trying to understand the nature of these phenomena. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The evolution of positive psychological science is predicated on sound measurement of strengths, healthy processes, and fulfillments. The vital balance in research can be achieved by developing diverse means of measuring positive aspects of the human experience. In this introductory chapter, we will briefly address conceptual issues related to identifying the human strengths that are considered the building blocks of positive psychology. We argue that such human strengths are "real" and that detecting these strengths is an important part of good science and practice. We also will identify the shortcomings in common assessment procedures and provide a new model of assessment and how-to information for addressing these shortcomings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
Recent surveys suggest that nearly half of all women and a quarter of the men in the US dislike their looks. In this book, the author invites us to ignore the onslaught of advertising and other media images and consider the provocative possibility that the problem lies not in our bodies themselves, but in our relationship to them. In "The Body Image Workbook," user-friendly "helpsheets" take readers through a clinically tested interactive 8-step program that helps us to: discover our own unique body images; change self-defeating "private body talk"; free ourselves from appearance-preoccupied rituals and other troublesome habits; be kinder to our bodies through healthy practices and affirmations and create a lasting, positive relationship with our bodies through self-acceptance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Presents an empirical description and evaluation of the validity, reliability, and accuracy of 127 social psychological measures in 9 areas (e.g., self-esteem, locus of control, alienation and anomie, authoritarianism and dogmatism, values, and religious and social attitudes). A review of factors involved in the measurement of life satisfaction and happiness is included. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Body image disturbance is both positively associated with the development of eating disorders and negatively associated with recovery. However, the aspects of body image most relevant to eating disorders have not been clearly established. Body image preoccupation may be particularly relevant to disordered eating. Yet, its measurement has proven problematic. In Study 1, a modification of the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), a measure of body image preoccupation (P. J. Cooper, M. J. Taylor, Z. Cooper, & C. G. Fairburn, 1987), was developed in a sample of female undergraduates. The BSQ–R–10 yielded reliable and valid scores, and was more strongly related to disordered eating than measures of body image attitudes. In Study 2, the BSQ–R–10 was cross-validated in another sample of female undergraduates, and its psychometric properties further supported. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) has been demonstrated to have high internal consistency in the form of split-half reliability. Demonstration of stability in the form of test-retest reliability has been absent. Test-retest reliability for the EDI was obtained with a sample of 70 university undergraduates. Test-retest reliability was also obtained with a restricted group drawn from the original sample who were considered to be at risk on the basis of their EDI scores. The interval between test administrations was 3 weeks. With both samples, test-retest reliability of the total EDI score was exceptionally high. Test-retest reliability for the eight subscales was, with one exception, within the usual range of acceptability.
Article
Concerns about body shape are common among young women in Western cultures, and, in an extreme form, they constitute a central feature of the eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. To date there has been no satisfactory measure of such concerns. A self-report instrument, the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) has therefore been developed. The items that constitute this measure were derived by conducting semistructured interviews with various groups of women including patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. The BSQ has been administered to three samples of young women in the community as well as to a group of patients with bulimia nervosa. The concurrent and discriminant validity of the measure have been shown to be good. The BSQ provides a means of investigating the role of concerns about body shape in the development, maintenance, and treatment of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.
Article
Using feminist theory about the social construction of the female body, a scale was developed and validated to measure objectified body consciousness (OBC) in young women (N= 502) and middle-aged women (N= 151). Scales used were (a) surveillance (viewing the body as an outside observer), (b) body shame (feeling shame when the body does not conform), and (c) appearance control beliefs. The three scales were demonstrated to be distinct dimensions with acceptable reliabilities. Surveillance and body shame correlated negatively with body esteem. Control beliefs correlated positively with body esteem in young women and were related to frequency of restricted eating in all samples. All three scales were positively related to disordered eating. The relationship of OBC to women's body experience is discussed.
Article
This article examines the adequacy of the “rules of thumb” conventional cutoff criteria and several new alternatives for various fit indexes used to evaluate model fit in practice. Using a 2‐index presentation strategy, which includes using the maximum likelihood (ML)‐based standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) and supplementing it with either Tucker‐Lewis Index (TLI), Bollen's (1989) Fit Index (BL89), Relative Noncentrality Index (RNI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Gamma Hat, McDonald's Centrality Index (Mc), or root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA), various combinations of cutoff values from selected ranges of cutoff criteria for the ML‐based SRMR and a given supplemental fit index were used to calculate rejection rates for various types of true‐population and misspecified models; that is, models with misspecified factor covariance(s) and models with misspecified factor loading(s). The results suggest that, for the ML method, a cutoff value close to .95 for TLI, BL89, CFI, RNI, and Gamma Hat; a cutoff value close to .90 for Mc; a cutoff value close to .08 for SRMR; and a cutoff value close to .06 for RMSEA are needed before we can conclude that there is a relatively good fit between the hypothesized model and the observed data. Furthermore, the 2‐index presentation strategy is required to reject reasonable proportions of various types of true‐population and misspecified models. Finally, using the proposed cutoff criteria, the ML‐based TLI, Mc, and RMSEA tend to overreject true‐population models at small sample size and thus are less preferable when sample size is small.
Article
A framework for hypothesis testing and power analysis in the assessment of fit of covariance structure models is presented. We emphasize the value of confidence intervals for fit indices, and we stress the relationship of confidence intervals to a framework for hypothesis testing. The approach allows for testing null hypotheses of not-good fit, reversing the role of the null hypothesis in conventional tests of model fit, so that a significant result provides strong support for good fit. The approach also allows for direct estimation of power, where effect size is defined in terms of a null and alternative value of the root-mean-square error of approximation fit index proposed by J. H. Steiger and J. M. Lind (1980). It is also feasible to determine minimum sample size required to achieve a given level of power for any test of fit in this framework. Computer programs and examples are provided for power analyses and calculation of minimum sample sizes., (C) 1996 by the American Psychological Association
Book
There are few topics so fascinating both to the research investigator and the research subject as the self-image. It is distinctively characteristic of the human animal that he is able to stand outside himself and to describe, judge, and evaluate the person he is. He is at once the observer and the observed, the judge and the judged, the evaluator and the evaluated. Since the self is probably the most important thing in the world to him, the question of what he is like and how he feels about himself engrosses him deeply. This is especially true during the adolescent stage of development.
Article
One possible reason for the continued neglect of statistical power analysis in research in the behavioral sciences is the inaccessibility of or difficulty with the standard material. A convenient, although not comprehensive, presentation of required sample sizes is provided here. Effect-size indexes and conventional values for these are given for operationally defined small, medium, and large effects. The sample sizes necessary for .80 power to detect effects at these levels are tabled for eight standard statistical tests: (a) the difference between independent means, (b) the significance of a product-moment correlation, (c) the difference between independent rs, (d) the sign test, (e) the difference between independent proportions, (f) chi-square tests for goodness of fit and contingency tables, (g) one-way analysis of variance, and (h) the significance of a multiple or multiple partial correlation.
Article
This article presents an analysis of the factor structure of the Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (BSRQ), an attitudinal body-image instrument. Random stratified samples, drawn from a national survey, included 1,064 females and 988 males. In order to evaluate the replicability of the BSRQ factor structure, separate split-sample factor analyses (principal components with varimax rotation) were conducted for each sex. Largely consistent with the conceptual basis of the BSRQ, the resultant factors derived from each analysis were: Appearance Evaluation, Appearance Orientation, Fitness Evaluation, Fitness Orientation, Health Evaluation, Health Orientation, and Illness Orientation. Subsequent concordance analyses revealed marked stability of the factor structure both within and between sexes. Females demonstrated somewhat greater differentiation of body-image attitudes than did males. The utility of the BSRQ is discussed relative to extant body-image measures.
Article
Although body-image disturbance is among the diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, the nature and extent of this disturbance have not been precisely identified. This is the purpose of this first meta-analysis of extant research on body image and eating disorders. Using contemporary techniques, the meta-analysis systematically examined 66 studies (from 1974 to 1993) of perceptual and attitudinal parameters of body image among anorexics and bulimics relative to control groups. Attitudinal body dissatisfaction, both questionnaire and self-ideal discrepancy measures, produced substantially larger effect sizes than did perceptual size-estimation inaccuracy. Body dissatisfaction measures, whether global or weight/shape related, differentiated bulimic and anorexic groups (with bulimics having more dissatisfaction), whereas perceptual distortion indices did not. Somewhat larger effects occurred with whole-body than with body-part size-estimation assessments. Size distortion among patients with eating disorders appears unlikely to reflect a more generalized sensory/perceptual deficit. Scientific, conceptual, and clinical implications of these findings are delineated.
Article
The link between body image and eating disorders has been extensively discussed, but investigations using nonclinical populations have not been systematically reviewed. In this article, a model to guide future researchers has been provided, and an attempt has been made to organize and synthesize the existing findings, with special attention to gender differences. Future researchers should more carefully delineate behavioral, emotional, cognitive, motivational, and evaluative components of body schema and should explore the relationship between body schema and outcomes other than eating disturbances. Conclusions in this review include the following: (a) Verbal measures of body schema are more successful than visual assessment tools; (b) measures of body distortion have been less successful than measures of dissatisfaction; (c) gender differences are prevalent; (d) behavioral outcomes can be successfully predicted; and (e) pubertal development plays a critical role in the gender differentiation of body schemas.