CD25 Expression on Cutaneous Mast Cells From Adult Patients Presenting With Urticaria Pigmentosa is Predictive of Systemic Mastocytosis

Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
American Journal of Surgical Pathology (Impact Factor: 5.15). 01/2008; 32(1):139-45. DOI: 10.1097/PAS.0b013e3180ca9a02
Source: PubMed


Urticaria pigmentosa (UP) is a clinicopathologic term used to describe reddish-brown cutaneous macules and papules, characterized histologically by mast cell infiltration of the papillary and upper reticular dermis and reactive basal hyperpigmentation of the overlying epidermis. Although typically a benign, self-limited disorder of childhood, a significant proportion (up to 30%) of adolescent and adult-onset UP represents cutaneous involvement by underlying systemic mastocytosis (SM). Predicting the course of cutaneous mast cell disease has been limited by a lack of diagnostic and prognostic markers. In patients with SM, neoplastic bone marrow mast cells show aberrant surface expression of CD25. However, whether CD25 expression on cutaneous mast cells is associated with underlying SM is unknown. In this study, we performed a clinicopathologic analysis of 30 adult patients presenting with UP between 1987 and 2007. Cutaneous mast cell infiltration pattern, cytomorphology, density, and CD25 immunoreactivity were correlated with underlying or subsequent SM. On the basis of clinical and pathologic follow-up, 10 of 30 (33%) patients were diagnosed with SM and 20 of 30 (67%) with limited cutaneous mastocytosis (CM). Although cutaneous mast cell density was slightly higher in patients with SM compared to those with limited CM (P=0.047), neither mast cell cytomorphology nor infiltration pattern correlated with underlying systemic disease. However, cutaneous mast cells from all 10 patients with SM (100%) were immunoreactive for CD25, compared to only 5 of 20 (25%) with limited CM (P<0.001). Our findings suggest that immunoreactivity for CD25 in cutaneous mast cells may be useful for stratifying adult patients presenting with UP for additional clinical evaluation.

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    • "In contrast, as we previously described [8], levels of p27Kip1 protein were especially decreased in stimulated cells (Figure 4B, compare lane 4 with lanes 2 and 6). While CD25 (Il2Ra) is normally not expressed by human mast cells in non-pathogenic conditions [32], [33], it is normally expressed by a subset of in vitro-differentiated murine BMMCs (Figure 4C) as well as by a subset of peritoneal and tissue mast cells in the mouse (Deho' and Monticelli, unpublished observation). The mean fold increase for Il2Ra from the arrays was 2.1, which strongly correlated with the increased surface expression of this marker in cells overexpressing miR-221 (Figure 4C). "
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    ABSTRACT: The term mastocytosis is referred to as an array of uncommon, usually sporadic, heterogeneous clinical illnesses that result from the hyperplasia of tissue mast cells. It comprises many different clinical manifestations varying from indolent cutaneous forms to systemic and malignant conditions. The characteristic presentation of mastocytosis consists of cutaneous manifestations: either a solitary mastocytoma, urticaria pigmentosa, or less commonly, diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis. Urticaria pigmentosa is the most common manifestation of cutaneous mastocytosis that manifests as a generalized eruption of round or oval erythematous macules, papules and plaques with variable amounts of brown pigment, usually on the trunk, but may also occur in all regions of the body including face and mucous membranes. Pruritus, dermographism and Darier's sign are additional features of these eruptions. Mastocytosis may also be manifested as mastocytoma, a rare, benign, pediatric tumor that results from hyperplasia of mast cells in papillary dermis in the first few weeks of life. The clinical course of mastocytosis is variable. The prognosis for the majority of pediatric patients with urticaria pigmentosa is extremely good, and over half of cases clear completely by adolescence, while those with aggressive systemic mastocytosis or mast cell leukemia show a progressive course, usually with a fatal outcome.
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