Article

Inhibitory Control and Emotional Stress Regulation: Neuroimaging Evidence for Frontal-Limbic Dysfunction in Psycho-Stimulant Addiction

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, Connecticut Mental Health Center S103, New Haven, CT 06519, USA.
Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews (Impact Factor: 8.8). 02/2008; 32(3):581-97. DOI: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2007.10.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

This review focuses on neuroimaging studies that examined stress processing and regulation and cognitive inhibitory control in patients with psycho-stimulant addiction. We provide an overview of these studies, summarizing converging evidence and discrepancies as they occur in the literature. We also adopt an analytic perspective and dissect these psychological processes into their sub-components, to identify the neural pathways specific to each component process and those that are more specifically involved in psycho-stimulant addiction. To this aim we refer frequently to studies conducted in healthy individuals. Despite the separate treatment of stress/affect regulation, stress-related craving or compulsive drug seeking, and inhibitory control, neural underpinnings of these processes overlap significantly. In particular, the ventromedial prefrontal regions including the anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala and the striatum are implicated in psychostimulant dependence. Our overarching thesis is that prefrontal activity ensures intact emotional stress regulation and inhibitory control. Altered prefrontal activity along with heightened striatal responses to addicted drug and drug-related salient stimuli perpetuates habitual drug seeking. Further studies that examine the functional relationships of these neural systems will likely provide the key to understanding the mechanisms underlying compulsive drug use behaviors in psycho-stimulant dependence.

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    • "We found no support for our primary hypothesis, that acute stress would impair inhibitory control. The absence of any effect of stress on inhibitory control is surprising given theoretical predictions that emotional regulation of stress responses and inhibitory control compete for resources (Li and Sinha 2008), and previous findings that acute stress and alcohol-related cues reliably impaired inhibitory control in male problem drinkers (Zack et al. 2011). However, closer examination of the existing literature suggests that these inconsistencies could be attributable to heterogeneity of the stress response: the effect of stress on executive functioning may be 'u-shaped', with high and low stress impairing executive function, but moderate stress improving it (Henderson et al. 2012). "
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    • "Prominent biological theories of addiction implicate the brain reward system: the genes, neurotransmitters, transporters, and enzyme targets of the dopamine, serotonin, and glutamate systems of the brain (C.-S. R. Li & Sinha, 2008; Nestler, 2005; Schnoll, Johnson, & Lerman, 2007). The most recent studies include genomewide association studies and meta-analyses of genomewide association studies (Bierut et al., 2007; GENEVA Consortium, 2012; C.-Y. Li et al., 2011; Thorgeirsson et al., 2010), which have implicated a number of genes in predisposition to addiction , as well as difficulty remaining abstinent. "
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