Groenewegen HJ, Trimble M. The ventral striatum as an interface between the limbic and motor systems. CNS Spectr 12: 887-892

VU University Medical Center, Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
CNS spectrums (Impact Factor: 2.71). 01/2008; 12(12):887-92.
Source: PubMed
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    • "Instead of acting at the classical sleep–wake-regulatory neurons , such as the cholinergic BF neurons and the sleep-promoting preoptic neurons, caffeine appears to induce arousal by activating , at least initially, many neuronal pathways that have traditionally been associated with locomotion and motivational behaviors. The NAc shell has long been thought to activate, mainly through indirect pathways via the ventral pallidum and substantia innominata, midbrain–pontine areas that are involved in exploratory locomotion (Mogenson et al., 1983; Groenewegen and Trimble, 2007). In addition, reciprocal connections between the NAc shell and the ventral tegmental area (Zahm and Heimer, 1993), a site of dopamine neurons involved in motivation, reward , and motor control, promote arousal driven by motivation (Sesack and Grace, 2010). "

    Full-text · Dataset · Aug 2015
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    • "The amygdala is part of the neural network that underlies normal social behavior and is a crucial component sustaining context-appropriate social behaviors [Adolphs, 2010]. Existing data indeed suggest that the basolateral complex of the amygdala regulates complex behaviors in tandem with the prefrontal cortex and the ventral striatum [Groenewegen and Trimble, 2007; Mogenson et al., 1980] and that species-specific basic survival behaviors are mediated by the emotional motor subcortical system, which includes the central nucleus of the amygdala and the periaqueductal gray [Holstege, 1991]. Here, we revealed that the amygdala also accesses descending corticospinal tracts via the premotor and primary motor cortex [Dum and Strick, 2005] and is, therefore, in a good anatomical position to exert significant influence over purposive motor functions. "
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    ABSTRACT: An important evolutionary function of emotions is to prime individuals for action. Although functional neuroimaging has provided evidence for such a relationship, little is known about the anatomical substrates allowing the limbic system to influence cortical motor-related areas. Using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and probabilistic tractography on a cohort of 40 participants, we provide evidence of a structural connection between the amygdala and motor-related areas (lateral and medial precentral, motor cingulate and primary motor cortices, and postcentral gyrus) in humans. We then compare this connection with the connections of the amygdala with emotion-related brain areas (superior temporal sulcus, fusiform gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex, and lateral inferior frontal gyrus) and determine which amygdala nuclei are at the origin of these projections. Beyond the well-known subcortical influences over automatic and stereotypical emotional behaviors, a direct amygdala-motor pathway might provide a mechanism by which the amygdala can influence more complex motor behaviors. Hum Brain Mapp, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Human Brain Mapping
    • "As a critical element of the mesocorticolimbic system, the NAc is generally implicated in reward and motivation. The original concept of the NAc as a functional limbic–motor interface is still valid, but findings of the past two decades revealed much more differentiated insights indicating that the NAc should no longer be viewed in the sense of an anatomical entity (Groenewegen and Trimble, 2007; Heimer, 2003; Mogenson et al., 1980). On the basis of anatomical, neurochemical and electrophysiological criteria, the NAc in the rat brain is divided into distinct subterritories which are also present in the human brain: a dorsolateral core region surrounding the anterior commissure and a shell region that is situated ventromedially to the core (Meredith et al., 1996; Sokolowski and Salamone, 1998; Zaborszky et al., 1985). "
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    ABSTRACT: Impulsivity is a multifactorial phenomenon, determined by deficits in decision-making (impulsive choice) and impulse control (impulsive action). Recent findings indicate that impulsive behaviour is not only top-down controlled by cortical areas, but also modulated at subcortical level. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) might be a key substrate in cortico-limbic-striatal circuits involved in impulsive behaviour. Dissociable effects of the NAc subregions in various behavioural paradigms point to a potential functional distinction between NAc core and shell concerning different types of impulsivity. The present study used reversible inactivation of the rats' NAc core and shell via bilateral microinfusion of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol (0.05 μg/0.3 μl) and fluorophore-conjugated muscimol (FCM, 0.27 μg/0.3 μl) in order to study their contribution to different aspects of impulse control in a 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) and impulsive choice in a delay-based decision-making T-maze task. Acute inactivation of NAc core as well as shell by muscimol increased impulsive choice, with higher impairments of the rats' waiting capacity in the T-maze following core injections compared to shell. Intra-NAc shell infusion of muscimol also induced specific impulse control deficits in the 5-CSRTT, while deactivation of the core caused severe general impairments in task performance. FCM did not affect animal behaviour. Our findings reveal clear involvement of NAc shell in both forms of impulsivity. Both subareas play a key role in the regulation of impulsive decision-making, but show functional dichotomy regarding impulse control with the core being more implicated in motivational and motor aspects.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry
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