Prevalence of malaria as co-infection in HIV-infected individuals in a malaria endemic area of southeastern Nigeria

Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria.
Journal of vector borne diseases (Impact Factor: 0.81). 12/2007; 44(4):250-4.
Source: PubMed


The present study was conducted on the prevalence of malaria as co-infection amongst 'asymptomatic HIV' and 'symptomatic HIV' subjects to see if such prevalence deviated from that commonly reported in apparently health individuals in same locality.
A prospective study that involved 196 participants grouped according to their HIV status as: 'asymptomatic HIV seropositive group' (n = 101); 'symptomatic HIV seropositive group' (n = 48) and 'control HIV-seronegative group (n = 47). Blood samples collected from the participants were used for double HIV screening by rapid immunoassay technique and immunochromatographic technique, and for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria using rapid P. falciparum antigen detection method.
The result showed that the prevalence of P. falciparum malaria as a co-infection amongst the asymptomatic HIV seropositive group was 12 (11.8%) and amongst the symptomatic HIV seropositive group was 16 (33.3%). However, the prevalence rate of P. falciparum malaria amongst the control HIV seronegative group was 5 (10.6%) and the combined burden of P. falciparum malaria amongst both groups of HIV seropositives was 28 (18.9%).
The present study observed different prevalence rates of P. falciparum malaria amongst the three groups. The prevalence was tripled in symptomatic HIV seropositive group. This shows a clear departure from possible obtainable prevalence of malaria infection alone in this malaria endemic area. Due to the mortality rates associated with malaria infection in an endemic area, it may be necessary that routine malaria screening be adopted as part of the management policy to check the co-infection.

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    • "Previous studies have shown evidence of detrimental relationship between the two disease conditions especially in areas where they are co-endemic [6] [7] [8] [9] . On one hand, HIV infection has been reported to roughly double the risk of malaria parasitemia and increase the frequency and severity of clinical malaria [8] [9] . "
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the malaria parasitemia, CD4(+) cell counts and some haematological indices among HIV-malaria co-infected adult patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A total of 342 adult HIV positive subjects were recruited at the consultant outpatient HIV/AIDS clinic, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria between June 2011 to November 2011. Blood samples were taken for malaria parasite count, CD4(+) cell count and other haematological counts. Out of the 342 adult HIV positive subjects a total of 254 patients (74.3%) were found to have malaria parasitemia. The incidence of malaria parasitemia increased with advancing clinical stage of HIV infection and this was statistically significant (P=0.002). There was no statistical significance when gender was compared with the HIV-malaria status (P >0.05). Of the 254 co-infected patients, 134 (52.8%) had high parasitemia (>1.25×10(9)/L). Sixty patients were found to be hyperparasitemic (>2.5 parasites/L). There was a significant association between CD4(+) cell count and having significant parasitemia (P < 0.000 1). About half (50.8%) of co-infected patients had CD4(+) cell count ⩽ 200/μL, and majority (44.9%) of this population also had significant parasitemia. Anaemia and thrombocytopenia were not significantly associated with HIV-malaria co-infection (P > 0.05). The prevalence of parasitemia is high among the HIV/AIDS infected patients.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
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    • "The spread of HIV is also high within this area. Various studies in Nigeria have shown that there is a high prevalence of malaria among HIV infected individuals [1] [2] . "
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the antioxidant status of HIV and malaria co-infected participants. Blood samples collected from the 193 randomly recruited participants were used for HIV screening, Plasmodium falciparum antigen screening, malaria parasite density count, CD4(+) T cell count, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and total antioxidant status measurement. Standard laboratory methods were used for the analysis. The results showed that glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, total antioxidant status and CD4(+) T cell count were significantly lowered in symptomatic HIV participants with and without malaria co-infection (P<0.01) in each case compared with control participants. Also, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidise, total antioxidant status and CD4(+) T cell count were significantly lowered in asymptomatic HIV participants with and without malaria co-infection (P<0.05) in each case, compared with control participants without malaria. Similarly, these antioxidants were significantly lowered in control participants with malaria infection (P<0.05) compared with control participants without malaria. The malaria parasite density in symptomatic HIV infected participants was negatively associated with glutathione reductase (r = -0.906, P<0.01), glutathione peroxidase (r = -0.719, P<0.01) and total antioxidant status (r = -0.824, P<0.01). The antioxidant activity was affected in HIV infected participants with malaria co-infection. Malaria co-infection in HIV seems to exert additional burden on antioxidants. This calls for concern in malaria endemic areas with increasing prevalence of HIV infection.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
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    • "Presentation of severe malaria has been observed in HIV subjects with CD4 + T cells count less than 2000 x 10 6 cells/ l (Cohen et al, 2005). Onyenekwe et al., (2007) reported a tripled prevalence of malaria infection in symptomatic HIV-infected subjects. Some researchers have observed that HIV/AIDS causes anaemia (Sullivan, 2002; Volberding, 2002). "

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012
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