The Feeding Value of Corn Distillers Solubles for Lactating Dairy Cows

Article (PDF Available)inJournal of Dairy Science 91(1):279-87 · January 2008with15 Reads
DOI: 10.3168/jds.2007-0250 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Fifteen Holstein cows (10 multiparous and 5 primiparous) in early to mid lactation (79.3 +/- 9.2 d in milk) were used in a multiple 5 x 5 Latin square design with 4-wk periods to evaluate and compare the use of condensed corn distillers solubles (CCDS) and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in the total mixed ration. The forage portion of the diets was kept constant at 27.5% corn silage and 27.5% alfalfa hay (dry matter basis). Diets were 1) 0% distillers grains products (control); 2) 18.5% DDGS; 3) 10% CCDS; 4) 20% CCDS; and 5) a combination diet of 18.5% DDGS with 10% CCDS. Diets 2 and 3 contained 2% fat from DDGS or CCDS, whereas diet 4 contained 4% fat from CCDS and diet 5 contained 4% fat from the blend of DDGS and CCDS. The diets were balanced to provide 17% crude protein with variation in acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and fat concentration. Dry matter intake (21.5 kg/d) was similar for all diets. Milk yield (33.8, 36.2, 35.5, 36.0, and 36.0 kg/d) tended to be greater for diets 2 to 5 than for diet 1, whereas yields of fat (1.04 kg/d), protein (1.02 kg/d), fat percentage (2.94), and protein percentage (2.98) were similar for all diets. Energy-corrected milk (32.2 kg/d) and feed efficiency (1.58 kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of dry matter intake) were similar for all diets. Milk urea nitrogen (15.0, 10.9, 11.1, 11.0, and 11.4 mg/dL) as well as blood urea nitrogen (15.6, 12.5, 14.6, 13.8, and 14.2 mg/dL) were decreased in diets 2 to 5 compared with diet 1. Milk concentrations of long-chain fatty acids as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids were greater and medium-chain fatty acid concentrations were lower for diets 2 to 5 compared with diet 1. Concentrations of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 0.33, 0.68, 0.51, 0.85, and 1.07 g/100 g of fatty acids) as well as trans-10, cis-12 CLA (<0.01, 0.01, <0.01, 0.02, and 0.02 g/100 g of fatty acids) were greater for diets 2 to 5 compared with diet 1. Molar proportions of ruminal acetate decreased and propionate increased for diets 2 to 5 compared with diet 1. The results showed that CCDS is as effective as DDGS in replacing soybean meal and corn grain in the total mixed ration.

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J. Dairy Sci. 91:279–287
doi:10.3168/jds.2007-0250
© American Dairy Science Association, 2008.
The Feeding Value of Corn Distillers Solubles for Lactating Dairy Cows
1
A. K. Sasikala-Appukuttan,*
2
D. J. Schingoethe,*
3
A. R. Hippen,* K. F. Kalscheur,*
K. Karges,† and M. L. Gibson†
*Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007-0647
†Poet Nutrition, Sioux Falls, SD 57104
ABSTRACT
Fifteen Holstein cows (10 multiparous and 5 primipa-
rous) in early to mid lactation (79.3 ± 9.2 d in milk)
were used in a multiple 5 × 5 Latin square design with
4-wk periods to evaluate and compare the use of con-
densed corn distillers solubles (CCDS) and dried distill-
ers grains with solubles (DDGS) in the total mixed ra-
tion. The forage portion of the diets was kept constant
at 27.5% corn silage and 27.5% alfalfa hay (dry matter
basis). Diets were 1) 0% distillers grains products (con-
trol); 2) 18.5% DDGS; 3) 10% CCDS; 4) 20% CCDS; and
5) a combination diet of 18.5% DDGS with 10% CCDS.
Diets 2 and 3 contained 2% fat from DDGS or CCDS,
whereas diet 4 contained 4% fat from CCDS and diet
5 contained 4% fat from the blend of DDGS and CCDS.
The diets were balanced to provide 17% crude protein
with variation in acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent
fiber, and fat concentration. Dry matter intake (21.5
kg/d) was similar for all diets. Milk yield (33.8, 36.2,
35.5, 36.0, and 36.0 kg/d) tended to be greater for diets
2 to 5 than for diet 1, whereas yields of fat (1.04 kg/d),
protein (1.02 kg/d), fat percentage (2.94), and protein
percentage (2.98) were similar for all diets. Energy-
corrected milk (32.2 kg/d) and feed efficiency (1.58 kg
of energy-corrected milk/kg of dry matter intake) were
similar for all diets. Milk urea nitrogen (15.0, 10.9, 11.1,
11.0, and 11.4 mg/dL) as well as blood urea nitrogen
(15.6, 12.5, 14.6, 13.8, and 14.2 mg/dL) were decreased
in diets 2 to 5 compared with diet 1. Milk concentrations
of long-chain fatty acids as well as polyunsaturated
fatty acids were greater and medium-chain fatty acid
concentrations were lower for diets 2 to 5 compared
with diet 1. Concentrations of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated
linoleic acid (CLA; 0.33, 0.68, 0.51, 0.85, and 1.07 g/100
Received April 1, 2007.
Accepted September 11, 2007.
1
Published with the approval of the director of the South Dakota
Agricultural Experiment Station as Publication Number 3594 of the
Journal Series.
2
Current address: Department of Animal and Avian Sciences, Uni-
versity of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2311.
3
Corresponding author: david.schingoethe@sdstate.edu
279
g of fatty acids) as well as trans-10, cis-12 CLA (<0.01,
0.01, <0.01, 0.02, and 0.02 g/100 g of fatty acids) were
greater for diets 2 to 5 compared with diet 1. Molar
proportions of ruminal acetate decreased and propio-
nate increased for diets 2 to 5 compared with diet 1.
The results showed that CCDS is as effective as DDGS
in replacing soybean meal and corn grain in the total
mixed ration.
Key words: condensed corn distillers solubles, dried
distillers grains with solubles, dairy cattle
INTRODUCTION
The production of ethanol from grains yields various
byproducts and coproducts that are recovered and fed
to cattle (Schingoethe, 2007). Distillers dried grains
with solubles (DDGS) is one of the byproducts and is
made by blending distillers solubles (sometimes re-
ferred to as “syrup” or “thin stillage”) with distillers
grains (DG). The use of DDGS as a protein supplement
in lactating cows is well recognized (Schingoethe, 2007)
even though there may be value in separating all or
some of the solubles from DG for feeding directly to
dairy cattle. This separation of solubles could alleviate
some of the problems of inconsistency in DDGS when
variable amounts of solubles are added back to DG
because solubles are greater in P (1.35 vs. 0.4% P in
DG) and in fat (22 vs. 9% fat in DG).
Limited research has evaluated the feeding of distill-
ers solubles separately from distillers grains. Da Cruz
et al. (2005) demonstrated that feeding up to 10% of
ration DM as condensed corn distillers solubles (CCDS)
can increase milk production although there was a
slight decrease in milk fat percentage. Udedibie and
Chase (1988) reported that feeding 1.70 or 3.40 kg DM
of CCDS per day to lactating cows satisfactorily re-
placed parts of soybean meal and corn in the ration
and maintained milk yield. In Finland, Huhtanen and
Miettinen (1992), using wet distillers solubles that con-
tained more protein and less fat than the solubles rou-
tinely available in the United States, also observed in-
creased milk production. Da Cruz et al. (2005) reported
the composition of major fatty acids in milk fat when
SASIKALA-APPUKUTTAN ET AL.280
cows were fed CCDS but did not report concentrations
of fatty acids such as cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic
acid (CLA), and trans-10, cis-12 CLA. However, feeding
CCDS may increase the concentration of CLA in milk
because CCDS contains about 20% fat in a form that
may alter ruminal metabolism.
The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate
the feeding of CCDS to lactating cows, determine the
optimal amount to include in diets, and determine the
feasibility of feeding CCDS with or without DDGS.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Fifteen Holstein cows (10 multiparous and 5 primipa-
rous) in mid lactation, averaging 79 (±9) DIM, were
used to evaluate and compare the feeding of CCDS at
2 concentrations and DDGS at 1 level of inclusion along
with a mixed diet that included both CCDS and DDGS.
Cows were blocked into 3 squares of 5 cows each based
upon parity, production, and DIM, and within blocks
were assigned to 1 of the 5 experimental diets in a
mutiple 5 × 5 Latin square design trial. Treatment diets
were randomly assigned after blocking. Cows were
housed in a free-stall barn and fed diets in a TMR
with a Calan Broadbent feeder door and box system
(American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH). Cows were
started under the Calan feeding system 10 d before the
start of the experiment to adapt to the feeding system.
Each experimental period consisted of 4 wk, with the
initial 2 wk for adaptation and wk 3 and 4 for data col-
lection.
The 5 treatments diets were: 1) control at 0% distill-
ers grains products; 2) 18.5% DDGS; 3) 10% CCDS; 4)
20% CCDS; and 5) a mixed diet of 18.5% DDGS and
10% CCDS. Diets 2 and 3 contained 2% fat from DDGS
or CCDS, respectively; diet 4 contained 4% fat from
CCDS, and diet 5 contained 4% fat from distillers prod-
ucts (2% from each of DDGS and CCDS). Diets (Table
1) were formulated to contain 17% CP, using corn grain
and soybean meal as the base of the concentrate mix,
and distillers byproducts replacing a portion of these
ingredients in the treatment diets. All diets contained
27.5% alfalfa hay and 27.5% corn silage. Forages were
premixed for all diets in a mixer wagon (1999 NDE 500,
Westside Implement, Clark, SD). Concentrate mix and
CCDS were added to the Calan Data Ranger (American
Calan Inc.) after addition of premixed forages. The
DDGS were mixed into the concentrate mix at the South
Dakota State University feed mill (Brookings). Con-
densed corn distillers solubles were transported from
the ethanol plant once a month and stored in a tank
with a capacity of approximately 1,100 kg. Condensed
corn distillers solubles were agitated daily by circula-
tion for about 0.5 h before incorporating into the TMR.
Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 91 No. 1, 2008
Table 1. Ingredient composition of diets
1
Diet
18.5%
DDGS
18.5% 10% 20% + 10%
Item Control DDGS CCDS CCDS CCDS
(% of DM)
Corn silage 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5
Alfalfa hay 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5
Corn, ground, shelled 32.5 23.5 24.7 16.9 14.8
Soybean meal, 44% CP 10.4 1.1 8.5 6.4
DDGS 18.5 18.5
CCDS 10 20 10
Trace mineralized salt
2
0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Magnesium oxide 0.16 0.13 0.06 0.01
Vitamin premix
3
0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21
Vitamin E premix
4
0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04
Limestone 0.62 0.82 0.90 0.88 0.85
Dicalcium phosphate 0.44 0.09
Zinpro
5
0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09
1
Diets were 1) 0% distillers grains products (control); 2) 18.5%
dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS); 3) 10% condensed corn
distillers solubles (CCDS); 4) 20% CCDS; and 5) a combination diet
of 18.5% DDGS with 10% CCDS.
2
Trace mineralized salt: 36.6% Na, 58.79% Cl, 0.29 mg/kg Fe, 0.58
mg/kg Mn, 0.02 mg/kg Cu, 0.01 mg/kg I, and 0.80 mg/kg Zn.
3
Content of vitamin premix: 2,500,000 IU/kg vitamin A, 400,000
IU/kg vitamin D and 1,000 IU/kg vitamin E.
4
Content of vitamin E premix: 44,000 IU/kg vitamin E.
5
125 mg/kg Cu, 200 mg/kg Mn, and 360 mg/kg Zn; Zinpro Corp.,
Eden Prairie, MN.
Diets were fed in amounts to allow for ad libitum con-
sumption.
Feed intake for individual cows was measured daily
with the Calan Broadbent feeder door system and Data
Ranger. Ond7ofeach week of the study, samples of
corn silage, alfalfa hay, each concentrate mix, DDGS,
CCDS, and each diet were collected and stored at 20°C
until analysis. Dry matter concentrations were deter-
mined weekly on an aliquot of CCDS, corn silage, alfalfa
hay, and diet by drying at 105°C for 48 h, and “as-fed”
amounts of ingredients were adjusted to ensure proper
inclusion of CCDS and corn silage. The weekly diet DM
were used to calculate DMI.
Composites were made by period for all feeds sam-
pled. Composites were dried for 48 h at 55°C in a Des-
patch oven (style V-23, Despatch Oven Co., Minneapo-
lis, MN), ground to a 4-mm particle size (Wiley mill,
model 3; Arthur H. Thomas Co., Philadelphia, PA), and
to a 1-mm particle size using an ultracentrifuge mill
(Brinkman Instruments Co., Westbury, NY). All feed
samples were analyzed for true DM, ash, NDF, ADF,
lignin, ether extract, and CP. True DM was determined
by taking approximately 1 g of ground sample and dry-
ing at 105°C for 24 h for correction to 100% DM. Ash
was determined by combusting samples in a muffle fur-
nace at 450°C for 8 h (Undersander et al., 1993). Con-
CORN DISTILLERS SOLUBLES FOR LACTATING COWS 281
centrations of NDF, ADF, and lignin were determined
using the Ankom fiber analysis system (Ankom Tech-
nology Corp., Fairport, NY). The method for NDF was
based upon procedures described by Van Soest et al.
(1991), Robertson and Van Soest (1981) for ADF, and
Lowry et al. (1994) for lignin. Crude protein was deter-
mined using method 920.87 of AOAC (2002). Ether ex-
tracts were analyzed using the Goldfish method
(method 920.85; AOAC, 2002). Feed fatty acids were
extracted (AbuGhazaleh et al., 2002) and prepared as
butyl esters for analysis using gas chromatography
(model 6890, Hewlett-Packard, Palo Alto, CA). The
samples were analyzed using a flame-ionization detec-
tor with the injector port at a temperature of 230
˚
C and
a split ratio of 100:1. The length of the column was 100
m with an inside diameter of 0.25 mm (Supelco 2560,
Supelco Inc., Bellefonte, PA). The flow rate was 2.0 mL/
min of helium. Detector and column were maintained
at 250 and 230°C (AbuGhazaleh et al., 2002).
Cows were milked 3 times a day at 600, 1400, and
2100 h, and a record of daily milk production was kept.
Milk samples were collected at all 3 milking times for
2 consecutive days during wk 3 and 4 of each period.
Composites of milk samples were made by day on a
percentage by weight basis and sent to Heart of Ameri-
can DHI Laboratory (Manhattan, KS) for analysis. Milk
components such as fat, protein, and lactose were ana-
lyzed by near infrared spectroscopy (method 972.16;
AOAC, 2002) using a Bentley 2000 Infrared Milk Ana-
lyzer (Bentley Instruments, Chaska, MN), whereas
MUN concentration was determined using chemical
methods based on a modified Berthelot reaction (Chem-
Spec 150 Analyzer, Bentley Instruments; Chaney and
Marbach, 1962). Somatic cell counts were determined
with a flow cytometer laser (Somacount 500, Bentley
Instruments). Energy-corrected milk was determined
using the equation: [(0.327 × kg of milk) + (12.95 × kg
of fat) + (7.2 × kg of protein)] (Orth, 1992). Additional
composites of wk 4 milk samples were made for each
cow and period and prepared for milk fatty acid compo-
sition analysis using an adaptation (AbuGhazaleh et
al., 2002) to the method of Sukhija and Palmquist
(1988), modified to form butyl esters. The samples were
then analyzed by gas chromatography (model 6890,
Hewlett Packard) as described for feed fatty acids.
Cows were weighed 3 d before the beginning of the
trial and on the last 3 d of each period. Body condition
scores were recorded independently by 3 individuals at
the start of the trial and at the end of each period. Body
condition scores were made using a scale of 1 to 5,
where 5 represents obese and 5 represents emaciated
(Wildman et al., 1982).
Samples of rumen fluid were collected on 2 d in wk
4 of each period, approximately 2 to 3 h postfeeding by
Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 91 No. 1, 2008
applying vacuum pressure to a hand-operated esopha-
geal tube with a suction strainer. The first 250 mL of
rumen fluid was discarded before sample collection to
minimize contamination with saliva. Ten-milliliter ali-
quots of rumen fluid samples were mixed with 2 mL of
25% (wt/vol) meta-phosphoric acid and placed immedi-
ately into storage tubes. The rumen fluid samples were
stored at 20°C until analysis for ammonia nitrogen
concentration (Chaney and Marbach, 1962), and VFA
(Ottenstein and Bartley, 1971) using gas chromatogra-
phy (model 6890, Hewlett-Packard) with a flame-ion-
ization detector. The injector port was at a temperature
of 250°C with a split ratio of 100:1, a 15-m-long column,
and a diameter of 0.25 mm (Nukal, Supelco Inc.). Flow
rate was 1.3 mL/min of helium. Detector and column
were maintained at 225 and 130°C, respectively.
Blood was sampled from a coccygeal vessel approxi-
mately 3 h after feeding on the last day of wk 4 of each
period into vacuum tubes containing heparin (Becton
Dickinson Vacutainer Systems, Rutherford, NJ). The
samples were immediately placed on ice and trans-
ported to the laboratory where they were centrifuged
(500 × g) and plasma separated. Plasma samples were
stored at 20°C for urea N determination (Stanbio Urea
Nitrogen kit, Stanbio Laboratory, Boerne, TX; diace-
tylmonoxime methodology) based on procedures of
Feron (1939) and Wybenga et al. (1971).
Period means for all production measurements were
calculated and used for statistical analysis. The data
were analyzed using the MIXED procedure (SAS Insti-
tute, 1999). The model used cow as the experimental
unit and cow (parity) as the random effect. The
model was:
Y = Treatment + Parity + Period + Treatment × Parity.
The treatment × parity interaction was deemed insig-
nificant because all P-values were greater than 0.20, so
it was removed from the model for all variables tested.
Significance was declared at P < 0.05, and tendency was
indicated at P < 0.10. Preplanned orthogonal contrasts
were based upon experimental objectives: 1) control vs.
all other diets, 2) DDGS diet vs. 10% CCDS, 3) 10%
CCDS vs. 20% CCDS, and 4) 20% CCDS vs. a mixed
diet of DDGS and 10% CCDS.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Nutrient Content of Diets
The chemical composition of diet ingredients and
TMR are described in Table 2. Calculations of items
such as microbial flow, lysine composition, RUP, and
RDP based on the NRC model (2001) were not made
SASIKALA-APPUKUTTAN ET AL.282
Table 2. Chemical composition of alfalfa hay (AH), corn silage (CS), condensed corn distillers solubles (CCDS), concentrate mixes, and TMR
for control, 18.5% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), 10% CCDS, 20% CCDS, and 18.5% DDGS with 10% CCDS treatment diets
Concentrate mixes
1
TMR
2
18.5% 10% 20% 18.5% DDGS 18.5% 10% 20% 18.5% DDGS
Item AH CS CCDS Control DDGS CCDS CCDS + 10% CCDS Control DDGS
3
CCDS CCDS + 10% CCDS
DM, % 86.5 29.9 26.8 89.9 90.4 88.8 88.6 89.6 53.3 54.7 46.3 40.4 47.3
(% of DM)
CP 17.3 8.7 19.5 18.7 18.8 20.3 21.4 20.8 15.9 15.9 16.2 16.4 16.4
EE
4
1.8 3.4 21.3 1.9 5.6 1.8 1.9 7.1 2.5 4.1 4.2 6.2 6.1
ADF 35.9 30.2 3.1 3.9 4.8 4.0 4.1 5.4 18.9 19.4 19.1 19.1 19.6
NDF 49.5 52.2 5.3 10.7 17.5 11.5 11.7 19.8 30.8 33.8 30.9 30.2 33.6
Lignin 9.1 2.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 3.4 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.5
NE
L
5
1.56 1.58 1.60 1.65 1.62
Ash 7.7 4.6 12.1 8.5 7.2 8.8 11.3 7.9 7.2 7.3 8.0 8.7 7.9
Ca 0.15 0.87 0.84 0.81 0.87 0.86
P 1.53 0.36 0.38 0.44 0.57 0.48
pH 4.2
1
Concentrate mixes: DDGS was included in concentrate mix, whereas CCDS was not included; CCDS was added when the TMR mix was
added to the Data Ranger.
2
Based on a combination of direct analyses of TMR and “calculated TMR” from analyses of ingredients.
3
Distillers grains with solubles was 32.9% CP, 9.7% EE, 15.5% ADF, 36.7% NDF, 3.9% lignin, 4.5% ash, 0.05% Ca, and 0.86% P.
4
EE = ether extract.
5
Mcal/kg; estimated from NRC, 2001.
because of insufficient data on some diet components,
especially CCDS. The DM percentage of CCDS (26.8%)
was slightly lower than the 30% estimated before the
start of the experiment and the 30.7% of DM obtained
by Gilbery et al. (2006). The ether extract content of
CCDS was similar to those in some studies (Da Cruz
et al., 2005; Gilbery et al., 2006), but less than observed
in other studies (Udedibie and Chase, 1988; Gilbery et
al., 2006). Consequently, when CCDS was added to the
diet, the DM content of the diets decreased to <50%
while ether extract increased. The diets contained
slightly less CP than originally estimated (17%), pri-
marily because of less protein in the alfalfa than calcu-
lated. The P concentrations in the 20% CCDS diet and
the mixed diet (DDGS plus CCDS) were greater than
the desired 0.4% because of the high P content (1.53%)
in CCDS.
The fatty acid composition of the CCDS, concentrate
mixes, and TMR are in Table 3. The CCDS was high
in C14:0, C16:0, C18:1, and C18:2, which is typical of
corn-product fatty acids, although it was higher in
C14:0 than anticipated. The inclusion of 2% fat from
DDGS increased the proportion of C18:2. As expected,
the total fatty acid content of diets increased when 2%
fat was included in the form of 18.5% DDGS or 10%
CCDS and 4% fat included as 20% CCDS or the
mixed diet.
DMI and Lactational Response
Dry matter intakes (Table 4) were similar for all diets.
Lahr et al. (1983) reported that DMI declined linearly
Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 91 No. 1, 2008
as the DM content of TMR declined from 78 to 40%. Da
Cruz et al. (2005) observed a similar type of response
for DMI when feeding CCDS, whereas Schingoethe et
al. (1999) reported that DMI was lower when cows were
fed wet corn distillers grains in diets that were 45%
DM. In an experiment conducted by Huhtanen and
Miettinen (1992), DMI by dairy cows increased linearly
as wet distillers solubles increased in the diet from 1
to 3 kg of DM/d.
A trend (P = 0.08) toward increased milk production
was observed (Table 4) when cows were fed distillers
diets compared with the control diet. The slightly
greater energy density in distillers diets (estimated
NE
L
1.58 to 1.65 Mcal/kg), primarily because those diets
contained more fat compared with the control diet (1.56
Mcal/kg), may have contributed to some of this in-
creased production. Milk production was similar for
cows fed the DDGS, low CCDS (10%), high CCDS (20%)
diets, and the mixed diet. Da Cruz et al. (2005) also
observed increased milk production for cows fed CCDS
diets compared with a control diet even though there
was no difference between diets containing 5 and 10%
of DM as CCDS. Huhtanen and Miettinen (1992) ob-
served a linear increase in milk production by increas-
ing the level of wet distillers solubles in the diet. Ander-
son et al. (2006) and Kleinschmit et al. (2006) observed
increased milk production for DDGS diets compared
with the control.
Diets containing extra fat sometimes increase milk
production (Palmquist and Jenkins, 1980; Maiga et al.,
1995) although in the present study, cows fed 4% added
fat from 20% CCDS or from the mixed diet (18.5%
CORN DISTILLERS SOLUBLES FOR LACTATING COWS 283
Table 3. Fatty acid composition of alfalfa hay (AH), corn silage (CS), condensed corn distillers solubles (CCDS), concentrate mixes, and
TMR for control, 18.5% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), 10% CCDS, 20% CCDS, and 18.5% DDGS with 10% CCDS treatment
diets
Concentrate mixes
1
TMR
18.5% 10% 20% 18.5% DDGS 18.5% 10% 20% 18.5% DDGS
Fatty acid AH CS CCDS Control DDGS CCDS CCDS + 10% CCDS Control DDGS CCDS CCDS + 10% CCDS
(% of DM)
Total 1.9 2.8 15.9 3.5 6.2 3.4 3.5 7.0 2.9 4.0 4.0 5.3 5.3
(g/100 g of fatty acids)
C14:0 5.7 0.4 0.1 1.6 2.5 2.6 4.7 2.7 2.8 2.6 1.6 1.5 1.9
C16:0 28.6 16.3 14.0 18.5 16.0 17.7 17.1 13.7 19.5 18.0 17.7 16.4 15.7
C18:0 4.4 2.9 2.3 2.7 2.2 2.6 2.5 2.2 3.0 2.7 2.8 2.6 2.6
C18:1(cis-9) 5.2 19.0 28.0 19.5 22.4 16.2 15.3 22.5 16.6 20.0 20.3 22.6 22.1
C18:2 20.4 43.4 52.3 38.0 44.3 30.5 30.9 50.3 35.8 41.9 40.9 44.8 47.3
C18:3α 22.1 7.1 1.2 3.3 2.4 5.0 3.2 3.3 7.7 5.9 6.0 4.5 5.0
C20:1 0.1 0.9 0.4 0.7 0.4 1.3 1.0 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.5
DDGS with 10% CCDS) did not differ significantly from
those fed diets with 2% added fat (18.5% DDGS; 10%
CCDS). Feeding additional fat as 10 or 20% wet or dried
distillers grains with solubles (Anderson et al., 2006)
increased milk production with no change in milk fat
concentration. However, when Leonardi et al. (2005)
fed DDGS or corn oil in diets containing insufficient
amounts of forage fiber (17.4% forage NDF; NRC, 2001),
milk production still increased but milk fat content was
modestly decreased. Energy-corrected milk yield and
feed efficiency expressed as kilograms of ECM/kilogram
of DMI were similar for all diets.
The milk fat content and milk fat yield from cows did
not show any significant differences between the TMR
diets. Surprisingly, the milk fat percentage for cows fed
Table 4. Dry matter intake, milk yield and composition, efficiency calculations, and body characteristics
for cows fed control and diets containing 18.5% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), 10% condensed
corn distillers solubles (CCDS), 20% CCDS, and a mixed diet containing 18.5% DDGS with 10% CCDS
Diet
Contrast
1
(P-value)
18.5% 10% 20% 18.5% DDGS
Item Control DDGS CCDS CCDS + 10% CCDS SEM A B C D
DMI, kg/d 21.3 22.0 20.8 21.3 21.9 1.53 0.83 0.25 0.66 0.55
Milk yield, kg/d 33.8 36.2 35.5 36.0 36.0 1.86 0.08 0.61 0.73 0.97
Fat, % 3.04 2.87 2.96 2.96 2.88 0.10 0.20 0.45 0.96 0.49
Fat, kg/d 1.03 1.02 1.04 1.06 1.04 0.06 0.74 0.75 0.75 0.69
Protein, % 2.92 2.88 2.98 2.88 2.90 0.05 0.17 0.95 0.95 0.48
Protein, kg/d 0.99 1.03 1.01 1.03 1.04 0.05 0.23 0.61 0.65 0.81
Lactose, % 4.84 4.83 4.80 4.81 4.80 0.03 0.26 0.30 0.66 0.69
Lactose, kg/d 1.64 1.75 1.71 1.73 1.73 0.09 0.13 0.59 0.76 0.97
MUN, mg/dL 14.99 10.91 11.05 11.04 11.42 1.31 <0.01 0.94 0.99 0.84
SCC, 10
3
/mL 94.9 101.2 100.7 93.1 213.1 0.45 0.46 0.99 0.89 0.03
ECM, kg/d 31.0 32.4 32.3 32.8 32.7 1.67 0.19 0.93 0.73 0.96
FE
2
1.55 1.60 1.62 1.59 1.55 0.12 0.51 0.83 0.69 0.72
BW, kg 648.4 654.4 656.6 657.1 661.2 16.6 0.09 0.75 0.87 0.61
BCS 3.38 3.29 3.43 3.44 3.41 0.06 0.85 0.04 0.84 0.67
BUN, mg/dL 15.55 12.49 14.62 13.83 14.22 0.82 0.05 0.06 0.49 0.73
1
Contrast: A = control diet vs. all other diets; B = 18.5% DDGS diet vs. 10% CCDS diet; C = 10% CCDS
diet vs. 20% CCDS diet; D = 20% CCDS diet vs. 18.5% DDGS + 10% CCDS diet.
2
FE = feed efficiency (kg of ECM/kg of DMI).
Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 91 No. 1, 2008
the control diet (3.04%) was lower than anticipated,
with the milk fat percentage for all distillers diets being
<3%. Although there was no explanation for this, it may
have been due to high ambient temperatures during
this experiment. This study was conducted from June
through September, which may have depressed feed
intake and milk production, and contributed to low milk
fat concentration. Reduced particle size or inadequate
amounts of forage fiber can also contribute to low milk
fat percentages (Grant, 1997; Leonardi et al., 2005),
but did not appear to be factors in this experiment. Da
Cruz et al. (2005) observed decreased milk fat concen-
tration coupled with increased protein and lactose pro-
duction when cows were fed CCDS. Udedibie and Chase
(1988) observed no differences in milk fat percentages
SASIKALA-APPUKUTTAN ET AL.284
relative to the control when cows were fed 8 and 16%
CCDS.
Milk protein and lactose percentages and yields were
similar for all diets, which agreed with results of Udedi-
bie and Chase (1988). Cows fed the control diet had
greater (P < 0.01) MUN concentrations than cows fed
distillers byproducts with values for all diets within a
normal range. Distillers byproducts for which data are
available have greater RUP content than many feeds
(Schingoethe, 2007), which may lead to decreased pro-
duction of ammonia in the rumen and consequently a
reduction in MUN. Admittedly, RUP data for CCDS
are lacking. Blood urea nitrogen was also greater (P <
0.05) for cows fed the control diet. Baker et al. (1995)
reported that cows fed excess dietary protein have in-
creased concentrations of urea in the blood and milk.
Body weights (mean = 656 kg) and BCS (mean = 3.39)
were similar for all diets, although BCS was greater
(P < 0.04) for the 10% CCDS diet than for the 18.5%
DDGS diet.
Milk Fatty Acids
The fatty acid profile of milk fat is shown in Table 5.
Concentrations of the short- and medium-chain fatty
acids that are synthesized in the mammary gland (i.e.,
C6:0 to C16:0) were greater, whereas the concentrations
of cis-9 C18:1; trans-11 C18:1; cis-9, trans-11 CLA; and
trans-10, cis-12 CLA were lower in milk from cows fed
the control diet compared with all other diets. Da Cruz
et al. (2005) observed that C12:0, C14:0, and C16:0 were
greater for the control when compared with both added
CCDS diets.
The concentration of C12:0 in milk was greater for
the 10% CCDS diet compared with the 18.5% DDGS
diet, whereas milk from cows fed the 20% CCDS diet
had a lower concentration of C16:0 than that from the
10% CCDS diet. Some of the short-chain fatty acids
(C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, and C12:0) were lower in milk from
cows fed the mixed diet (18.5% DDGS + 10% CCDS)
compared with the 20% CCDS diet. Concentrations of
cis-9 C18:1 and trans-11 C18:1 were greater for 20%
CCDS compared with 10% CCDS and the other diets.
Cis-9, trans-11 CLA was greater (P < 0.01) for 20%
CCDS compared with 10% CCDS and was greater (P <
0.01) when fed the mixed diet than when fed the 20%
CCDS diet. Concentration of trans-10, cis-12 CLA was
also greater (P = 0.01) for all other diets compared with
the control. Several studies as reviewed by Bauman et
al. (2006) indicated that trans-10, cis-12 CLA increases
during diet-induced milk fat depression; however, in
this study, milk fat content was similar with all diets
(Table 4).
Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 91 No. 1, 2008
Concentrations of long-chain fatty acids were lower
and medium-chain fatty acid concentrations were
greater for cows fed the control diet when compared
with all other diet groups. These data are consistent
with a depression of de novo synthesis in the mammary
gland that is compensated for by increased availability
of long-chain fatty acids from increased dietary fat
(Markus et al., 1996). Analogous to the report of Da
Cruz et al. (2005), the observed long-chain fatty acid
concentrations were greater for 20% CCDS compared
with 10% CCDS, whereas medium-chain fatty acids
were greater when fed 10% CCDS. The concentration of
polyunsaturated fatty acids was greater for the DDGS-
containing diets compared with the 10% CCDS diet.
Unsaturated fatty acid concentrations in milk fat were
greater for the CCDS diets compared with the control.
The CLA desaturase index, as indicated by the ratio of
cis-9, trans-11 CLA to trans-11 C18:1 (vaccenic acid),
which gave an indication of the conversion between
these 2 key fatty acids, was similar for all dietary com-
parisons.
Several studies (Palmquist and Jenkins, 1980; Elliott
et al., 1993) demonstrated the importance of altering
the milk fat composition by feeding, because about 40
to 45% of milk fatty acids are passed from the diet to
milk fat unchanged. Increasing the intake of long-chain
fatty acids by addition of feedstuffs rich in these fatty
acids may improve the metabolic efficiency for in-
creased milk production. In this study, the long-chain
fatty acids, including the polyunsaturated fatty acids,
were greater with the 20% CCDS and 18.5% DDGS
diets. This implied that CCDS and DDGS diets were
comparable with respect to increasing the polyunsatu-
rated fatty acid and CLA contents in bovine milk. Al-
though these fatty acids were increased in milk fat,
calculated transfer efficiencies of dietary polyunsatu-
rated fatty acids to milk fat were similar for all diets.
Hu and Willett (2002) reported that consumption of
milk rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids reduced cardio-
vascular disease in humans.
Rumen Fluid Analysis
Ammonia concentration in the rumen (Table 6) was
greater (P < 0.05) when cows were fed the 20% CCDS
diet compared with the 10% CCDS diet. Cows fed the
control diet had greater (P < 0.01) molar percentages
of acetate and lower concentrations of propionate com-
pared with other diets. A decrease in the ratio of propio-
nate (glucogenic) to acetate and butyrate (lipogenic) in
ruminal VFA can be related to a decreased production
of liver glucose, glucose supply to the mammary gland,
and lactose and milk synthesis in high-yielding dairy
cows.
CORN DISTILLERS SOLUBLES FOR LACTATING COWS 285
Table 5. Milk fatty acid composition for cows fed control, 18.5% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS),
10% condensed corn distillers solubles (CCDS), 20% CCDS, and 18.5% DDGS with 10% CCDS treatment
diets
Diet
Contrast
1
(P-value)
18.5% 10% 20% 18.5% DDGS
Fatty acid Control DDGS CCDS CCDS + 10% CCDS SEM A B C D
(g/100 g of fatty acids)
C4:0 3.47 3.57 3.44 3.60 3.45 0.15 0.73 0.42 0.33 0.36
C6:0 1.99 1.85 1.90 1.87 1.67 0.08 0.05 0.65 0.77 0.05
C8:0 1.30 1.13 1.20 1.11 0.97 0.05 <0.01 0.26 0.21 0.05
C10:0 3.09 2.52 2.72 2.43 2.08 0.12 <0.01 0.20 0.07 0.05
C12:0 3.80 2.77 3.32 2.94 2.50 0.16 <0.01 0.01 0.09 0.05
C14:0 11.74 10.10 10.65 10.40 8.89 0.37 <0.01 0.25 0.60 0.01
C16:0 30.44 26.33 27.43 24.76 24.75 0.97 <0.01 0.40 0.05 0.99
C16:1 1.20 1.11 1.15 1.26 1.05 0.10 0.49 0.66 0.29 0.05
C18:0 9.56 10.59 10.14 9.97 11.40 0.63 0.14 0.59 0.84 0.08
C18:1(cis-9) 18.60 21.26 20.65 22.71 23.06 0.73 <0.01 0.54 0.05 0.73
C18:1(trans-11) 1.14 2.11 1.70 2.88 3.48 0.24 <0.01 0.13 <0.01 0.05
C18:1(trans-10) 0.58 1.54 1.01 1.47 1.61 0.23 <0.01 0.06 0.10 0.62
Other C18:1 0.23 0.36 0.32 0.39 0.39 0.02 <0.01 0.19 0.05 0.97
C18:2(trans-9,12) 1.44 1.48 1.98 1.29 1.33 0.17 0.66 0.05 <0.01 0.89
C18:2(cis-9,12) 2.86 3.90 2.72 2.72 3.57 0.12 <0.01 <0.01 0.99 <0.01
CLA(cis-9,trans-11) 0.33 0.68 0.51 0.85 1.07 0.06 <0.01 0.05 <0.01 <0.01
CLA(trans-10,cis-12) <0.01 0.01 <0.01 0.02 0.02 <0.01 0.01 0.26 0.49 0.60
C18:3α 0.46 0.37 0.43 0.46 0.32 0.04 0.13 0.31 0.70 0.05
C20:0 0.67 0.71 0.88 1.39 1.05 0.29 0.30 0.67 0.24 0.42
C20:3 0.18 0.43 0.26 0.49 0.37 0.11 0.09 0.28 0.14 0.41
C22:3 0.15 0.25 0.15 0.18 0.23 0.04 0.27 0.13 0.59 0.43
Others
2
6.79 7.96 7.88 7.75 7.86 0.46 <0.01 0.87 0.79 0.82
Groupings of FA
3
SCFA 7.29 6.97 7.21 7.06 6.52 0.28 0.20 0.49 0.67 0.11
MCFA 53.68 46.07 48.89 44.84 42.28 1.11 <0.01 0.07 0.01 0.10
LCFA 37.68 45.11 42.35 46.22 49.37 1.16 <0.01 0.09 <0.05 0.05
SFA 68.54 61.75 64.20 60.64 58.77 1.02 <0.01 0.07 0.01 0.16
MUFA 24.81 29.73 28.41 31.97 32.88 0.93 <0.01 0.28 <0.01 0.45
PUFA 5.18 6.55 5.71 5.42 6.41 0.19 <0.01 <0.01 0.23 <0.01
CLA DS index
4
0.28 0.34 0.29 0.31 0.31 0.02 0.21 0.11 0.43 0.99
1
Contrast: A = control diet vs. all other diets; B = 18.5% DDGS diet vs. 10% CCDS diet; C = 10% CCDS
diet vs. 20% CCDS diet; D = 20% CCDS diet vs. 18.5% DDGS + 10% CCDS diet.
2
Others = sum of C5:0, C7:0, C11:0, C11:1, C12:1, C14:1t, C14:1c, C15:0, C16:1t, C17:0, C18:1t6, C18:1t9,
C18:1c6, C19:0, C20:2, C22:0, C22:1, C20:5, C24:0, C24:1, C22:4, C22:5n-6, C22:5n-3, C22:n-6.
3
SCFA = short-chain fatty acids (C4:0 to C8:0); MCFA = medium-chain fatty acids (C10:0 to C16:1);
LCFA = long-chain fatty acids (C17:0 and above); SFA = saturated fatty acids; MUFA = monounsaturated
fatty acids; PUFA = polyunsaturated fatty acids.
4
CLA desaturase index = (CLA cis-9, trans-11/C18:1 trans-11).
Ruminal acetate concentrations when fed the CCDS
diets were similar to the results of Da Cruz et al. (2005)
and Gilbery et al. (2006), whereas Udedibie and Chase
(1988) reported a greater acetate concentration for
CCDS diets than for the control diet. Less acetate pro-
duction in the rumen when feeding CCDS diets might
have resulted from inhibition of fiber digestion caused
by the high concentration of long-chain unsaturated
fatty acids in those diets possibly coating feed particles
or being toxic to fiber-digesting bacteria (Palmquist and
Jenkins, 1980). Bateman and Jenkins (1998) reported
that addition of soybean oil to the diets decreased the
molar proportions of acetate and increased the molar
proportions of propionate.
The concentration of butyrate was greater for the
CCDS diets compared with the control and 18.5%
Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 91 No. 1, 2008
DDGS diets, which reflected primarily a decrease in
molar proportions of acetate. The concentration of iso-
valerate in ruminal fluid was greater for the control
diet, possibly indicating more precursors for branched-
chain fatty acids in the control diet (Johnson et al.,
1994).
CONCLUSIONS
Results from this study indicate that CCDS can be
incorporated into dairy cattle diets at greater concen-
trations (20%) of diet DM, as long as the final diet
does not contain more than 7% fat, without adversely
affecting milk production or feed intake. Yields and
composition of all major milk components were similar
for all diets. Concentrations of long-chain fatty acids in
SASIKALA-APPUKUTTAN ET AL.286
Table 6. Ruminal ammonia and VFA concentrations for cows fed control, and diets containing 18.5% dried
distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), 10% condensed corn distillers solubles (CCDS), 20% CCDS, and a
mixed diet containing 18.5% DDGS with 10% CCDS
Diet
Contrast
1
(P-value)
18.5% 10% 20% 18.5% DDGS
Item Control DDGS CCDS CCDS + 10% CCDS SEM A B C D
NH
3
, mg/dL 5.67 4.78 5.34 8.75 6.13 1.23 0.61 0.70 <0.05 0.07
Total VFA, mmol 43.76 42.95 41.21 53.06 43.45 4.49 0.77 0.79 0.08 0.10
(mmol/100 mmol)
Acetate 65.64 64.64 62.63 61.13 61.41 0.97 <0.01 0.07 0.18 0.81
Propionate 19.99 22.04 22.06 22.29 22.64 0.95 <0.01 0.98 0.83 0.75
Isobutyrate 1.05 0.91 0.99 0.93 0.86 0.04 <0.01 0.08 0.16 0.18
Butyrate 10.71 9.82 11.26 12.69 12.28 0.40 0.07 0.01 0.01 0.47
Isovalerate 1.46 1.13 0.28 1.05 0.97 0.07 <0.01 0.10 0.01 0.41
Valerate 1.42 1.51 1.76 1.92 1.85 0.09 <0.01 0.03 0.15 0.54
Acetate:propionate 3.37 3.14 2.96 2.78 2.76 0.20 <0.01 0.34 0.36 0.90
1
Contrast: A = control diet vs. all other diets; B = 18.5% DDGS diet vs. 10% CCDS diet; C = 10% CCDS
diet vs. 20% CCDS diet; D = 20% CCDS diet vs. 18.5% DDGS + 10% CCDS diet.
milk fat, including cis-9, trans-11 CLA, were greater
for all distillers product diets compared with the control
diet. The feeding of CCDS in place of DDGS is feasible
due to the lower cost per kilogram (DM) of CCDS com-
pared with DDGS. A practical concern with feeding
more than 10% CCDS is the high P content of such
diets, which may contribute to environmental pollution.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors gratefully thank the farm crew at the
South Dakota State University Dairy Research Unit
(D. D. Rennich, manager) for care of the cows and assis-
tance with data collection. The authors also wish to
acknowledge partial financial support by the South Da-
kota Corn Utilization Council (Sioux Falls, SD) and
supply of CCDS by Poet Nutrition (Sioux Falls, SD).
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    • "However, information about the nutritive value (metabolizable or net energy, digestible protein in the intestines) of CDS for cattle is scarce. There are some publications of production trials with corn CDS (Da Cruz et al., 2005; Bharathan et al., 2008; Sasikala-Appukuttan et al., 2008). The latter concluded that corn CDS can be incorporated in dairy cattle diets (in replacement of soybean meal and corn grain) up to 20% of the DM, as long as the final diet does not contain >7% fat, without adversely affecting feed intake or milk production. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chemical composition and the energy and protein value of five batches of condensed distillers solubles (CDS) originating from wheat were determined. The net energy for lactation (NEL) was derived from digestion coefficients obtained with sheep. The true protein digested in the small intestine (DVE) and the rumen degradable protein balance (OEB) were based on the rumen degradation rate (kd D ), the rumen undegradable fraction (U) and intestinal digestibility of undegraded protein (%DVBE) predicted by regression equations derived from a data set of 28 protein feeds with kd D , U and %DVBE determined in situ. The CDS is a by-product with a high, but very variable CP content (238 to 495 g/kg DM). The CP contained on average 81% amino acids, with glutamine as main component (on average 21.8% of CP) and a relatively good lysine proportion (3.0%). Further, CDS contains quite a lot of crude fat (mean±SD: 71±14 g/kg DM), glycerol (95±52 g/kg DM) and sugars (123±24 g/kg DM) resulting in a high organic matter digestibility (88.6±3.0%) and high NEL content (8.3±0.4 MJ/kg DM). The protein value showed a large variation, with DVE ranging from 122 to 244 g/kg DM and OEB from 50 to 204 g/kg DM. Wheat CDS is a rich source of minerals and trace elements with exception of calcium.
    Article · May 2016
    • "In many experiments reviewed by Yildiz and Todorov (2014) there was an equal or even slightly better milk yield when RSM was compared to SBM in dairy cows diets. Comparison of SBM and DDGS also showed equal milk yield in cows (Sasikala–Appukuttan et al., 2008; Christen et al., 2010; Ranathunga et al., 2010; Mjoun et al., 2010b). Meta-analysis of Martineau et al. (2013) shows small advantages of SBM in comparison with RSM, as sources of protein for dairy cows. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: YILDIZ, E., N. TODOROV and K. NEDELKOV, 2015. Comparison of different dietary protein sources for dairy cows. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 21: 199-208 The aim of the experiment is to compare sunflower meal (SFM), as a protein source in rations of lactating dairy cows to rape seed meal, canola type (RSM), dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) from maize, and soybean meal (SBM). Twenty four multiparous Holstein cows averaging 51±19 days in milk at the start of the experiment and 603±48 kg body weight were randomly assigned in 4x4 Latin square design trials. Each period lasted 21 days. Weeks 1 and 2 were used for adjustment and week 3 for data collection. Diets for each period and treatment group consisted of 4.3 kg alfalfa hay and 22 kg maize silage (31% DM), and 12.2 kg compound feed. All ingredients were mixed and provided to the cows as total mixed rations (TMR). TMR contained 17.1% crude protein in dry matter, with 47 to 58% coming from 4 tested supplementary protein sources. During each period, the cows were offered 1 of 4 compound feeds containing: 1) 39% SFM, 2) 46.6% RSM, 3) 62% DDGS, and 4) 32% SBM. By adding sunflower hulls to diets with SBM, RSM and DDGS, and maize germ as source of fat to those with SFM, RSM and SBM all rations were equalized by net energy concentration, crude fiber and fat in dry matter. Therefore, the different protein source was the only main difference between the 4 diets. Dry matter intake tended to increase for diets with DDGS and SBM as protein supplement. Milk production was significantly lower for cows receiving SFM with diet (30.1 kg/day), compared to diets with SBM (33.2 kg/day) (P<0.05) and tended to be lower than in cows fed rations with RSM and DDGS. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between SBM, RSM and DDGS as a protein sources. Milk protein yield per day was 1.08, 1.05, 1.04 and 0.96 for cows receiving diets with SBM, RSM, DDGS and SFM respectively, and respective percentages of milk protein were 3.24, 3.22, 3.19 and 3.18 (P>0.05). Fractions of true protein, casein and whey protein from total protein did not differ significantly. There was a tendency for lower true protein and casein content in milk of cows receiving diet with SFM. Non-protein nitrogen in milk from SFM diet was significantly higher, than in other diets. There were no significant differences in yield of fat, and milk fat percentage in cows receiving diets with 4 different protein feeds. Production of energy corrected milk from intake of one kilogram dry matter was the lowest in cows fed SFM diet (1.54 kg) (P<0.05), followed by DDGS (1.63 kg), RSM diets (1.67 kg), and SBM (1.69 kg). Less true protein in milk (P<0.05) was produced from 1 kg crude protein in ration with SFM compared to other rations. However, utilization of protein digestible in intestine for milk true protein production did not differ significantly between the four rations. Milk produced from cows fed ration with SBM had a farm gate price which was by 15 to 23% higher than those of milk produced by the other three rations. The cheapest milk was from the DDGS diet, followed by RSM and SFM
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015
    • "Feeding lactating dairy cows the 25% DDGS diet significantly increased (P < 0.05) stearic (C 18:0 ), oleic (C 18:1 ), and linoleic (C 18:2 ) concentrations in milk (Table 6). These results were to be expected because they have been reported in many studies (Schingoethe et al., 1999; Leonardi et al., 2005; Anderson et al., 2006; Sasikala-Appukuttan et al., 2008). The reason that feeding DDGS increases unsaturated FA content in milk is because corn oil contains greater than 60% C 18:2 , some of which escapes the rumen without any biohydrogenation or with incomplete biohydrogenation, Means within a row with different superscripts differ (P < 0.05). 1 Least squares means ± SEM. 2 Expressed as a percentage of DM. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Feeding lactating dairy cows dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) increases the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in the milk from those cows, potentially leading to increased susceptibility to development of off-flavors. Feeding DDGS has been loosely implicated to be a cause of development of spontaneous oxidative off-flavor in milk. We hypothesized that increased feeding of DDGS would accelerate development of off-flavors and that fortification with vitamin E (0.06% wt/wt) or C (0.06% wt/wt) would prevent spontaneous oxidative off-flavors. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of feeding DDGS to lactating dairy cows on several parameters of milk quality as determined by both chemical and sensory evaluations. Twenty-four healthy mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were fed total mixed rations containing DDGS (0, 10, or 25% dry matter). Cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (12 cows each). Each group received all 3 treatments in a 3-period Youden square design so that each cow served as her own control. Samples of milk from individual cows for proximate analysis and pooled milk for pasteurization and sensory analysis were collected on d 14, 21, and 28 of each experimental period. Pooled milk was assayed for peroxides and free fatty acids and evaluated by a trained sensory panel for the presence of 7 off-flavors common to milk on d 1, 3, and 7. Feeding 25% DDGS caused a significant decrease in daily milk yield. Increased dietary inclusion of DDGS also caused a concomitant decrease in percentage of milk fat and an increase in percentages of both solids nonfat and protein. Milk peroxides and free fatty acids were almost all below the detection limit, and the few exceptions were not found in replicated analyses. Sensory analysis revealed off-flavors only in milk from cows fed 0% DDGS when that milk was stored for 7 d and when milk from cows fed 25% DDGS was fortified with 0.06% (wt/wt) vitamin C. Those few detected off-flavor scores were less than 1.5 cm on a 15-cm line scale, indicating that the differences are not practically significant. Peroxide values support the findings by the sensory panel that both feeding DDGS at 10 and 25% and vitamin E and C fortification did not practically change the oxidative stability of milk. These results, taken together, indicate that feeding DDGS under our experimental conditions modified milk composition, but did not contribute to the development of off-flavors in milk. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015
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