Article

The relationship between testosterone and vocal frequencies in human males

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Abstract

We investigated relationships between circulating levels of salivary testosterone and the fundamental and formant frequencies of male voices in a sample of forty healthy adult males, who recorded their voices and provided saliva samples at 9 am, 12 noon and 3 pm on a single day. The relationship between 2D:4D ratio as a putative biomarker of prenatal testosterone and vocal parameters was also explored. Results supported previous findings for a negative relationship between circulating levels of testosterone and fundamental frequency, with higher testosterone indicating lower fundamental frequency, although the magnitude of the relationship was larger than previously observed. Some limited evidence for a relationship between circulating testosterone and formant dispersion is also found, although this did not reach significance. Diurnal variation in testosterone and fundamental frequency, but not formant dispersion was reported, together with a trend towards an association between the fall in testosterone and the rise in fundamental frequency. Finally, there was no relationship between 2D:4D and the vocal parameters. It is thought that male voices may have deepened over the course of evolution in order to signal dominance and/or to increase the speaker's attractiveness. Findings confirm that vocal frequencies may provide an honest signal of the speaker's hormonal quality.

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... The voice is a sexually diverse feature correlating with the sex hormone level across both sexes. 3,4,5,6,7 Voice also plays, not only among animals, a crucial role for males in male competition and a male-female selection. 8,9,10,11,12 In this regard, voices with specific lower fundamental frequency are assessed as more attractive 1,9,13,14,15 and individuals falling within the desired parameter values are more successful in reproducing. ...
... Relationship between voice quality and body size, shape, and composition in men A range of literature has explored the relationship between male voice quality and physical constitution, however yielding ambiguous findings. 5,9,28,29,[38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46] Studies indicate a significant relationship exists between voice acoustic parameters, such as fundamental frequency (F 0 ) and formant frequencies (F 1 -F 4 ), with individual body size and shape 28,29,38,39,41,42,45,46 or with human body composition. 43,44 Conversely, there are also studies that illustrate a very weak relation 40 or even negate this relationship in humans. ...
... 6,7 Therefore, androgens are responsible for both the accumulation of adipose tissue in the abdominal part of the body, as well as for the growth of vocal folds and a low-pitched voice in men. 4,5,6,7,17,18,[72][73][74] Significantly greater muscularity in the arms was reflected by a greater shimmer. This result partly overlaps with Hamdan et al's 43 results, where the shimmer parameter, in young men, showed significant positive relationship with muscle mass, measured in kg (r = 0.33; P= 0.039). ...
Article
Objectives: From a human evolution perspective, identifying a link between physique and vocal quality could demonstrate dual signaling in terms of the health and biological condition of an individual. In this regard, this study investigates the relationship between men's body size, shape, and composition, and their vocal characteristics. Materials and methods: Eleven anthropometric measurements, using seven indices, were carried out with 80 adult Polish male participants, while the speech analysis adopted a voice recording procedure that involved phonetically recording vowels /ɑː/, /ɛː/, /iː/, /ɔː/, /uː/ to define the voice acoustic components used in Praat software. Results: The relationship between voice parameters and body size/shape/composition was found. The analysis indicated that the formants and their derivatives were useful parameters for prediction of height, weight, neck, shoulder, waist, and hip circumferences. Fundamental frequency (F0) was negatively correlated with neck circumference at Adam's apple level and body height. Moreover neck circumference and F0 association was observed for the first time in this paper. The association between waist circumference and formant component showed a net effect. In addition, the formant parameters showed significant correlations with body shape, indicating a lower vocal timbre in men with a larger relative waist circumference. Discussion: Men with lower vocal pitch had wider necks, probably a result of larynx size. Furthermore, a greater waist circumference, presumably resulting from abdominal fat distribution in men, correlated with a lower vocal timbre. While these results are inconclusive, they highlight new directions for further research.
... stature) masculinity. Indeed, negative correlations between testosterone and voice F0 have been found in men through adolescence (Hollien et al., 1994;Hodges-Simeon et al., 2015;Markova et al., 2016; though see Harries et al., 1997) and into adulthood (Dabbs and Mallinger, 1999;Evans et al., 2008;Puts et al., 2012;Aung and Puts, 2019), and at least one study reports negative, though weaker, correlations between testosterone and men's ΔF (Bruckert et al., 2006). In a mirroring pattern, women's voices appear to communicate biological femininity, with F0 increasing just before or at peak fertility in their menstrual cycle (Fischer et al., 2011, Bryant andHaselton, 2009, but see Puts et al., 2013). ...
... All samples were collected in the afternoon (M = 3.15 pm, range = 1 pm-4.30 pm) to minimise the effect of diurnal variation in F0 and testosterone levels (Evans et al., 2008). To minimise the risk of saliva contamination, children were instructed not to consume food for at least 30 min prior before testing and were given a small glass of water to rinse their mouth after the audio recordings prior to saliva collection. ...
... In line with our hypothesis, we found that the boys who have higher salivary testosterone levels tend to speak with lower fundamental frequency and, to a weaker extent, lower ΔF, while no significant relations between testosterone and the two acoustic variables were found in girls. While previous work identified a negative link between testosterone and F0 in pubertal males and adult men (Pedersen et al., 1986;Evans et al., 2008;Cartei et al., 2014a), our results suggest that testosterone may affect sex-related voice cues well before puberty, at least in males. Further corroborating this hypothesis, a recent longitudinal acoustic study (Fouquet et al., 2016) found that individual differences in men's F0 emerge by age 7 and are stable throughout adulthood. ...
Article
Low frequency components (i.e. a low pitch (F0) and low formant spacing (ΔF)) signal high salivary testosterone and height in adult male voices and are associated with high masculinity attributions by unfamiliar listeners (in both men and women). However, the relation between the physiological, acoustic and perceptual dimensions of speakers' masculinity prior to puberty remains unknown. In this study, 110 pre-pubertal children (58 girls), aged 3 to 10, were recorded as they described a cartoon picture. 315 adults (182 women) rated children's perceived masculinity from the voice only after listening to the speakers' audio recordings. On the basis of their voices alone, boys who had higher salivary testosterone levels were rated as more masculine and the relation between testosterone and perceived masculinity was partially mediated by F0. The voices of taller boys were also rated as more masculine, but the relation between height and perceived masculinity was not mediated by the considered acoustic parameters, indicating that acoustic cues other than F0 and ΔF may signal stature. Both boys and girls who had lower F0, were also rated as more masculine, while ΔF did not affect ratings. These findings highlight the interdependence of physiological, acoustic and perceptual dimensions, and suggest that inter-individual variation in male voices, particularly F0, may advertise hormonal masculinity from a very early age.
... The ICHH has yielded mixed support across species (Alonso-Alvarez, Bertrand, Faivre, Chastel, & Sorci, 2007;Casagrande & Groothuis, 2011;Cox & John-Alder, 2007;Deviche & Cortez, 2005;Edler, Goymann, Schwabl, & Friedl, 2011;Evans, Goldsmith, & Norris, 2000;Fuxjager, Foufopoulos, Diaz-Uriarte, & Marler, 2011;Lea et al., 2018;Lindström, Krakower, Lundström, & Silverin, 2001;Owen-Ashley, Hasselquist, & Wingfield, 2004), including humans. Although some studies have demonstrated relationships between immune upregulation and androgen suppression (Furman, 2014;Muehlenbein, Alger, Cogswell, James, & Krogstad, 2005;Simmons & Roney, 2009), between T-levels and ornament quality (e.g., Dabbs & Mallinger, 1999;Evans, Neave, Wakelin, & Hamilton, 2008; Hodges-Simeon, Gurven, & Gaulin, 2015;Markova et al., 2016a;Verdonck, Gaethofs, Carels, & de Zegher, 1999), and between T concentrations and health-based behaviors (Booth, Johnson, & Granger, 1999), few have found linear relationships between T concentrations and immune markers without the presentation of an immune challenge. ...
... Speaker f o is also used in studies of voice pathology (e.g., Awan, 2006;Stathopoulos et al., 2011). Importantly for our purposes, f o is also associated with T throughout the life span-during development (Hodges-Simeon et al., 2015;Markova et al., 2016a) and adulthood (Aung & Puts, 2020;Cartei, Bond, & Reby, 2014;Dabbs & Mallinger, 1999;Evans et al., 2008;Hodges-Simeon et al., 2020;Puts et al., 2012). In line with the stress-linked ICHH (Rantala et al., 2012), recent research has shown that men with relatively high levels of T and low levels of cortisol have lower f o (Puts et al., 2016). ...
... In one study, those with higher self-reported health and mucosal immunity exhibited longer apparent VTL (Arnocky et al., 2018); however, the reason for this association is unknown. Although T is both theoretically and empirically associated with f o (Cartei et al., 2014;Dabbs & Mallinger, 1999;Evans et al., 2008;Puts et al., 2012), and VTL is more strongly linked with body size (yet explains only 10% of the variation in height; Pisanski et al., 2014), some evidence suggests that a T-linked, ICHH explanation may be extended to VTL as well. Preliminary research shows that exogenous T therapy results in significantly lower VTL measures among transgender males compared with cisgender females (Hodges-Simeon et al., 2020;Papp, 2012), which hints that T may influence vocal tract resonance. ...
Article
Men's voices may provide cues to overall condition; however, little research has assessed whether health status is reliably associated with perceivable voice parameters. In Study 1, we investigated whether listeners could classify voices belonging to men with either relatively lower or higher self-reported health. Participants rated voices for speaker health, disease likelihood, illness frequency, and symptom severity, as well as attractiveness (women only) and dominance (men only). Listeners' were mostly unable to judge the health of male speakers from their voices; however, men rated the voices of men with better self-reported health as sounding more dominant. In Study 2, we tested whether men's vocal parameters (fundamental frequency mean and variation, apparent vocal tract length, and harmonics-to-noise ratio) and aspects of their self-reported health predicted listeners' health and disease resistance ratings of those voices. Speakers' fundamental frequency (fo) negatively predicted ratings of health. However, speakers' self-reported health did not predict ratings of health made by listeners. In Study 3, we investigated whether separately manipulating two sexually dimorphic vocal parameters—fo and apparent vocal tract length (VTL)—affected listeners' health ratings. Listeners rated men's voices with lower fo (but not VTL) as healthier, supporting findings from Study 2. Women rated voices with lower fo and VTL as more attractive, and men rated them as more dominant. Thus, while both VTL and fo affect dominance and attractiveness judgments, only fo appears to affect health judgments. Results of the above studies suggest that, although listeners assign higher health ratings to speakers with more masculine fo, these ratings may not be accurate at tracking speakers' self-rated health.
... but no significant correlations were found for cisgender females (r = 0.11) (Dabbs & Mallinger, 1999;802). Furthermore, Evans et al. (2008) found that there is a diurnal relationship between testosterone and f0 in cisgender males. It was found that f0 increases by approximately 10 Hz from 100 Hz over the course of a 6-hour period as salivary testosterone decreases. ...
... Praat was chosen because this pitch tracker was often used by speech and language professionals and clinicians to analyse objective acoustic measurements (e.g. Cartei et al. (2014), Evans et al. (2008), Hancock et al. (2014), andMcNeill et al. (2008) to name a few). Pitch minima, mean, and maxima were collected from the speech samples and analysed according to time on testosterone, participants' self-perceived vocal masculinity, and language contexts. ...
... This is problematic as Praat is often used by speech and language professionals and clinicians to extract objective acoustic measurements (e.g. Cartei et al., 2014;Evans et al., 2008;Hancock et al., 2014;McNeill et al., 2008 etc.). ...
Thesis
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Minimal research has been conducted on transmasculine individuals due to the prevailing belief that exogenous androgen hormone treatment lowers the f0 to a satisfactory masculine-sounding voice (Van Borsel et al., 2000; T’Sjoen et al., 2006), but it has shown a gender-conforming speaking fundamental frequency does not equate to a gender-affirming voice (McNeill et al., 2008). The current study explores the vocal satisfaction of transmasculine individuals by employing a global online survey. It identifies psychosocial and communicative effects that may impact this diverse population and aims to place them into the conceptual framework developed by Azul et al. (2017) as feasible in an online survey. The dimensions of the framework include demographic information (e.g. gender identity, binding, smoking etc.), vocal and communicative impacts (e.g. personal, physical, socioeconomic etc.), acoustic measurements (e.g. mean and mode f0), and testosterone history, and self-perceived vocal masculinity. The current study had methodology-related goals as well, namely to test the efficacy of using acoustic tools such as Language and Brain and Behaviour Corpus Analysis Tool (LaBB-CAT; Fromont & Hay, 2017) and Robust Epoch And Pitch EstimatoR (REAPER; Talkin, 2015) within a clinically applied area of research. The following research questions were explored as part of the study: 1) What are the acoustic correlates of masculinity and the socio-cultural construct of the male gender identity? 2) What is the relationship between the transmasculine individuals’ voice and their quality of life? 3) How satisfied are transmasculine individuals with their speech? The current study found that the vocal satisfaction of transmasculine individuals is not directly predictable from self-perceived vocal masculinity, or from the central tendency measures of the speaking fundamental frequency. Participants’ self-perception of both their vocal satisfaction and vocal masculinity was mediated by the individual’s self-assigned gender identity label.
... Testosterone, a male sex hormone, has thus been intensively studied as it was found to be associated, for instance, with facial (e.g., Penton-Voak & Chen, 2004;Pound, Penton-Voak, & Surridge, 2009;Roney, Hanson, Durante, & Maestripieri, 2006) and behavioral masculinity (e.g., Apicella et al., 2008;Archer, 2006;Booth, Shelley, Mazur, Tharp, & Kittok, 1989). Concerning acoustic characteristics, several studies have found a negative relationship between fundamental frequency and testosterone levels in men (Dabbs & Mallinger, 1999;Evans, Neave, Wakelin, & Hamilton, 2008;Hodges-Simeon, Gurven, & Gaulin, 2015;Puts, Apicella, & Cardenas, 2012). Although little is known about their physiological mechanisms, both the HNR and jitter have also been suggested to be sensitive to hormonal influx as they both relate to the oscillations of the vocal folds, which possess receptors to circulating androgens (Pisanski et al., 2016). ...
... In our study, T-levels did not influence any of the acoustic parameters investigated. The methods to measure T-level and the sample size used in this study were similar to those used in previous studies finding a significant negative link between T-levels and F0 (e.g., Dabbs & Mallinger, 1999;Evans et al., 2008). However, testosterone is a multiple-effect hormone under the influence of numerous biological and environmental factors and pathways. ...
Article
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Potential differences between homosexual and heterosexual men have been studied on a diverse set of social and biological traits. Regarding acoustic features of speech, researchers have hypothesized a feminization of such characteristics in homosexual men, but previous investigations have so far produced mixed results. Moreover, most studies have been conducted with English-speaking populations, which calls for further cross-linguistic examinations. Lastly, no studies investigated so far the potential role of testosterone in the association between sexual orientation and speech acoustic features. To fill these gaps, we explored potential differences in acoustic features of speech between homosexual and heterosexual native French men and investigated whether the former showed a trend toward feminization by comparing theirs to that of heterosexual native French women. Lastly, we examined whether testosterone levels mediated the association between speech acoustic features and sexual orientation. We studied four sexually dimorphic acoustic features relevant for the qualification of feminine versus masculine voices: the fundamental frequency, its modulation, and two understudied acoustic features of speech, the harmonics-to-noise ratio (a proxy of vocal breathiness) and the jitter (a proxy of vocal roughness). Results showed that homosexual men displayed significantly higher pitch modulation patterns and less breathy voices compared to heterosexual men, with values shifted toward those of heterosexual women. Lastly, testosterone levels did not influence any of the investigated acoustic features. Combined with the literature conducted in other languages, our findings bring new support for the feminization hypothesis and suggest that the feminization of some acoustic features could be shared across languages.
... In general, listeners selectively pay attention to the information contained in a speaker's voice and adjust their behavior accordingly, thereby improving their evolutionary fitness. Most evidence suggests that human male vocally-expressed masculinity (e.g., via a lower voice pitch) is inversely related to testosterone levels in both puberty and adulthood (Cartei, Bond, & Reby, 2014;Dabbs & Mallinger, 1999;Evans, Neave, Wakelin, & Hamilton, 2008;Harries, Hawkins, Hacking, & Hughes, 1998). Voice pitch (measured by fundamental frequency, F0) and the withinutterance standard deviation in F0 (F0-SD) are two sexually dimorphic characteristics of voices (Cartei et al., 2014;Evans et al., 2008). ...
... Most evidence suggests that human male vocally-expressed masculinity (e.g., via a lower voice pitch) is inversely related to testosterone levels in both puberty and adulthood (Cartei, Bond, & Reby, 2014;Dabbs & Mallinger, 1999;Evans, Neave, Wakelin, & Hamilton, 2008;Harries, Hawkins, Hacking, & Hughes, 1998). Voice pitch (measured by fundamental frequency, F0) and the withinutterance standard deviation in F0 (F0-SD) are two sexually dimorphic characteristics of voices (Cartei et al., 2014;Evans et al., 2008). Men's voice pitch is generally lower than that of women due to the lengthening of the vocal tract during male puberty (Fitch & Giedd, 1999). ...
Article
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Humans exhibit sexually-based vocal dimorphisms, providing information about peoples’ intrinsic states. Studies indicate that voice pitch predicts relationship quality; however, none have explored its effects on relationship maintenance. We explored the association between sexually dimorphic vocal properties [voice pitch, measured by fundamental frequency (F0) and F0 variation, the within-subject SD in F0 across the utterance (F0-SD)], attachment styles, and communication patterns among Chinese heterosexuals in romantic relationships. Men’s F0-SD positively correlates with constructive communication pattern and negatively correlates with avoidant attachment style. No significant correlations are found for women. These findings suggest that men with masculine voices are more avoidantly attached, using avoidant communications. Furthermore, they show that voice may play a crucial role in and be an important morphological index of human mating relationships.
... Indeed, the surge of testosterone during puberty causes the vocal folds to grow longer and thicker through androgen receptors in the epithelial cells of the vocal folds, thus lowering vocal pitch (larger vocal folds mechanically vibrate more slowly than smaller ones; Harries, Hawkins, Hacking, & Hughes, 1998). Testosterone continues to influence vocal pitch through adolescence (Hodges-Simeon, Gurven, & Gaulin, 2015;Pedersen, Møller, Krabbe, & Bennett, 1986) and adulthood (Dabbs & Mallinger, 1999;Evans, Neave, Wakelin, & Hamilton, 2008;Puts, Apicella, & C ardenas, 2012). Testosterone is also associated with cooperative or trustrelated behaviours, but its influence is context-dependent. ...
... The existence of vocal cues of cooperativeness could stem from the pleiotropic effect of testosterone on both cooperative behaviours (Burnham, 2007;Diekhof et al., 2014;Reimers & Diekhof, 2015;Takagishi et al., 2011) and vocal pitch (Dabbs & Mallinger, 1999;Evans et al., 2008;Puts et al., 2012). As testosterone has immunosuppressive effects (immunocompetence handicap hypothesis : Folstad & Karter, 1992;Rantala et al., 2012;but see: J. Nowak, Pawłowski, Borkowska, Augustyniak, & Drulis-Kawa, 2018), men with (costly) lower pitch might benefit from a higher biological quality (Arnocky, Hodges-Simeon, Ouellette, & Albert, 2018;Hodges-Simeon et al., 2015). ...
Article
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The sound of the voice has several acoustic features that influence the perception of how cooperative the speaker is. It remains unknown, however, whether these acoustic features are associated with actual cooperative behaviour. This issue is crucial to disentangle whether inferences of traits from voices are based on stereotypes, or facilitate the detection of cooperative partners. The latter is likely due to the pleiotropic effect that testosterone has on both cooperative behaviours and acoustic features. In the present study, we quantified the cooperativeness of native French‐speaking men in a one‐shot public good game. We also measured mean fundamental frequency, pitch variations, roughness, and breathiness from spontaneous speech recordings of the same men and collected saliva samples to measure their testosterone levels. Our results showed that men with lower‐pitched voices and greater pitch variations were more cooperative. However, testosterone did not influence cooperative behaviours or acoustic features. Our finding provides the first evidence of the acoustic correlates of cooperative behaviour. When considered in combination with the literature on the detection of cooperativeness from faces, the results imply that assessment of cooperative behaviour would be improved by simultaneous consideration of visual and auditory cues.
... -Post-mutational period: gradual maturation of the voice quality, reaching the typical adult voice timbre and range. Some authors suggest that voice pitch in adult males correlates with the levels of circulating testosterone, although there is no clear consensus in the literature on the correlation between vocal tract length and testosterone levels [12,[16][17][18]. ...
... As a consequence, vocal fold bowing and reduced glottal contact occur, with higher perceived breathiness in aged men's voices compared to those of younger men. Moreover, increased F0 is observed in men's senescence, with vocal feminization and a clearer tone of voice [16,52,55]. ...
Article
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The aim of the present literature review is to describe the influence of sex hormones on the human voice in physiological conditions. As a secondary sexual organ, the larynx is affected by sex hormones and may change considerably over the lifespan. In the current review, sex hormone-related voice modifications occurring during childhood, puberty, the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and senescence are described. The roles of sex hormones (including gonadotropins, testosterone, estrogen, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate) underlying physiological voice changes are discussed, the main differences between males and females are explained and clinical implications are taken into account.
... For that matter, given the day-to-day variability of testosterone, researchers should use a more rigorous approach to measuring testosterone levels. For example, Evans et al. (2008) collected saliva samples from subjects at 9 am, 12 noon and 3 pm and explored the relationship between testosterone levels and voice parameters, and the results supported previous findings that there was a negative correlation between testosterone levels and fundamental frequency, and to a greater extent than in previous studies. It is inferred that voice pitch can provide a true signal about an individual's hormone levels (Evans et al., 2008). ...
... For example, Evans et al. (2008) collected saliva samples from subjects at 9 am, 12 noon and 3 pm and explored the relationship between testosterone levels and voice parameters, and the results supported previous findings that there was a negative correlation between testosterone levels and fundamental frequency, and to a greater extent than in previous studies. It is inferred that voice pitch can provide a true signal about an individual's hormone levels (Evans et al., 2008). In addition, some medical studies suggest that if males do not transition well during the voice change period, this may lead to adolescent falsetto, also known as male to female voice tone, a functional vocal disorder that can be treated with appropriate doses of testosterone to reduce vocal frequency (Zhuang and Liu, 2021). ...
Article
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A growing amount of research has shown associations between sexually dimorphic vocal traits and physiological conditions related to reproductive advantage. This paper presented a review of the literature on the relationship between sexually dimorphic vocal traits and sex hormones, body size, and physique. Those physiological conditions are important in reproductive success and mate selection. Regarding sex hormones, there are associations between sex-specific hormones and sexually dimorphic vocal traits; about body size, formant frequencies are more reliable predictors of human body size than pitch/fundamental frequency; with regard to the physique, there is a possible but still controversial association between human voice and strength and combat power, while pitch is more often used as a signal of aggressive intent in conflict. Future research should consider demographic, cross-cultural, cognitive interaction, and emotional motivation influences, in order to more accurately assess the relationship between voice and physiology. Moreover, neurological studies were recommended to gain a deeper understanding of the evolutionary origins and adaptive functions of voice modulation.
... Firstly, there is intersexual selection, which corresponds to the selection exerted by one sex over another. For instance, lower F0s were found to be positively associated to higher circulating testosterone levels in men (Dabbs & Mallinger, 1999;Evans, Neave, Wakelin, & Hamilton, 2008;Hodges-Simeon, Gurven, & Gaulin, 2015;Jost et al., 2018; although see Arnocky, Hodges-Simeon, Ouellette, & Albert, 2018;Bruckert et al., 2006;Puts, Apicella, & Cardenas, 2012), which is known to act as an immunosuppressant (Foo, Nakagawa, Rhodes, & Simmons, 2017). As men possessing high testosterone levels should have a better immune system to bear its costs, lower F0s may thus signal health status as a result of possessing "good genes" (Folstad & Karter, 1992). ...
... Moreover, this finding has been replicated with a similar or higher number of stimuli and judges than most of these studies (see Hodges-Simeon et al., 2010, for an example of a study with a higher number of stimuli). As vocal height correlates to several biological and social information about men, such as testosterone levels (Dabbs & Mallinger, 1999;Evans et al., 2008;Hodges-Simeon et al., 2015), sexually related behaviors (Hughes et al., 2004), body size assessments (Pisanski et al., 2014a), and signaling social dominance (Puts et al., 2007) and social rankings (Cheng, Tracy, Ho, & Henrich, 2016), women may rely on this salient acoustic cue as an assessment of sexual partner quality. Several studies have reported that men exhibiting relatively low-pitched voices reported a higher mating success in industrialized societies (Hodges-Simeon, Gaulin, & Puts, 2011;Puts, 2005;Puts et al., 2006; although see Suire et al., 2018) and a higher reproductive success in a huntergatherer society (Apicella, Feinberg, & Marlowe, 2007; although see Smith, Olkhov, Puts, & Apicella, 2017). ...
Article
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In both correlational and experimental settings, studies on women’s vocal preferences have reported negative relationships between perceived attractiveness and men’s vocal pitch, emphasizing the idea of an adaptive preference. However, such consensus on vocal attractiveness has been mostly conducted with native English speakers, but a few evidence suggest that it may be culture-dependent. Moreover, other overlooked acoustic components of vocal quality, such as intonation, perceived breathiness and roughness, may influence vocal attractiveness. In this context, the present study aims to contribute to the literature by investigating vocal attractiveness in an underrepresented language (i.e., French) as well as shedding light on its relationship with understudied acoustic components of vocal quality. More specifically, we investigated the relationships between attractiveness ratings as assessed by female raters and male voice pitch, its variation, the formants’ dispersion and position, and the harmonics-to-noise and jitter ratios. Results show that women were significantly more attracted to lower vocal pitch and higher intonation patterns. However, they did not show any directional preferences for all the other acoustic features. We discuss our results in light of the adaptive functions of vocal preferences in a mate choice context.
... For instance, pubertal surges in testosterone cause men's vocal folds to grow 60% longer (Kahane, 1978) and their larynges to descend a full vertebrate lower than women's, resulting in a vocal tract that is 10-15% longer in men ( Lieberman et al., 2001) 1 . Men's fundamental frequency and formants remain inversely related to circulating levels of testosterone into adulthood ( Bruckert et al., 2006;Cartei et al., 2014;Dabbs & Mallinger, 1999;Evans et al., 2008). Preferences for sex-typicality in these voice parameters (i.e. ...
Chapter
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Research on voice attractiveness is highly interdisciplinary, incorporating findings from, but not limited to, psychology, neuroscience, animal behaviour, evolutionary theory, linguistics, and acoustic phonetics. Elements of each of these fields intertwine to paint a picture of why certain voices are more attractive than others. Attractiveness is important from an evolutionary perspective because it is a driving force behind our sexual urges, which in turn result in the passing on of our genes, the mechanism of evolutionary change. From a social perspective, we rely on voice attractiveness to find friends, fend off foes, network, and to climb social ladders or into bed sheets. From the perspective of cognitive neuroscience, the brain has evolved specific regions to process voices as opposed to other similar sounds (Belin et al., 2000). Indeed, voices are special in human perception. Attractive voices provide neural reward value (Bestelmeyer et al., 2012), and prototypebased voice perception drives the attractiveness of average voices (Bruckert et al., 2010). The mechanisms by which we perceive voices therefore shape which voices we ultimately prefer. In this chapter, we examine voice attractiveness from evolutionary, social, and cognitive neuroscience perspectives. While each perspective is equally important, the majority of recent research on voice attractiveness has been in the evolutionary domain, thus the majority of this chapter focuses on the evolutionary perspective. However, it is our hope that although these approaches are presented in different sections, it is understood that these approaches are not at odds with one other, but rather explore the same problem through different lenses. We strongly encourage the cross- pollination of ideas across disciplines.
... I included a measure of voice pitch as a proxy for men's physical attractiveness because it is strongly correlated to testosterone and other physical traits, such as shoulder circumference, chest circumference and shoulder-hip ratio (Evans et al. 2006;Evans et al. 2008 No correlation was found between voice pitch and MEQ score (r= -0.08; ...
Article
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Human sleep patterns differ across age groups and between males and females, and their association with age and gender suggest that they might have been the target of sexual selection during human evolutionary history. In this study, I will test the hypothesis that a phase-delayed circadian phase is a sexually selected trait in humans. A short version of the Horne and Ostberg questionnaire and a questionnaire on sexual behaviour were administered to 134 males and 140 females. A significant negative relationship was found between the MEQ score and the number of sexual partners among males, with evening types reporting more sexual partners than morning types. No significant relationship between females MEQ and number of sexual partners was found. Findings support the hypothesis that evening preference in males is a sexually selected trait.
... Darwin wrote (1871, 572), "I conclude that musical notes and rhythm were first acquired by the male or female progenitors of mankind for the sake of charming the opposite sex. " This does not preclude the possibility of sex differences in musicality and mating behavior, such as those observed related to the human voice (e.g., Evans et al., 2008;Valentova et al., 2017Valentova et al., , 2019Pisanski et al., 2018), which Darwin (1871, 573) already noted: "Women are generally thought to possess sweeter voices than men, and as far as this serves as any guide, we may infer that they first acquired musical powers in order to attract the other sex. " Darwin also proposed a common origin of music and language, known as the musical protolanguage hypothesis, for which some empirical evidence has emerged (Thompson et al., 2012). ...
Article
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A number of theories about the origins of musicality have incorporated biological and social perspectives. Darwin argued that musicality evolved by sexual selection, functioning as a courtship display in reproductive partner choice. Darwin did not regard musicality as a sexually dimorphic trait, paralleling evidence that both sexes produce and enjoy music. A novel research strand examines the effect of musicality on sexual attraction by acknowledging the importance of facial attractiveness. We previously demonstrated that music varying in emotional content increases the perceived attractiveness and dating desirability of opposite-sex faces only in females, compared to a silent control condition. Here, we built upon this approach by presenting the person depicted (target) as the performer of the music (prime), thus establishing a direct link. We hypothesized that musical priming would increase sexual attraction, with high-arousing music inducing the largest effect. Musical primes (25 s, piano solo music) varied in arousal and pleasantness, and targets were photos of other-sex faces of average attractiveness and with neutral expressions (2 s). Participants were 35 females and 23 males (heterosexual psychology students, single, and no hormonal contraception use) matched for musical background, mood, and liking for the music used in the experiment. After musical priming, females' ratings of attractiveness and dating desirability increased significantly. In males, only dating desirability was significantly increased by musical priming. No specific effects of music-induced pleasantness and arousal were observed. Our results, together with other recent empirical evidence, corroborate the sexual selection hypothesis for the evolution of human musicality.
... In line with the fitness indicator hypothesis within the sexual selection theory, vocal characteristics can convey information about the underlying qualities of voice producers, e.g., information about their health and reproductive potential. For example, men with relatively low-pitched voices exhibit low cortisol and high testosterone levels, which are related to immunoreactivity (Evans et al., 2008;Hodges-Simeon et al., 2015;Puts et al., 2016). Moreover, among North American men, a lower-pitched voice is associated with more female sexual partners (Puts, 2005), and lower-pitched male Hadza hunter-gatherers have on average a higher number of offspring (Apicella et al., 2007). ...
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Perceived vocal attractiveness and measured sex-dimorphic vocal parameters are both associated with underlying individual qualities. Research tends to focus on speech but singing is another highly evolved communication system that has distinct and universal features with analogs in other species, and it is relevant in mating. Both speaking and singing voice provides relevant information about its producer. We tested whether speech and singing function as “backup signals” that indicate similar underlying qualities. Using a sample of 81 men and 86 women from Brazil and the Czech Republic, we investigated vocal attractiveness rated from speech and singing and its association with fundamental frequency (F0), apparent vocal tract length (VTL), body characteristics, and sociosexuality. F0, VTL, and rated attractiveness of singing and speaking voice strongly correlated within the same individual. Lower-pitched speech in men, higher-pitched speech and singing in women, individuals who like to sing more, and singing of individuals with a higher pitch modulation were perceived as more attractive. In men, physical size positively predicted speech and singing attractiveness. Male speech but not singing attractiveness was associated with higher sociosexuality. Lower-pitched male speech was related to higher sociosexuality, while lower-pitched male singing was linked to lower sociosexuality. Similarly, shorter speech VTL and longer singing VTL predicted higher sociosexuality in women. Different vocal displays function as “backup signals” cueing to attractiveness and body size, but their relation to sexual strategies in men and women differs. Both singing and speech may indicate evolutionarily relevant individual qualities shaped by sexual selection.
... Among men, relatively low voice pitch or formants generally indicate that a man has high er levels of circulating testosterone compared to a man with a higher-frequency voice (Bruckert et al. 2006;Cartei, Bond, and Reby 2014;Dabbs and Mallinger 1999;Evans et al. 2008). Higher levels of testosterone in men are in turn positively associated with a host of mate-relevant characteristics, including dominance, physical strength and body size, and immune responsiveness (Puts, Doll, and Hill 2014;Rantala et al. 2012;Skrinda et al. 2014). ...
Chapter
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The human voice is a rich source of information and an important means of interpersonal communication. Beginning with Darwin (1872), nonverbal vocal communication has long interested evolutionary scientists, and in the last quarter century empirical research on voice production and perception from an evolutionary perspective has increased dramati­ cally. One reason for this surge of interest is that behavioral ecologists and evolutionary psychologists have taken advantage of recent technological improvements in acoustic analysis software as well as sound recording and reproduction devices. More importantly, many voice researchers have recognized that the extraction of biologically relevant infor­ mation from the vocal channel constitutes a set of adaptive problems widely shared across many species. Evolutionary scientists studying human vocal behavior therefore have a rich theoretical framework and an established comparative basis for developing specific research questions. For any vocal species, including humans, we should expect perceptual adaptations designed to process acoustic features of the vocal sounds of con­ specifics (other individuals of the same species). An evolutionary approach provides a framework for specifying the nature of these adaptive perceptual problems. In this chap­ ter, the authors describe recent work focusing on human voice perception from an evolu­ tionary perspective and provide examples of the value of this approach for gaining a full understanding of this fundamental aspect of human behavior.
... These effects are also exerted at the level of the larynx, which results in acoustic changes. 39 Testosterone therapy in concentrations of greater than or equal to 150 mg/dL has a virilizing effect on the voice of birth-assigned women. Repeated exposure to concentrations greater than 200 mg/dL results in irreversible changes, occurring predominantly during the first 3 months of testosterone therapy. ...
Article
Prescribing gender-affirming hormonal therapy in transgender men (TM) not only induces desirable physical effects but also benefits mental health. In TM, testosterone therapy is aimed at achieving cisgender male serum testosterone to induce virilization. Testosterone therapy is safe on the short term and middle term if adequate endocrinological follow-up is provided. Transgender medicine is not a strong part of the medical curriculum, although a large number of transgender persons will search for some kind of gender-affirming care. Because hormonal therapy has beneficial effects, all endocrinologists or hormone-prescribing physicians should be able to provide gender-affirming hormonal care.
... For instance, estrogen is associated with higher vocal pitch (Raj et al., 2010), facial feminine features (Law Smith et al., 2006), and maternal behavior (Law Smith et al., 2012), although see Jones et al. (2018) for no association between sex hormones and facial attractiveness in women. Testosterone is linked to lower vocal fundamental frequency (Evans et al., 2008), masculine facial characteristics (Penton-Voak and Chen, 2004), and aggressive behavior (Batrinos, 2012). ...
Article
Multicomponent stimuli improve information reception. In women, perceived facial and vocal femininity-masculinity (FM)are concordant; however, mixed results are found for men. Some feminine and masculine traits are related to sex hormone action and can indicate reproductive qualities. However, most of the current research about human mate choice focuses on isolated indicators, especially visual assessment of faces. We therefore examined the cross-modal concordance hypothesis by testing correlations between perceptions of FM based on facial, vocal, and behavioral stimuli. Standardized facial pictures, vocal recordings and dance videos of 38 men and 41 women, aged 18–35 years, were rated by 21 male and 43 female students, aged 18–35 years, on 100-point scale (0 = very feminine; 100 = very masculine). All participants were Brazilian students from University of Sao Paulo. In women, facial and vocal FM correlated positively, suggesting concordant information about mate quality. Such results were not found in men, indicating multiple messages, which agree with women's multifaceted preference for male FM. In both sexes, FM of dance did not correlate with voices or faces, indicating different information and distinct process of development. We thus partially supported the cross-modal concordance hypothesis.
... Additionally, when the pitch is too low, vowel sounds may be harder to recognize (Smith, Patterson, Turner, Kawahara, & Irino, 2005; and note that in the present research, all the vocal samples were vowels). Having a lower pitched voice can be associated with higher testosterone levels (Evans, Neave, Wakelin, & Hamilton, 2008;Kempe et al., 2013;Simmons, Peters, & Rhodes, 2011). The fact that testosterone can be a cue to aggression (Norman, Moreau, Welker, & Carré, 2015) and that aggressive males can be a threat to women may help to explain why men are not viewed as more attractive when they lower their voices (for further evidence that highly masculinized male voices may have drawbacks, especially with reference to long-term partners, see O'Connor et al., 2014). ...
Article
Previous studies have found that using software to pitch shift people's voices can boost their perceived attractive�ness to opposite-sex adults: men prefer women's voices when pitch-shifted up, and women prefer men's voices when pitch-shifted down. In this study, we sought to determine whether speakers could affect their perceived vocal attractiveness by voluntarily shifting their own voices to reach specific target pitches (+20 Hz or −20 Hz, a pitch increment that is based on prior research). Two sets of Chinese college students participated in the research: 115 who served as speakers whose voices were recorded, and 167 who served as raters who evaluated the speakers' voices. We found that when female speakers increased their pitch they were judged as more attractive to both opposite-sex and same-sex raters. An additional unexpected finding was that male speakers tended to rate other males who shifted their voice up in pitch as more attractive. These findings suggest that voluntary pitch shifts can affect attractiveness, but that they do not fully match the patterns observed when pitch shifting is done digitally.
... First, as already stated, testosterone may increase the mass, length, and tension of the vocal folds. Second, it may bring about changes in vocal style, one of which is pitch lowering (Evans et al., 2008). This latter, behavioural explanation is not implausible, as it is known, for example, that males may lower their larynxes to sound attractive to females, thereby creating lowered resonance characteristics (Evans et al., 2006). ...
Chapter
Voices are highly individual, and this information may be used to recognize people. This chapter provides an overview of how speaker-specific voice information can be used to assist in recognizing unknown speakers in evidential audio recordings in order to assist in progressing criminal investigations or for evidential purposes. While the chapter is predominantly concerned with forensic applications of speaker recognition, it also considers commercially-orientated applications such as the voice-access systems increasingly used in banking, for example. The chapter distinguishes between biometric features of voice (i.e. aspects of speech that facilitate recognition of an individual) and biometric recognition (i.e. the process of using those features to undertake the recognition). Biometric features include a range of frequency- and time-domain characteristics that vary between speakers and are useable in human- based and automatic speaker-recognition processes, the principles of which the chapter explains and discusses. Finally, the chapter considers possible future scenarios in which biometric features of voice might be of use, should certain methodological obstacles be overcome.
... Fundamental frequency, commonly referred to as voice pitch , is produced by vibration of the vocal folds and is influenced by the vocal tract's size and shape (Evans et al., 2008). Under the influence of androgen production in puberty the vocal fold length in boys increases, thus deepening the voice (Harries et al., 1998) and resulting in an adult male voice pitch approximately six standard deviations lower than women's (Puts et al., 2014). ...
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Humans are sexually dimorphic: on average men significantly differ from women in body build and composition, craniofacial structure, and voice pitch, likely mediated in part by developmental testosterone exposure. Hypotheses which attempt to explain the evolution of dimorphism in humans, such as the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis and the male-male competition hypothesis, assume that more dimorphic (i.e. masculine) men have historically achieved greater mating success, resulting in greater reproductive success. This is either because women select more masculine men due to their greater immune function, because more masculine men expend more energy on mating effort, or because more masculine men out-compete their rivals for other routes to mating success. Thus far, however, evidence for an association between masculinity and reproductive success is unclear. We conducted the most comprehensive meta-analysis to date, on the relationship between masculinity in six domains (faces, bodies, voices, height, digit ratios, and testosterone levels) and mating/reproductive success, comprising 434 effect sizes from 91 studies (total N = 155,348). Body masculinity, i.e. muscularity and strength, predicted both mating and reproductive success. Voice pitch, height, digit ratios and testosterone levels all predicted mating but not reproductive outcomes. Facial masculinity did not significantly predict either. Our findings support arguments that muscularity/strength can be considered sexually selected in humans, but raise concerns over other forms of masculinity, most especially facial masculinity. We are also constrained by lack of reproductive data, particularly from naturally fertile populations. Our data thus highlight the need to increase tests of evolutionary hypotheses outside of industrialised populations.
... Fundamental frequency (F 0 ), the rate of vocal fold vibration during phonation, is the acoustic measure closest to what we perceive as pitch. In males, F 0 is related to testosterone throughout pubertal development (Butler et al., 1989;Harries et al., 1997Harries et al., , 1998Hodges-Simeon et al., 2015) and during adulthood (Dabbs and Mallinger, 1999;Evans et al., 2008;Puts et al., 2012Puts et al., , 2016. Lower and more closely spaced formant (resonant) frequencies indicate a longer vocal tract and have also been shown to independently increase perceived masculinity (Collins, 2000) and dominance (Cheng et al., 2016;Puts et al., 2006Puts et al., , 2007Tusing and Dillard, 2000). ...
Article
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Are estrous mate preference shifts robust? This question is the subject of controversy within human evolutionary sciences. For nearly two decades, mate preference shifts across the ovulatory cycle were considered an important feature of human sexual selection, directing women’s attention towards mates with indicators of “good genes” in their fertile phase, when conception is possible. However, several recent studies on masculine faces, bodies and behaviors did not find evidence supporting this account, known as the good genes ovulatory shift hypothesis. Furthermore, evidence that preferences for masculine characteristics in men’s voices are related to women’s cycle phase and hormonal status is still equivocal. Here, we report two independent within-subject studies from different labs with large sample sizes (N = 202 tested twice in Study 1; N = 157 tested four times in Study 2) investigating cycle shifts in women’s preferences for masculine voices. In both studies, hormonal status was assessed directly using salivary assays of steroid hormones. We did not find evidence for effects of cycle phase, conception risk, or steroid hormone levels on women’s preferences for masculine voices. Rather, our studies partially provide evidence for cycle shifts in women’s general attraction to men’s voices regardless of masculine characteristics. Women’s relationship status and self-reported stress did not moderate these findings, and the hormonal pattern that influences these shifts remains somewhat unclear. We consider how future work can clarify the mechanisms underlying psychological changes across the ovulatory cycle.
... This results in a lower-pitched masculine voice. 3,4 However, it has been shown that voice-lowering difficulties can be expected in about 20% of trans men after 12 months of GAHT. 5 It is essential to detect those individuals to provide alternatives to lower the voice, such as speech therapy and phonosurgery. 4,6 To date, literature on speech therapy and phonosurgery in trans men who are not satisfied with their voice is lacking. ...
Article
About 20% of trans men do not achieve cisgender male frequencies (F 0 ≤131 Hz) after gender-affirming hormone treatment (GAHT) with testosterone. The surgical procedure Isshiki thyroplasty type III (TPIII) is described to lower F 0 , but data on this technique in trans men are lacking. In this study, 8 trans men, unsatisfied with their voice after a minimum of 12 months of GAHT, underwent TPIII to lower F 0 at the Department of Head and Neck Surgery at Ghent University Hospital. TPIII was performed by 1 surgeon using the same method each time. Pre- and postoperatively, an acoustic evaluation of the voice took place. The F 0 dropped significantly from the preoperative mean of (154.60 ± 12.29) Hz to the postoperative mean of (105.37 ± 10.52) Hz ( t = 9.821, P < .001). TPIII is an effective method for lowering the F 0 in trans men who are not satisfied with their voice after long-term GAHT.
... A study by Gugatschka et al. (2010) showed the presence or lack of changes of f0 in elderly male voices depend on men's estrogen status, with a significant increase of mean f0 at decreased levels of estrogen compared to that at normal levels (Gugatschka et al., 2010). At the same time, the age-related decrease of levels of testosterone with age has no impact on f0 of old male humans (Gugatschka et al., 2010), although in younger male humans, testosterone has a negative effect on the f0 (Dabbs & Mallinger, 1999;King et al., 2001;Evans et al., 2008). ...
Article
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In female terrestrial mammals, vocal aging has only been studied in humans and pandas. In cervids displaying convergent sex dimorphism of vocal apparatus with humans, vocal aging is only investigated in males. This cross-sectional study examined acoustic variables of nasal (closed-mouth) and oral (open-mouth) contact calls of 32 farmed Iberian red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) aged of 4-18 years and their relationships with caller´s age, weight, social discomfort score (bites of other hinds on hind pelt) and body condition score (fat reserves). Decrease of fundamental frequency was associated with age in both oral and nasal calls, but more prominently in the nasal calls. An increase in call duration, peak frequency and power quartiles was associated with a higher degree of bites due to social aggression. Weight and body condition weakly influenced acoustic traits. We discuss that vocal aging of hinds parallels that of vocal aging in human females.
... Concerning impressions of the size-related feature, listeners regularly associate deeper voice pitch to larger and taller individuals, and conversely, higher voice pitch to thinner and smaller individuals (Pisanski & Rendall 2011;Rendall et al. 2007); despite this, vocal features explain little variation in body size (Pisanski et al. 2014). Although voice pitch and its resonant frequencies signal little information on the latter, it has been suggested that they could rather be a reliable signal of hormonal quality; e.g., lower voice pitch in men correlated to circulating testosterone levels (Evans et al. 2008) or a signal of fertility in women (Feinberg et al. 2006;Pisanski, Bhardwaj & Reby 2018). Morton (1977) first suggested that in many birds and mammal species, a common structural convergence of acoustic features exists where low-frequency sounds are used in "hostile" and "harsh" contexts; conversely, higher-frequency sounds are used when "frightened" or "approaching in a friendly manner". ...
Article
Beyond the linguistic content of their speech, speakers of both sexes convey diverse biological and psychosocial information through their voices, which are important when assessing potential mates and competitors. However, studies investigating the relationships between mating success and acoustic inter-individual differences are scarce. In this study, we investigated such relationships in both sexes in courtship and competitive interactions—as they correspond to the two different types of sexual selection—using an experimental design based on a simulated dating game. We assessed which type of sexual selection best predicted mating success, here defined as the self-reported number of sexual partners within the past year. Our results show that only acoustic inter-individual differences in the courtship context for both men and women predicted their mating success. Men displaying faster articulation rate and louder voices reported significantly more sexual partners; in contrast, men displaying higher intonation reported a greater negative effect of roughness and breathiness on their mating success. Women who displayed relatively less breathy voices and shorter speech duration reported significantly fewer sexual partners. These novel findings are discussed in light of the mate choice context and the relative contribution of both types of sexual selection shaping acoustic features of speech.
... A highly attractive voice can lead to positive experiences and make people tend to approach the speaker of the voice. Vocal attractiveness was demonstrated to be a predictor of many traits, such as body configuration (Evans, Neave & Wakelin, 2006;Hughes, Dispenza, & Gallup, 2004), health condition (Vukovic, Feinberg, DeBruine, Smith, & Jones, 2010), hormone level (Dabbs & Mallinger, 1999;Evans, Neave, Wakelin, & Hamilton,, 2008), and fertility (Bryant & Haselton, 2008;Pipitone & Gallup, 2008). Thus, vocal attractiveness plays a crucial role in mate selection (Puts, Doll, & Hill, 2014) and is regarded as an important indicator to explore the evolutionary behavior of humans. ...
Article
People evaluated their own voices as sounding more attractive than others rated their voices (i.e., self‐enhancement effect from the perspective of the rater, termed “SE_rater”), and people also rated their own voices as more attractive than the voices of others (i.e., self‐enhancement effect from the perspective of the voice, termed “SE_voice”). The aim of the present study is to explore whether the gender context (i.e., same‐sex and opposite‐sex rating context) could influence the SE effect of voice attractiveness evaluation. Male and female participants were asked to rate the attractiveness of their own voices and other participants' voices, either in a same‐sex session or an opposite‐sex session. The results demonstrated both the SE_rater and SE_voice effect in the same‐sex and opposite‐sex contexts, for both male and female. More importantly, we found that the SE_rater for the male voices was significantly greater than that for the female voices in the same‐sex context whereas no such difference was found in the opposite‐sex context. In addition, the SE_voice effect in men was larger in the same‐sex context than that in the opposite‐sex context whereas the SE_voice in women was smaller in the same‐sex context than that in the opposite‐sex context. These findings indicated that the self‐enhancement effect of vocal attractiveness was modulated by the gender context.
... Jitter represents cycle to cycle frequency variation of voice and was found more in adult pluriparous buffaloes because adult buffaloes had more experience in modulating their voice frequency. The higher levels of steroid hormones in adult animals may be responsible for these differences in some voice features (Evans et al., 2008;Bruckert, 2010) because vocal fold mass, stiffness and length get changed. It clearly indicates that voice signals of animals definitely change as per changes in age which might be a response to anatomical and hormonal change taking place in animals during growing stage. ...
... The source-filter model of speech assumes that F0 and formants are independent in anatomy and function (Titze, 1994), and they are two important acoustic parameters that have traditionally been studied as potential vocal indicators of sexually dimorphic characteristics and generally important providers of information in forming social impressions (Feinberg et al., 2005;Puts et al., 2006;Puts et al., 2012). Most evidence suggests that voice pitch is inversely related to testosterone levels (Cartei et al., 2014;Evans et al., 2008). Several studies found no or only a small relationship between vocal characteristics and testosterone levels (Arnocky et al., 2018;Bruckert et al., 2006); however, this conclusion may have been influenced by other variables (e.g. ...
Article
In mating relationships, judgments about a speaker's infidelity intention and relationship investment vary depending on the speaker's voice pitch. However, no study so far has investigated whether voice pitch predicts infidelity intention and relationship commitment. In this study, three vocal parameters were analyzed: fundamental frequency (F0), the within-utterance standard deviation in F0 (F0-sd), and formant position (Pf). We examined the -relationship between vocal parameters and infidelity intention as well as relationship commitment based on self-report questionnaires. Results showed that, in men, F0 and F0-sd were significantly negatively correlated with infidelity intention, positively correlated with relationship commitment, and there were no significant correlations between Pf and infidelity intention or relationship commitment. In women, vocal parameters did not predict infidelity intention or relationship commitment. Taken together, this study suggests that vocal characteristics predict infidelity intention and relationship commitment in men but not in women. The current findings have important implications for research on voice in the mating-related domain.
... Additionally, when the pitch is too low, vowel sounds may be harder to recognize (Smith, Patterson, Turner, Kawahara, & Irino, 2005; and note that in the present research, all the vocal samples were vowels). Having a lower pitched voice can be associated with higher testosterone levels (Evans, Neave, Wakelin, & Hamilton, 2008;Kempe et al., 2013;Simmons, Peters, & Rhodes, 2011). The fact that testosterone can be a cue to aggression (Norman, Moreau, Welker, & Carré, 2015) and that aggressive males can be a threat to women may help to explain why men are not viewed as more attractive when they lower their voices (for further evidence that highly masculinized male voices may have drawbacks, especially with reference to long-term partners, see O'Connor et al., 2014). ...
... Atraktivnější ženy získávaly vyšší vliv (Haas -Gregory 2005). U mužů na rozdíl od žen je atraktivita podmíněna znaky spojovanými s vyšším statusem (Evans et al. 2008) Tedy atraktivní je ten muž, který má vysoký socioekonomický status. Zatímco žena je považována za atraktivní, pokud vykazuje fyzické znaky, které souvisí s vyšší plodností (Buss 2016). ...
Article
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Dominanční hierarchie se vyvinula jako adaptace sociálně žijících živočichů na podmínky prostředí. Postavení v dominanční hierarchii výrazně ovlivňuje život a chování člověka i v dnešních moderních evropských a amerických společnostech. Zde 1) stručně vysvětlíme principy a evoluční pozadí dominanční hierarchie z úhlu pohledu behaviorálních věd, 2) popíšeme rysy dominanční hierarchie u člověka, a 3) uvedeme příklady toho, co určuje hierarchické postavení jedince u člověka, jak toto postavení ovlivňuje život jedince a jak se projevuje v chování.Struktura dominanční hierarchie, ustavení hierarchického postavení (rank) a omezení daná tímto postavením jsou předvídatelná. Postavení ovlivňuje život jedince v mnoha směrech (reprodukce, komunikace, zdraví, tok informací, vzorce chování). Pokud chceme plně porozumět chování člověka, jeho rozhodnutím a pocitům, musíme brát v úvahu existence dominanční hierarchie mezi jedinci a mezi skupinami jedinců.
... Mills (2014) found similar relations between CEO FWH and firms' pursuit of more aggressive financial policies. Moreover, using digital voice pitch analysis to assess the masculinity of CEOs (arguing that deeper male voices reflect higher testosterone levels; Evans, Neave, Wakelin, & Hamilton, 2008), Kang and Kim (2018) also found that firms led by deeper-voiced CEOs took more risk. ...
Article
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How do top executives’ aesthetic attributes, such as their physical (e.g., attractiveness) and vocal (e.g., voice pitch) features, shape their firms and their own careers? Whereas strategic leadership scholars mostly have focused on top executives’ cognitive, psychological, and affective attributes, researchers increasingly have focused on this research question as well. As a result, a substantial body of research has emerged, as evidenced by the sixty-five empirical studies we located. Our review of the literature indicates that aesthetic attributes are related to executives’ careers and organizational outcomes in important ways, including executive selection and firm strategy. There also appear to be important contingencies, such as other individual differences and cultural factors, that shape these relationships. However, we conclude that there are important theoretical and methodological shortcomings in this literature and that addressing these issues is critical to validating extant findings, establishing more legitimacy, and moving this literature forward.
... Narrower formant distances have been found to perceptually create more "resonance" in the voice, and to participate in the perception of vocal depth [80]. As a result of its physiological substrates, formant dispersion is greatly affected by sexual dimorphism and puberty [81]. It is somewhat surprising that it predicted dominance perception in female speakers but not males. ...
Article
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Prior research has established that valence-trustworthiness and power-dominance are the two main dimensions of voice evaluation at zero-acquaintance. These impressions shape many of our interactions and high-impact decisions, so it is crucial for many domains to understand this dynamic. Yet, the relationship between acoustical properties of novel voices and personality/attitudinal traits attributions remains poorly understood. The fundamental problem of understanding vocal impressions and relative decision-making is linked to the complex nature of the acoustical properties in voices. In order to disentangle this relationship, this study extends the line of research on the acoustical bases of vocal impressions in two ways. First, by attempting to replicate previous finding on the bi-dimensional nature of first impressions: using personality judgements and establishing a correspondence between acoustics and voice-first-impression (VFI) dimensions relative to sex (Study 1). Second (Study 2), by exploring the non-linear relationships between acoustical parameters and VFI by the means of machine learning models. In accordance with literature, a bi-dimensional projection comprising valence-trustworthiness and power-dominance evaluations is found to explain 80% of the VFI. In study 1, brighter (high center of gravity), smoother (low shimmers), and louder (high minimum intensity) voices reflected trustworthiness, while vocal roughness (harmonic to noise-ratio), energy in the high frequencies (Energy3250), pitch (Quantile 1, Quantile 5) and lower range of pitch values reflected dominance. In study 2, above chance classification of vocal profiles was achieved by both Support Vector Machine (77.78%) and Random-Forest (Out-Of-Bag = 36.14) classifiers, generally confirming that machine learning algorithms could predict first impressions from voices. Hence results support a bi-dimensional structure to VFI, emphasize the usefulness of machine learning techniques in understanding vocal impressions, and shed light on the influence of sex on VFI formation.
... Different aspects of voice are typically correlated with either a masculine or feminine perception. For example, men and those who have higher levels of testosterone typically have lower f o due to the thickening of the vocal folds (Dabbs & Mallinger, 1999;Evans et al., 2008;Glaser et al., 2016). This thickening usually happens during puberty or during the start of testosterone-based hormone treatments, and the corresponding average f o for this population is 107-132 Hz, with a range of about 80-165 Hz (Davies & Goldberg, 2006). ...
Article
Few studies on voice perception have attempted to address the complexity of gender perception of ambiguous voices. The current study investigated how perception of gender varies with the complexity of the listener’s own gender conception and identity. We explicitly recruited participants of all genders, including those who are gender expansive (i.e. transgender and/or non-binary), and directed them to rate ambiguous synthetic voices on three independent scales of masculine, feminine, and “other” (and to select one or multiple categorical labels for them). Gender expansive listeners were more likely to use the entire expanse of the rating scales and showed systematic categorization of gender-neutral voices as non-binary. We propose this is due to repeated use of reflective processes that challenge pre-existing gender categories and the incorporation of this decision-making process into their reflexive system. Because voice gender influences speech perception, the perceptual experience of gender expansive listeners may influence perceptual flexibility in speech.
... However, size is not the only predictor of physical dominance [47], suggesting that other factors may be associated with the perceived connection between low F0 and dominance. For example, low F0 is also independently associated with high testosterone levels [48][49][50]. ...
Article
The widely cited frequency code hypothesis attempts to explain a diverse range of communicative phenomena through the acoustic projection of body size. The set of phenomena includes size sound symbolism (using /i/ to signal smallness in words such as teeny ), intonational phonology (using rising contours to signal questions) and the indexing of social relations via vocal modulation, such as lowering one's voice pitch to signal dominance. Among other things, the frequency code is commonly interpreted to suggest that polite speech should be universally signalled via high pitch owing to the association of high pitch with small size and submissiveness. We present a cross-cultural meta-analysis of polite speech of 101 speakers from seven different languages. While we find evidence for cross-cultural variation, voice pitch is on average lower when speakers speak politely, contrary to what the frequency code predicts. We interpret our findings in the light of the fact that pitch has a multiplicity of possible communicative meanings. Cultural and contextual variation determines which specific meanings become manifest in a specific interactional context. We use the evidence from our meta-analysis to propose an updated view of the frequency code hypothesis that is based on the existence of many-to-many mappings between speech acoustics and communicative interpretations. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Voice modulation: from origin and mechanism to social impact (Part I)’.
... HGS data from rural African and Western populations have revealed comparable relationships with ageing and mortality across populations and thus may represent a cross-culturally robust measure [56]. Although both HGS and sexually dimorphic vocal characteristics are positively correlated with testosterone levels [21,24,[57][58][59], the evidence that individuals with more masculine voices are physically stronger than other individuals of the same sex with less masculine voices remains equivocal [20][21][22][23][24]. ...
Article
The human voice carries information about a vocalizer's physical strength that listeners can perceive and that may influence mate choice and intrasexual competition. Yet, reliable acoustic correlates of strength in human speech remain unclear. Compared to speech, aggressive nonverbal vocalizations (roars) may function to maximize perceived strength, suggesting that their acoustic structure has been selected to communicate formidability, similar to the vocal threat displays of other animals. Here, we test this prediction in two non-WEIRD African samples: an urban community of Cameroonians and rural nomadic Hadza hunter–gatherers in the Tanzanian bushlands. Participants produced standardized speech and volitional roars and provided handgrip strength measures. Using acoustic analysis and information-theoretic multi-model inference and averaging techniques, we show that strength can be measured from both speech and roars, and as predicted, strength is more reliably gauged from roars than vowels, words or greetings. The acoustic structure of roars explains 40–70% of the variance in actual strength within adults of either sex. However, strength is predicted by multiple acoustic parameters whose combinations vary by sex, sample and vocal type. Thus, while roars may maximally signal strength, more research is needed to uncover consistent and likely interacting acoustic correlates of strength in the human voice. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Voice modulation: from origin and mechanism to social impact (Part I)’.
... In both Seychelles warbler males and aging human males 48 , maximum frequency of an individual's acoustic signal increases in young males, and then declines in older individuals. However, while fundamental frequency increases in aging male humans 49 , possibly due to changes in testosterone 50,51 , it declines in older male Seychelles warblers. A possible mechanism underlying these late-life changes in humans is thought to be changes in lung function 48 . ...
Article
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Senescence is widespread in nature, often resulting in diminishing survival or reproduction with age, but its role in age-dependent variation in sexual traits is often poorly understood. One reason is that few studies of sexual traits consider non-linear relationships with age, or only consider a narrow range of years relative to the life span of the species. Birdsong has evolved to allow assessment of conspecific quality in numerous bird species. Whilst theory and empirical work suggests that song may become more elaborate with age, there are a paucity of long-term studies testing whether song is associated with age or longevity. In particular, the occurrence of song senescence has rarely been demonstrated. Using an exceptional long-term dataset for the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), we analysed relationships between male song, age, survival, and longevity. This species is a long-lived songbird with early life increases, followed by senescent declines, in survival and reproduction. The study population (Cousin Island, Seychelles) is a closed population, with no depredation of adults, providing an excellent opportunity to study senescence in free-living animals. We tested whether song traits were related to age at recording, future survival, longevity, and territory quality. We found age-dependent changes in five song traits (duration, maximum frequency, peak frequency of songs, and duration and frequency bandwidth of trills). Relationships with age were quadratic, indicating reversal in the expression of song coinciding with the onset of senescence in reproduction and survival in this species. One song trait (trill bandwidth) had a quadratic relationship with future survival, but no song traits were related to longevity, suggesting age-related patterns were not the result of selective disappearance. Our study provides one of the first examples of functional senescence in song, offering new insights into avian senescence. Late-life declines in avian song, and possibly other sexual traits, may be more common than currently known, and may play a fundamental role in age-dependent changes in reproductive success.
... Sari et al 18 provided no information about the hour of the day at which the voice records were collected. However, Evans et al 24 suggested that a person's voice is affected by the cyclic hormone level changes that occur at different hours of the day. They observed that in the samples taken at 9 AM, the level of testosterone was high, and the fundamental frequency of the voice was low, whereas the samples taken at noon and in the afternoon revealed decreased testosterone levels and increased fundamental frequency in a gradual manner. ...
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Introduction: This study aimed to investigate voice changes in patients who had surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME). Methods: Nineteen adult patients with maxillary transverse deficiency were asked to pronounce the sounds "[a], [ϵ], [ɯ], [i], [ɔ], [œ] [u], [y]" for 3 seconds. Voice records were taken before the expansion appliance was placed (T0) and 5.8 weeks after removal (T1, after 5.2 months of retention). The same records were taken for the control group (n = 19). The formant frequencies (F0, F1, F2, and F3), shimmer, jitter, and noise-to-harmonics ratio (NHR) parameters were considered with Praat (version 6.0.43). Results: In the SARME group, significant differences were observed in the F1 of [a] (P = 0.005), F2 of [ϵ] (P = 0.008), and [œ] sounds (P = 0.004). The postexpansion values were lower than those recorded before. In contrast, the F1 of [y] sound (P = 0.02), F2 of [u] sound (P = 0.01), the jitter parameter of [ɯ] and [i] sounds (P = 0.04; P = 0.002), and the NHR value of [ϵ] sound (P = 0.04) were significantly than the baseline values. In the comparison with the control group, significant differences were found in the F0 (P = 0.025) and F1 (P = 0.046) of the [u] sound, the F1 of the [a] sound (P = 0.03), and the F2 of the [ϵ] sound (P = 0.037). Significant differences were also found in the shimmer of [i] (P = 0.017) and [ɔ] (P = 0.002), the jitter of [ϵ] (P = 0.046) and [i] (P = 0.017), and the NHR of [i] (P = 0.012) and [ɔ] (P = 0.009). Conclusion: SARME led to significant differences in some of the acoustics parameters.
Article
PurposeIn this study, we aimed to determine the differences in normospermic, oligospermic and azoospermic infertile men by performing voice analysis and to discuss this in the light of the literature.Methods71 male patients who applied to the urology clinic due to infertility and were then referred to us were included in the study. Hormone analysis and spermiogram were requested from the patients for routine infertility tests. Testosterone, Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Prolactin levels of the patients were recorded. Age and spermiogram results were recorded. According to the spermiogram results, the patients were categorized as Group 1 (azoospermic), Group 2 (oligospermic), Group 3 (normospermic). Voice Handicap Index-10 Turkish version (VHI-10) was applied to the patients and the results were recorded.ResultsThe age of the infertile patients ranged from 20 to 37. The mean age was 28.23. The distribution of the patients was 21 patients in Group 1, 40 patients in Group 2, and 10 patients in Group 3. The mean Testosterone level of the patients was 2.78; mean FSH level 12.14; mean LH level 7.26; mean Prolactin level was 8.1. The mean VHI-10 scores of the patients were 10.52. The fundamental frequency F0 Hz (mean pitch) values of the patients were 176,468; jitter % (frequency perturbation jitter) values average 0.25; shimmer % (amplitude perturbation shimmer) values average 2,322; HNR dB values averaged 24,862.Conclusions Testosterone is more effective on the voice, especially in male individuals.It would be more logical to think that many hormones, growth factors and local factors are effective instead of a single hormone.
Article
Vocal characteristics are important cues to form social impressions. Previous studies indicated that men with masculine voices are perceived as engaging in higher rates of infidelity and being less committed to their relationship. In the current study, we examined how women in China perceive information regarding infidelity and relationship investment conveyed by the voices (voice pitch and vocal tract length) of males, and whether different vocal characteristics play a similar role in driving these impressions. In addition, we examined whether these perceptions are consistent in Chinese and English language contexts. The results indicated that women perceived men with more masculine voices (lower voice pitch and longer vocal tract length) as showing a lower likelihood of infidelity and higher relationship investment; further, women who preferred more masculine voices in long-term relationships, but not in short-term relationships, were more likely to perceive men with masculine voices as less likely to engage in infidelity and more likely to invest in their relationship. Moreover, the participants formed very similar impressions irrespective of whether the voices spoke native (Chinese) or foreign (English) languages. These results provide new evidence for the role of the voice in women's choices in selecting long-term partners.
Conference Paper
This study explores the vocal satisfaction of trans men and transmasculine individuals by employing a global online survey. This study identifies psychosocial and communicative issues that exist for these populations and can be used by speech-language professionals as a diagnostic tool. A validated psychometric assessment exists for trans women such as the TVQMTF [1]. However, minimal research has been conducted on trans men due to the prevailing belief that exogenous androgen hormone treatment lowers the F0 to a satisfactory masculine-sounding voice [2]. It has been found a gender-conforming F0 does not equate to a gender-affirming voice [3]. Participants completed the survey detailing physiological and psychosocial issues as a result of their voice. Some participants provided a voice sample of the passage “North Wind and the Sun”. The results and speech samples were collected on LaBB-CAT [4], a browser-based corpus analysis tool used to investigate large linguistic corpora. Correlation coefficients were calculated based on the responses, and F0 data have been extracted using Reaper [5]. The benefit of using methods in sociolinguisticsallows us to compare voices from different speech communities and helps us interpret what it means to speak with a masculine sounding voice. The results allows us to understand the communicative needs of trans men, and the impact their voice has on their quality of life. References [1] Dacakis, G., Davies, S., Oates, J. M., Douglas, J. M., & Johnston, J. R. (2013). Development and Preliminary Evaluation of the Transsexual Voice Questionnaire for Male-to-Female Transsexuals. Journal of Voice, 27(3), 312–320. [2] T’Sjoen, G., Moerman, M., Van Borsel, J., Feyen, E., Rubens, R., Monstrey, S., Hoebeke, P., De Sutter, P., & De Cuypere, G. (2006). Impact of Voice in Transsexuals. International Journal of Transgenderism, 9(1), 1–7. [3] McNeill, E. J. M., Wilson, J. A., Clark, S., & Deakin, J. (2008). Perception of Voice in the Transgender Client. Journal of Voice, 22(6), 727–733. [4] Fromont, R., & Hay, J. (2017). Language, Brain & Behaviour Corpus Analysis Tool. English, Christchurch, New Zealand: New Zealand Institute of Language, Brain and Behaviour. Retrieved from https://labbcat.canterbury.ac.nz/system/ [5] Talkin, D. (2015). REAPER. Retrieved from http://languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu/nll/?p=17590
Chapter
Surprisingly, the study of human voice evolution has long been conducted without any reference to its biological function. Yet, following Darwin’s original concept, John Ohala was the first linguist to assume the functional role of sexual selection to explain vocal dimorphism in humans. Nevertheless, it is only at the very beginning of the millennial that the study of voice attractiveness developed, revealing that beyond its linguistic role, voice also conveys important psycho-socio-biological information that have a significant effect on the speaker’s mating and reproductive success. In this review article, our aim is to synthesize 20 years of research dedicated to the study of vocal preferences and to present the evolutionary benefits associated with such preferences.
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Article Info Abstract Article History The Home Advantage is a vigorous marvel that happens in the territory of beginner and professional sports. The main objective of this study was to check the testosterone levels (ng/mL)and territoriality score of younger than 23 years inter-university male volleyball players at home and opponent home ground. A total number of Ninety-six male volleyball players were selected for this study. To check the testosterone level of players' pretest-posttest analysis was done 60 minutes before the start of a match and 15 minutes after the finish of the match. A survey response on the territoriality factor was also taken 40 minutes after the match.Pared sample "t" was used to find the mean difference in testosterone and territoriality factor at home and away from home ground. Researchers found a significant difference (Sig.<0.0001) from pre-test to post-test results of players before and after the competition when there was seena reduction in the testosterone level (ng/ml) of players by 8% at home ground and 11% on away ground whereas a 6% decline observed in territoriality at opponents ground.. The results of the present study were found that playing at home ground cause a less reduction in serum-free testosterone level due to an increased level of territoriality score of players. Home advantage plays a role to increase the level of assertive behavior of players when they are performing at their home ground.
Chapter
Gender affirming hormonal treatment (GAHT) in transgender men consists of testosterone treatment in different formulations. The main goal of testosterone treatment is to achieve cisgender male serum testosterone levels in order to induce virilization. The desired effects include increased facial and body hair, deepening of the voice, cessation of menses, fat redistribution and increased lean mass and strength, as well as improvement of psychological well-being. However, testosterone treatment may induce potential undesired effects and risks, such as acne, androgenetic alopecia, increase in systolic blood pressure, haematocrit and changes in lipid profile. GAHT in transgender men is considered safe on the short term and middle term, although several aspects, such as long-term cardiovascular and oncological safety, need to be adequately assessed in the future through long-term prospective studies.
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This article unpacks the basic mechanisms by which paralinguistic features communicated through the voice can affect evaluative judgments and persuasion. Special emphasis is placed on exploring the rapidly emerging literature on vocal features linked to appraisals of confidence (e.g., vocal pitch, intonation, speech rate, loudness, etc.), and their subsequent impact on information processing and meta-cognitive processes of attitude change. The main goal of this review is to advance understanding of the different psychological processes by which paralinguistic markers of confidence can affect attitude change, specifying the conditions under which they are more likely to operate. In sum, we highlight the importance of considering basic mechanisms of attitude change to predict when and why appraisals of paralinguistic markers of confidence can lead to more or less persuasion.
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An extensive literature in political science shows how citizens' evaluations of politicians—as well as their electoral behavior—are affected by trait impressions of these politicians. However, deeper, interdisciplinary theory building that seeks to address when and for whom specific trait impressions come to guide candidate evaluations remains absent. In this article, I outline the theory of adaptive followership that seeks to address this shortcoming. Grounded in evolutionary psychology, I argue that leadership evolved as a solution to problems of intragroup coordination in ancestral small‐scale societies. In order to understand the traits that drive followers' and voters' evaluations of leaders and politicians, one should therefore focus on problems related to group coordination and ask how these problems might regulate followers' prioritizations of various traits in leaders. On this basis, I outline an analytical framework consisting of three predictions that simultaneously formulate how (1) contexts and (2) individual differences of relevance to a given group‐coordination problem regulate trait preferences, and (3) how such preferences differ between leaders and nonleaders (i.e., other social categories). The analytical framework is applied for structuring two reviews (including new empirical studies) of the ways through which intergroup conflict and disease threat, respectively, affect followers' trait preferences in leaders. Finally, directions and suggestions for future research on trait‐based candidates and leader evaluations are discussed.
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Voice is one of the most noticeably dimorphic traits in humans and plays a central role in gender presentation. Transgender males seeking to align internal identity and external gender expression frequently undergo testosterone (T) therapy to masculinize their voices and other traits. We aimed to determine the importance of changes in vocal masculinity for transgender men and to determine the effectiveness of T therapy at masculinizing three speech parameters: fundamental frequency (i.e., pitch) mean and variation ( f o and f o -SD) and estimated vocal tract length (VTL) derived from formant frequencies. Thirty transgender men aged 20 to 40 rated their satisfaction with traits prior to and after T therapy and contributed speech samples and salivary T. Similar-aged cisgender men and women contributed speech samples for comparison. We show that transmen viewed voice change as critical to transition success compared to other masculine traits. However, T therapy may not be sufficient to fully masculinize speech: while f o and f o -SD were largely indistinguishable from cismen, VTL was intermediate between cismen and ciswomen. f o was correlated with salivary T, and VTL associated with T therapy duration. This argues for additional approaches, such as behavior therapy and/or longer duration of hormone therapy, to improve speech transition.
Thesis
Il a été suggéré que la voix grave des hommes résulterait de l’action de la compétition intrasexuelle pour signaler aux compétiteurs la dominance, la menace et la masculinité, tandis que la voix relativement aiguë des femmes serait le produit de la compétition intersexuelle pour signaler la fertilité et la féminité. En effet, au-delà du message linguistique, la voix humaine révèle de précieuses informations biologiques et sociales sur la qualité et la condition des locuteurs telles que le sexe, l’âge, la dimension corporelle, la personnalité et possiblement le statut social. Ces indices prennent toutes leur importance lorsqu’il s’agit d’évaluer des compétiteurs et d’éventuels partenaires sexuels. Au cours de cette thèse, nous avons ainsi étudié le rôle fonctionnel de la voix humaine sous l’angle de la sélection sexuelle. Premièrement, nos travaux suggèrent que les préférences vocales ne sont pas universelles et qu’elles dépendent de l’environnement culturel en question, puisque plusieurs de nos résultats dans une population de locuteurs francophones montrent que les hommes sont attirés par des voix relativement graves chez les femmes, contrairement à ce qui est majoritairement observée dans les populations anglophones. De même, la plupart des études se sont focalisées sur la hauteur et le timbre, mais nos résultats suggèrent que la qualité phénotypique peut être exprimée par d’autres éléments de la qualité vocale tels que la raucité, le souffle et divers éléments prosodiques. Deuxièmement, les interprétations évolutives jusque-là évoquées dans la littérature pour expliquer ces préférences restent insatisfaisantes. En effet, nos résultats montrent d’une part que la voix des hommes n’est pas corrélée au taux de testostérone, remettant en question l’idée d’un signal « honnête » de l’immunocompétence et, d’autre part, que la modulation vocale, correspondant à un pattern dynamique de la voix en contexte interactionnel, souligne l’importance d’étudier la voix dans des situations écologiquement valides. Enfin, nous avons montré via le principe du symbolisme phonétique que le dimorphisme sexuel de la voix humaine se traduit également au niveau de la composition sonore des prénoms et de leur attribution en fonction du sexe. Pour conclure, notre travail offre de nouvelles pistes de réflexion et établit la sélection sexuelle comme un paradigme de choix pour étudier la voix humaine.
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Sexual selection appears to have shaped the acoustic signals of diverse species, including humans. Deep, resonant vocalizations in particular may function in attracting mates and/or intimidating same-sex competitors. Evidence for these adaptive functions in human males derives predominantly from perception studies in which vocal acoustic parameters were manipulated using specialist software. This approach affords tight experimental control but provides little ecological validity, especially when the target acoustic parameters vary naturally with other parameters. Furthermore, such experimental studies provide no information about what acoustic variables indicate about the speaker—that is, why attention to vocal cues may be favored in intrasexual and intersexual contexts. Using voice recordings with high ecological validity from 160 male speakers and biomarkers of condition, including baseline cortisol and testosterone levels, body morphology and strength, we tested a series of pre-registered hypotheses relating to both perceptions and underlying condition of the speaker. We found negative curvilinear and negative linear relationships between male fundamental frequency (fo) and female perceptions of attractiveness and male perceptions of dominance. In addition, cortisol and testosterone negatively interacted in predicting fo, and strength and measures of body size negatively predicted formant frequencies (Pf). Meta-analyses of the present results and those from two previous samples confirmed that fonegatively predicted testosterone only among men with lower cortisol levels. This research offers empirical evidence of possible evolutionary functions for attention to men’s vocal characteristics in contexts of sexual selection.
Chapter
Beyond the linguistic content it conveys, voice is one of the fundamental aspects of human communication. It conveys an array of bio-psycho-social information about a speaker and enables the expression of a wide range of emotional and affective states so as to elicit a whole range of auditory impressions. Such aspects are of a great importance in determining the outcomes of competitive and courtship interactions as they influence the access to mating partners and thus reproduction. Sexual selection, the mechanism that promotes biological and social traits that confer a reproductive benefit, provides an interesting theoretical framework to understand the functional role of the human voice from an evolutionary perspective. This chapter aims to provide an overview of the research that lies at the crossroad of the human voice and evolutionary biology.
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Although hormones influence nearly every aspect of mammalian behavior in some form, they are best known for their effects on the various aspects of social behavior, including sexual, aggressive, and nurturing behaviors. This article focuses only on selected hormones and selected behaviors, and is by no means an exhaustive review of the pleomorphic effects of hormones in the body.
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Much recent research has focused on the ratio of the lengths of the second to fourth manual digits (2D:4D) as a predictor of the degree of expression of sexually dimorphic and other sex-hormone-mediated traits. However, published findings are often contradictory or subject to various methodological problems. In the present study, we reassessed the relationships among three measures of 2D:4D (left hand, right hand, and mean) and several variables previously claimed to be related to 2D:4D, including sexual orientation, spatial ability, status, physical prowess, and components of reproductive success. In addition, we examined the relationship between 2D:4D measures and several other traits whose expression is thought to be related to sex hormones, including voice pitch, sociosexuality, mating success, and fluctuating asymmetry. 2D:4D measures showed highly significant sex differences, as did spatial ability, sociosexuality, components of reproductive and mating success, and fluctuating asymmetry. However, out of 57 correlations, 2D:4D correlated significantly in the predicted direction only with sexual orientation (for both sexes) and only for left hand 2D:4D. We discuss the recent 2D:4D literature in light of these findings and consider their implications for understanding the timing of developmental events.
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An official journal of the Genetics Society, Heredity publishes high-quality articles describing original research and theoretical insights in all areas of genetics. Research papers are complimented by News & Commentary articles and reviews, keeping researchers and students abreast of hot topics in the field.
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Low fluctuating asymmetry (FA, a measure of deviation from bilateral symmetry) appears to be a phenotypic marker of reproductive viability and health. In the present study, we investigated whether ratings of voice attractiveness were correlated with variations in FA. Several bilateral traits were measured to calculate a FA index and independent raters who did not know and never saw the subjects assessed the attractiveness of recordings of each subject's voice. Voices of subjects with greater bilateral symmetry were rated as more attractive by members of both sexes than those with asymmetrical traits.
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The changes in the male voice in relation to the biological characteristics of puberty were assessed longitudinally in 26 boys. Speaking and singing fundamental frequencies were analysed in relation to the Tanner staging of puberty, saliva testosterone levels, and the Cooksey classification of voice analysis. There were abrupt changes in voice characteristics between Tanner stages G3 and G4 and more gradually from stages C3 to C5 of Cooksey. Although testosterone concentrations were not predictive of the changes, there was a correlation with testis volume. Voice fundamental frequencies were seen to change abruptly in late puberty, in contrast with previous studies. There is a good correlation between the Tanner and Cooksey methods of classification during male puberty.
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Magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify the vocal tract morphology of 129 normal humans, aged 2-25 years. Morphometric data, including midsagittal vocal tract length, shape, and proportions, were collected using computer graphic techniques. There was a significant positive correlation between vocal tract length and body size (either height or weight). The data also reveal clear differences in male and female vocal tract morphology, including changes in overall vocal tract length and the relative proportions of the oral and pharyngeal cavity. These sex differences are not evident in children, but arise at puberty, suggesting that they are part of the vocal remodeling process that occurs during puberty in males. These findings have implications for speech recognition, speech forensics, and the evolution of the human speech production system, and provide a normative standard for future studies of human vocal tract morphology and development.
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Previous studies have shown that male faces with extreme features associated with testosterone are perceived as dominant and masculine. Women have been reported to prefer more masculinized male faces as they may consider testosterone markers to be an 'honest' indication of good health, and such considerations may underlie their aesthetic preferences. However, pronounced testosterone facial markers are also associated with dominance, and several negative personality traits. This suggests that female aesthetic preferences may be an adaptive compromise between positive attributes associated with higher than average testosterone, and negative attributes associated with more extreme masculinization. This current study attempts to clarify the role of hormone markers in female perceptions of dominance, masculinity and attractiveness, in male facial images. Recent evidence suggests that the relative length of the 2nd to 4th finger (2D : 4D ratio) is a pointer to prenatal testosterone levels and may thus serve as a window to the prenatal hormonal environment. We measured 2D : 4D in a sample of male college students and took salivary samples to analyse circulating levels of testosterone. Women rated facial images of these males for dominance, masculinity and attractiveness. Our results show that male 2D : 4D was significantly negatively related to perceived dominance and masculinity but not attractiveness. Circulating testosterone levels were not related to dominance, masculinity or attractiveness. These findings suggest that: (i) high prenatal levels of testosterone serve to 'organize' male facial features to subsequently reflect dominance and masculine characteristics presumably activated during puberty; and (ii) attractiveness is not directly related to testosterone levels. We conclude that facial dominance and masculinity reflect a male's perceived status rather than his physical attraction to women.
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Prenatal sex steroids have been broadly discussed in terms of their possible effect on brain differentiation, whereas pubertal/adult sex hormones are thought to be the main regulators of sexually dimorphic physical features in males and females. Assessing prenatal steroid exposure has previously been difficult but evidence now suggests that finger length ratio may provide a 'window' into prenatal hormone exposure. The length of the second digit (the index finger) relative to the length of the fourth digit (the ring finger) is sexually dimorphic as males have a lower second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D). The sexual dimorphism is determined as early as the 14th week of fetal life, and remains unchanged at puberty. There is evidence that sex differences in 2D:4D arise from in utero concentrations of sex steroids, with a low 2D:4D (male typical ratio) being positively related to prenatal testosterone, while a high 2D:4D (female typical ratio) is positively associated with prenatal oestrogen. The studied aimed to determine whether, and to what extent, adult sexually dimorphic physical traits, which are largely determined at puberty, relate to traits that are largely determined in utero. This work examined the relationship between three sexually dimorphic traits--body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-chest ratio (WCR)--and digit ratio. BMI, WHR and WCR were assessed in 30 heterosexual male and 50 heterosexual female participants by recording their body height, weight, and measuring their waist, hip and chest circumference. Digit lengths of the second and fourth fingers were measured from photocopies of the ventral surface of the hand and by actual finger measurements. Digit ratio was found to be significantly lower in men than in women. Significant negative correlations were found between female's left and right hand 2D:4D, waist and hip circumference, and WCR. In males, BMI was found to be positively related to digit ratio but remained significant only for left hand 2D:4D. Generally, the relationships were stronger for females than for males. Although not all relationships were found to be significant, they were in accord with our predictions. In addition to an activational effect of sex hormones at puberty, the present data suggest an early organizational effect of sex hormones through the association between indices of female body shape, male BMI, and human finger length patterns.
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The ratio between 2nd and 4th digit length (2D:4D) may be a negative correlate of prenatal testosterone. This possibility has led to a number of studies of 2D:4D and its relationship with sexual orientation and other sex-dependent traits. At first, 2D:4D ratio was calculated from measurements made directly on the fingers but recently a number of studies have used measurements from photocopies of the hands. Here, we compared finger lengths (2D, 3D, 4D, and 5D) and ratios obtained from these two measurement techniques. Our sample consisted of 30 homosexual men and 50 men and 70 women who were not selected for their sexual orientation. We found evidence that (1)2D:4D from photocopies tended to be lower than that from direct measurements, (2) there were differences in finger lengths such that 2D from photocopies tended to be shorter or equal in length to direct measurements, while 4D from photocopies tended to be longer or equal in length to direct measurements, (3) the sex differences in 2D:4D tended to be stronger for photocopy measurements, and (4) the pattern for length differences across 2D to 5D appeared to be different for homosexual men compared to men and women recruited without regard to sexual orientation. We conclude that there are differences in digit ratios obtained from photocopies and direct measurements, and these differences arise from length differences recorded from the different protocols. Therefore, 2D:4D ratios obtained from photocopies and direct measurements should not be combined within one study nor should they be used together in comparative studies. We suggest that finger length differences between the two techniques could result from the shapes of fat-pads at the tips of the fingers and these may be dependent on sex and sexual orientation.
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The purpose of this study was: (i) to provide additional evidence regarding the existence of human voice parameters, which could be reliable indicators of a speaker's physical characteristics and (ii) to examine the ability of listeners to judge voice pleasantness and a speaker's characteristics from speech samples. We recorded 26 men enunciating five vowels. Voices were played to 102 female judges who were asked to assess vocal attractiveness and speakers' age, height and weight. Statistical analyses were used to determine: (i) which physical component predicted which vocal component and (ii) which vocal component predicted which judgment. We found that men with low-frequency formants and small formant dispersion tended to be older, taller and tended to have a high level of testosterone. Female listeners were consistent in their pleasantness judgment and in their height, weight and age estimates. Pleasantness judgments were based mainly on intonation. Female listeners were able to correctly estimate age by using formant components. They were able to estimate weight but we could not explain which acoustic parameters they used. However, female listeners were not able to estimate height, possibly because they used intonation incorrectly. Our study confirms that in all mammal species examined thus far, including humans, formant components can provide a relatively accurate indication of a vocalizing individual's characteristics. Human listeners have the necessary information at their disposal; however, they do not necessarily use it.
Article
Men's vocal folds and vocal tracts are longer than those of women, resulting in lower fundamental frequency (F0) and closer spacing of formant frequencies (formant dispersion, Df) in men than in women. The evolutionary reasons for these sex differences are uncertain, but some evidence implicates male dominance competition. Previous manipulations of F0 and Df affected perceptions of dominance among men. However, because these acoustic dimensions were manipulated simultaneously, their relative contributions are unclear. In unscripted recordings of men speaking to a competitor, we manipulated F0 and Df independently and by similar perceptual amounts to examine effects on social and physical dominance ratings. Recordings lowered in either F0 or Df were perceived as being produced by more dominant men than were the respective raised recordings. Df had a greater effect than did F0, and both Df and F0 tended to affect physical dominance more than social dominance, although this difference was significant only for Df.
Article
Zusammenhänge zwischen Sexualhormonen im Blute und der männlichen Stimmlage wurden bei 102 Sängern untersucht. Im Vergleich zu Tenören wurden bei den Stimmlagen Baß und Bariton höhere Testosteron- und niedrigere Östradiol-Konzentrationen im Plasma gemessen. Daraus ergaben sich zugunsten der Androgene verschobene Testosteron/Östradiol-Quotienten bei tiefen Stimmlagen. Eine tiefere Stimmlage war mit größerem und schwererem Körperbau assoziiert. In der jüngeren Altersgruppe wiesen Bässe, in der mittleren und älteren wiesen Tenöre die höchste sexuelle Aktivität auf. Aus anamnestisch erhobenen Daten ergaben sich keine stimmlagenspezifischen Unterschiede im Hinblick auf Reihenfolge und Eintritt der verschiedenen Pubertätsmerkmale. Lediglich wiesen spätere Bässe eine höhere Inzidenz von Akne auf. Aus den Ergebnissen wird geschlossen, daß Unterschiede sowohl in den Konzentrationen der zirkulierenden Sexualhormone als auch in der Androgensensibilität der Zielorgane für die verschiedenen männlichen Stimmlagen ausschlaggebend sind. Summary Correlations between sex hormone levels and the male depth of voice were investigated in 102 singers. As compared to tenor singers higher testosterone and lower oestradiol plasma concentrations were measured in bass and baritone singers. This resulted in higher testosterone/oestradiol ratios due to increased androgens in those with deeper voices. Deeper voices were associated with taller and heavier body build. In the young age group sexual activity was highest among the bass voices, in the middle and old age group tenors were most active. There were no depth of voice-related differences as regards the sequence and occurrence of different pubertal characteristics. Only future bass singers had an increased incidence of acne. The results indicate that the different depths of the male voice are influenced by different concentrations of circulating sex hormones and also by the androgen sensitivity of the target organs.
Article
The developmental and anatomical causes of human voice sexual dimorphisms are known, but the evolutionary causes are not. Some evidence suggests a role of intersexual selection via female mate choice, but other evidence implicates male dominance competition. In this study, we examine the relationships among voice pitch, dominance, and male mating success. Males were audio recorded while participating in an unscripted dating-game scenario. Recordings were subsequently manipulated in voice pitch using computer software and then rated by groups of males for dominance. Results indicate that (1) a masculine, low-pitch voice increases ratings of men's physical and social dominance, augmenting the former more than the latter; and (2) men who believe they are physically dominant to their competitor lower their voice pitch when addressing him, whereas men who believe they are less dominant raise it. We also found a nonsignificant trend for men who speak at a lower pitch to report more sexual partners in the past year. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that male intrasexual competition was a salient selection pressure on the voices of ancestral males and contributed to human voice sexual dimorphism.
Article
In a series of studies, we evaluated the susceptibility of immunoassays for saliva biomarkers to interference effects caused by cotton materials used to absorb saliva during sample collection. Salivary assay results for testosterone, DHEA, progesterone, and estradiol are artificially high, and for sIgA artificially low, when samples are collected using cotton absorbent materials. In contrast, results for salivary cortisol, DHEA–S, and cotinine are not affected by the use of cotton collection methods. The order of individual results from samples collected using cotton versus no-cotton methods for certain markers is not conserved, suggesting that for some biomarkers this collection method can be a significant source of unsystematic error. It was shown, using DHEA as an example, that the cotton interference effect is of sufficient magnitude to attenuate the association between serum and saliva levels. Awareness of this issue is critical to ensure measurement validity in future studies and analyses of archived samples collected using cotton materials.
Article
We measured salivary testosterone levels and voice pitch, or fundamental frequency,among 61 male and 88 female college students. Higher levels of testosterone were significantlyassociated with lower pitched voices among males but not among females. The magnitude of theeffect was approximately the same as the magnitude of other relationships that have beenreported between testosterone and behavior. There are two plausible explanations of a linkbetween testosterone and pitch. One explanation is physiological, in which testosterone changesthe bulk, length, or tension of the vocal folds. The other is psychological, in which testosteroneaffects the vocal style that an individual uses as part of a social interaction strategy.
Article
In human voices, low fundamental frequency is thought to be a cue to masculinity and reproductive capability and large vocal tracts are associated with large body size of the speaker. Female preferences for males with low fundamental frequencies and large vocal tract lengths are potentially adaptive. Although sexually dimorphic characteristics of male voices have been studied, the impact of manipulations of secondary sexual characteristics on preferences for male voices has not. We manipulated fundamental frequencies and apparent vocal tract lengths of young adult male voices, both independently and simultaneously, and assessed their impact on female ratings of masculinity, size, age and attractiveness. Lowering the fundamental frequencies and/or increasing apparent vocal tract lengths of male voices increased females' ratings of the masculinity, size and age of the speaker. Peer group females preferred male voices with (1) lowered fundamental frequencies to those with raised fundamental frequencies, and (2) original frequencies to male voices with raised fundamental frequencies and decreased apparent vocal tract lengths (a combined manipulation to reflect acoustic characteristics of 16-year-old male voices). This suggests that male voices with acoustic characteristics that reflect full sexual maturity may be attractive. Although no general preference was observed for male voices with increased or decreased apparent vocal tract lengths, female preferences for male voices with increased apparent vocal tract lengths were positively related to females' own body size. This latter finding may indicate assortative preferences for acoustic cues to body size.
Article
Correlations between sex hormone levels and the male depth of voice were investigated in 102 singers. As compared to tenor singers higher testosterone and lower oestradiol plasma concentrations were measured in bass and baritone singers. This resulted in higher testosterone/oestradiol ratios due to increased androgens in those with deeper voices. Deeper voices were associated with taller and heavier body build. In the young age group sexual activity was highest among the bass voices, in the middle and old age group tenors were most active. There were no depth of voice-related differences as regards the sequence and occurrence of different pubertal characteristics. Only future bass singers had an increased of acne. The results indicate that the different depths of the male voice are influenced by different concentrations of circulating sex hormones and also by the androgen sensitivity of the target organs.
Article
A simple treatment was shown to be suitable for clinical measurement of fundamental voice frequency. Basal frequency (SFF) and lowest frequency (LF) were determined in 374 normal subjects aged 6 years to adulthood. SFF fell between ages 8 and 10 years in boys (from 259 to 247 Hz), but not in girls (253 Hz). LF fell between ages 6 and 10 years in boys (from 234 to 203 Hz) and girls (from 230 to 218 Hz), and a sex difference appeared. In puberty, parallel to pubic hair (PH) development, a gradual fall of SFF and LF occurred in both boys (to 100 and 90 Hz, respectively) and girls (to 213 and 180 Hz). As a group, young hypopituitary children and girls with Turner's syndrome had a high SFF, and prepubertal boys with delayed maturation a low SFF. In some children with prenatal growth failure, SFF was abnormally high. The girls with Turner's syndrome exhibited a high, though individually variable, sensitivity of voice to androgen; their voices became lower before the appearance of any other masculinising effects. The instrument is useful for characterisation of growth failure syndromes and stages of puberty. It is particularly recommended for monitoring an undesirable effect on the voice during androgen treatment.
The variation of fundamental voice frequency measured by the average of 2000 consecutive electroglottographic cycles in a reading situation has been examined in relation to pubertal development and androgens. Fundamental frequency among other parameters was related to height (r -0.82), pubic hair stage (r -0.87), testis volume (r -0.78), total testosterone (r -0.73) and serum hormone binding globulin (r 0.75). Single observations of fundamental frequency show a clear grouping of results under and over 200 Hz. Fundamental frequency of more than 200 Hz and serum testosterone of more than 10 nmol/l probably represent values for a boy in puberty. There seem to be comparable relations with other androgens and with serum hormone binding globulin.
Article
Androgen-induced changes in laryngeal growth patterns were studied using a sheep animal model. Forty-eight lambs were divided into eight treatment groups. Lambs in seven of the groups were castrated at birth, while lambs in the eighth group served as an intact (noncastrated) control. Six groups were then treated with varying doses of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, while the seventh served as a castrated, nontreated control. All animals were killed and gross dissections of the larynges were performed. Thirty-four linear and angular measurements were obtained from each larynx. The mean superior thyroid horn separation showed the most dramatic androgen-induced effect (p = 0.023). Laryngeal anterior-posterior diameter, superior thyroid horn height, posterior thyroid cartilage width, thyroid cartilage angle, and vocal process to arytenoid base distances all demonstrated positive dose-response relationships. Hypoandrogenic levels appeared to have an inhibitory effect upon laryngeal growth when compared to castrated controls.
Article
The variations in concentrations of testosterone and cortisol in saliva samples collected by 4 healthy young men whilst on a scientific expedition from Britain to Spitzbergen are described. The rhythms observed in steroid concentrations in saliva were characterized mathematically by cosinor analysis of the levels of testosterone and cortisol determined in saliva samples collected before, during and after the expedition. Whilst in Spitzbergen, the subjects were maintained initially on the British sleep-wake schedule which was later subjected to an 8-h phase change. Variations in testosterone concentrations in saliva appeared to be largely related to subject activity rather than any photoperiodic effect with rapid resynchronization of the circadian acrophase in response to the phase shift of the sleep-wake schedule. In contrast, variation in salivary cortisol levels appeared to be less related to activity and more dependent on the slower resynchronization of an endogenous rhythm of cortisol secretion.
Article
Prepubertal, pubertal, and adult measurements of human larynges were used to describe growth of the larynx from prepuberty to adulthood. Linear and weight measurements made of 10 Caucasian male and 10 Caucasian female prepubertal and pubertal cadaveric larynges were compared to adult measurement data obtained from another study on 20 male and 20 female larynges of adults, aged 37-70. In both studies measurements and experimental protocols were similar, allowing direct comparisons to be made between samples. Results highlight specific quantitative characteristics and trends in circumpubertal growth of the laryngeal cartilages and the vocal folds for each sex and with respect to sex differences. The results are discussed with respect to the literature on postnatal laryngeal development and to published research on adolescent voice change.
Article
Sexual orientation may be influenced by prenatal levels of testosterone and oestrogen. There is evidence that the ratio of the length of 2nd and 4th digits (2D:4D) is negatively related to prenatal testosterone and positively to oestrogen. We report that (a) 2D:4D was lower in a sample of 88 homosexual men than in 88 sex- and age-matched controls recruited without regard to sexual orientation, (b) within the homosexual sample, there was a significant positive relationship between mean 2D:4D ratio and exclusive homosexuality, (c) overall, there was a decrease in 2D:4D from controls to homosexual men to bisexual men and (d) fraternal birth order, a positive predictor of male homosexuality, was not associated with 2D:4D in a sample of 240 Caucasian men recruited without regard to sexual orientation and 45 homosexual men.Further work is needed to confirm the relationships between 2D:4D and sexual orientation. However, these and other recent data tend to support an association between male homosexuality and high fetal testosterone. Very high testosterone levels may be associated with a sexual preference for both men and women.
Article
I investigated the relationship between male human vocal characteristics and female judgements about the speaker. Thirty-four males were recorded uttering five vowels and measures were taken, from power spectrums, of the first five harmonic frequencies, overall peak frequency and formant frequencies (emphasized, resonance, frequencies within the vowel). Male body measures were also taken (age, weight, height, and hip and shoulder width) and the men were asked whether they had chest hair. The recordings were then played to female judges, who were asked to rate the males' attractiveness, age, weight and height, and to estimate the muscularity of the speaker and whether he had a hairy chest. Men with voices in which there were closely spaced, low-frequency harmonics were judged as being more attractive, older and heavier, more likely to have a hairy chest and of a more muscular body type. There was no relationship between any vocal and body characteristic. The judges' estimates were incorrect except for weight. They showed extremely strong agreement on all judgements. The results imply that there could be sexual selection through female choice for male vocal characteristics, deeper voices being preferred. However, the function of the preference is unclear given that the estimates were generally incorrect. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.
Article
Testosterone has been known to play an important role in the development of the postpubertal male voice for many centuries. In fact, the prevention of pubertal development of the voice by castrating young male singers was a well-known practice, especially in Italy beginning in the sixteenth century. The "castrati" were well known for their clear, high-pitched voices. Because of the resulting small larynx and vocal folds, castrati apparently produced a distinctive resonance as well as the high pitch, which cannot be matched even by the counter tenors of today. Busy voice labs occasionally see males with sex hormone deficiencies secondary to chromosomal or gonadal problems. This is a presentation of an unusual patient who was a trained tenor singer and was found to have hypogonadism on a premarital health examination. Administration of replacement testosterone resulted in significant vocal register and voice quality changes.
Article
Males with isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) fail to undergo normal sexual development, including the lack of masculinization of the larynx. The objective of this study was to measure the mean vocal fundamental frequency (MF0) in IHH patients and determine the impact of androgen treatment. An additional aim was to compare the MF0 between IHH patients and controls. Prospective observational study. Twenty-four patients with IHH were identified along with 30 normal males and females. Voice recordings were obtained on all subjects. Androgen therapy was administered to the IHH patients. The MF0 and serum sex hormone levels were measured before treatment and at intervals during therapy. These results were compared with the pretreatment data within the IHH group. Voice parameters were also compared between the pre- and posttreatment IHH patients and the normal males and females. The MF0 in untreated IHH patients was 229 +/- 41 Hz. This was intermediate between the normal male (150 +/- 22 Hz, P < .001) and normal female patients (256 +/- 29 Hz, P < .01). After treatment, the MF0 in the IHH group decreased to 173 +/- 30 Hz (P < .0001); indeed, their posttreatment MF0 approached that of normal males (P < .08). Serum hormone levels responded to the injected testosterone, but these levels did not directly correlate with MF0. MF0 in IHH patients is intermediate between normal male and female levels. After treatment with testosterone, these values approach the range of normal males. This prospective study details the impact of androgens on the larynx and vocal function in patients with IHH.
Article
Measurements of the hand are common in studies that use anthropometric data. However, despite widespread usage, relatively few studies have formally assessed the degree of measurement error associated with standard measurements of the hand. This is significant because high amounts of measurement error can invalidate statistical results. In this paper, intraobserver precision estimates for measures of total hand length and total 3rd-digit length were evaluated from repeated measures on 90 subjects (180 separate hands and fingers). From this replicate data, three precision estimates were calculated: the technical error of measurement (TEM), the relative technical error of measurement (rTEM), and the coefficient of reliability (R). For both measurements, all three estimates yielded a very high degree of precision (TEM < 2 mm, rTEM < 1%, and R > or = 0.95). These results suggest that both total hand length and 3rd-digit length are sufficiently precise for anthropometric research applications.
Article
A deep male voice may play a role in courtship and competitive behaviours in humans by attracting female mates and indicating body size to male competitors. The current correlational study investigated the relationship between vocal measures (fundamental and formant frequencies) and both body size and shape. Vocal samples and physical measures were obtained from 50 heterosexual male volunteers. A significant negative relationship was found between fundamental frequency and measures of body shape and weight. Further, a significant negative relationship was found between formant dispersion (the relationship between successive formant frequencies) and measures of body size as well as body shape. Findings are discussed in relation to the 'good genes' model of sexual selection and the size exaggeration theory of laryngeal descent.
Hormonal influences on courtship behaviours
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Kelley DB, Brenowitz E. Hormonal influences on courtship behaviours. In: Becker JB, Breedlove SM, Crews D, McCarthy MM, editors. Behavioral endocrinology. (2nd edition). Massachusetts: MIT Press; 2002. p. 289–325.
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Fant G. Acoustic theory of speech production. Mouton: The Hague; 1960. 787S. Evans et al. / Physiology & Behavior 93 (2008) 783–788 rAuthor's personal copy
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The sound of symmetry: voice as a marker of developmental instability
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