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Improvement of Glutathione and Total Antioxidant Status with Yoga

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Several studies suggest that yoga can decrease oxidative stress. However reports are scanty regarding whether yoga training can improve the glutathione level of individual. This study is designed to appraise the role of yoga in maintaining glutathione (reduced and oxidized) levels and antioxidant status. This study was conducted on healthy male volunteers from the Indian Navy, who were divided into two groups--a yoga (n = 30) group and a control (n = 21) group. The yoga group was trained in yoga for 6 months. The yoga schedule consisted of prayers, asana, pranayama, and meditation. The control group practiced routine physical training exercise for 6 months. Blood samples were collected when the volunteers were in fasting condition before and after completion of 6-month training period. Reduced and oxidized glutathione, glutathione reductase activity and total antioxidant status (TAS) were estimated. Reduced glutathione level increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the yoga group after completion of training. Glutathione reductase activity increased significantly in the control group (p < 0.05). TAS increased significantly (p < 0.001) in the yoga group and decreased significantly (p < 0.001) in the control group. Regular practice of yoga can maintain or improve antioxidant level of the body. The clinical relevance is that yoga practice can be used to maintain the antioxidant defense system under stressful conditions of training as observed in the case of soldiers and athletes.
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THE JOURNAL OF ALTERNATIVE AND COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINE
Volume 13, Number 10, 2007, pp. 1085–1090
© Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
DOI: 10.1089/acm.2007.0567
Improvement of Glutathione and Total Antioxidant
Status with Yoga
SANCHARI SINHA, M.Sc.,
1
SOM NATH SINGH, Ph.D.,
1
Y.P. MONGA, M.S.,
2
and UDAY SANKAR RAY, Ph.D.
1
ABSTRACT
Objective: Several studies suggest that yoga can decrease oxidative stress. However reports are scanty re-
garding whether yoga training can improve the glutathione level of individual. This study is designed to ap-
praise the role of yoga in maintaining glutathione (reduced and oxidized) levels and antioxidant status.
Study design: This study was conducted on healthy male volunteers from the Indian Navy, who were di-
vided into two groups—a yoga (n 30) group and a control (n 21) group. The yoga group was trained in
yoga for 6 months. The yoga schedule consisted of prayers, asana, pranayama, and meditation. The control
group practiced routine physical training exercise for 6 months. Blood samples were collected when the vol-
unteers were in fasting condition before and after completion of 6-month training period. Reduced and oxidized
glutathione, glutathione reductase activity and total antioxidant status (TAS) were estimated.
Results: Reduced glutathione level increased significantly (p 0.05) in the yoga group after completion of
training. Glutathione reductase activity increased significantly in the control group (p 0.05). TAS increased
significantly (p 0.001) in the yoga group and decreased significantly (p 0.001) in the control group.
Conclusions: Regular practice of yoga can maintain or improve antioxidant level of the body. The clinical
relevance is that yoga practice can be used to maintain the antioxidant defense system under stressful condi-
tions of training as observed in the case of soldiers and athletes.
1085
INTRODUCTION
Y
oga is known for its beneficial effects on physiologic
and psychologic functions.
1–8
During the last 3 decades,
extensive physiologic research have been done on yogic
practices. It has been reported that yoga can increase mus-
cular efficiency, endurance time
9
and aerobic capacity, and
can reduce perceived exertion after exercise.
10–12
Yoga
is widely used as a stress reliever.
13–18
Additionally, yoga
has a profound effect on the autonomic nervous system
(ANS)
3,4,19–23
and may reduce stress levels in individuals
via this effect. Regarding oxidative stress, reports have sug-
gested that yoga can decrease oxidative stress,
24,25
reduce
the malonaldehyde (MDA) level, and increase superoxide
dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity.
1
Various reports re-
garding aerobic exercise training propose that mainly cata-
lase activity is increased by training
26
but exercise training
is not sufficient to maintain the redox status of the body.
There is growing evidence that supports the beneficial ef-
fect of yoga on antioxidant enzymes. But reports regarding
the role of yoga on glutathione (a major antioxidant tripep-
tide) level in reducing oxidative stress are scanty. Therefore
the present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of
yoga on glutathione level and total antioxidant status (TAS).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Subjects
The study was conducted on healthy male volunteers of
the Indian Navy belonging to various branches (i.e., ship,
1
Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Delhi, India.
2
Indian Naval Hospital Ship, (INHS) Kalyni, Mumbai, India.
submarine, aviator, etc.). Initially, 60 volunteers were ran-
domly selected from the personnel of the Indian Navy. The
volunteers were briefed about the study protocol approved
by the ethical committee of the Defence Institute of Physi-
ology and Allied Sciences, Delhi, India, and written consent
was obtained from each volunteer. Then the volunteers were
divided into two groups: a yoga group and a control group.
The yoga group consisted of 30 volunteers (age: 32.8 1.4
yrs; height: 168.8 .9 cm; weight: 65.2 1.5 kg) and the
control group consisted of 21 volunteers (age: 25.5 1.6
yrs; height: 170.1 0.9 cm; weight: 62.7 1.8 kg). Ini-
tially, there were 30 volunteers in each group, but 9 volun-
teers dropped from the control group and could not continue
the entire 6 months of training. Thus, the control group com-
pleted the study with 21 volunteers. As the volunteers had
free choice to select which group to be in, the majority of
the older persons among the volunteers preferred to do yoga,
as this is a comparatively lower-intensity form of exercise.
Thus, the mean age of the yoga group was comparatively
higher (p 0.05) than that of the control group. For this
reason, each group was compared individually at baseline
and after 6 months.
Yoga instructors
Twenty Naval personnel of the Eastern Naval Command
were chosen for training as yoga instructors. The profes-
sional instructors of the Kaivalyadhama Institute, Lonavala,
Maharastra, India, trained the personnel in yoga for 2
months. The training schedule included practical asanas and
theory lectures. The trainers taught both theory and practical
aspects of yoga and its benefits to the volunteers (Table 1).
Study design
The yoga group underwent yogic training, for 1 hour in
the morning, 5 days per week for 6 months. The yoga sched-
ule consisted of prayers, asanas, pranayama, and medita-
tion. Each asana was performed for 1–2 minutes’ duration
(Table 2). At the end of the asana, various breathing ma-
neuvers (pranayama) were performed for 5–10 minutes.
Pranayama included deep breathing, inhalation-retention-
exhalation with a ratio of 1:1:2, abdominal (diaphagramatic)
breathing, and alternate nostril breathing. Breathing exer-
cises were recommended immediately after practicing
asanas. This was then followed by meditation for 5 min-
utes. Meditation was a component of Patanjali’s Astanga
yoga. During meditation the individuals sat in a comfortable
posture (either Sukhasana or padmasana) with eyes closed
and tried to feel completely relaxed. First, the subjects fol-
lowed the usual wandering mind/thought process that allows
the mind freedom. Later, slowly, they tried to be aware of
their surroundings. Subsequently, the subjects tried to pay
attention, slowly, to different body parts from toe to head
and, ultimately, to the breathing process (i.e., awareness of
a normal breathing cycle). After this the subjects chanted
the Omkar Mantra (the syllable AUM) and tried to feel the
presence of the Almighty. The pattern was, to some extent,
similar to a meditation technique mentioned in a paper by
Wallace and Benson.
7
The control group practiced routine
physical training (PT) exercises during the same period. The
PT schedule (total 1 hour) included slow running up to 4
km (30 minutes), body-flexibility exercises (10 minutes),
pull ups (5 minutes), and games (15 minutes). On comple-
tion of 1 hour of daily training, both groups returned to their
SINHA ET AL.
1086
T
ABLE
1. P
ROTOCOL AND
T
RAINING
S
CHEDULE FOR
Y
OGA
I
NSTRUCTORS
Practical asanas—2 hrs
Theory lectures—3 hrs
Practical asanas—1 hrs
1 month 2 months
Ardha Halasana with one leg 3 times Halasana
Pavan Muktasana with one leg 3 times Pavan Muktasana
Bhujanganasana Crocodile poses
Shalabhasana with one leg Paschimtanasan
Parvatasan Suptavajrasan
Vajrasan Sarvanrasana
Tadasan Matsyasana
Chakrasan Dhanurasan
Pada hastasan Setubandasan
Trikonasan Gomukasan
Brahma Mudra Vrikshasan
Yoga Mudra Santulasan
Anuloma Viloma Utkatasan
Kapalbhati Agnisar Kriya
Bandhas—Moll band uddiya, Jalandar
Bhastrika
Ujjayi
Suryabhedan
normal daily routines in their respective units. This routine
PT schedule was followed by both of the groups before the
commencement of the 6 month training schedule.
Collection of samples
Fasting blood samples were collected when the volun-
teers were in resting condition in the morning hours (at
7:00–8:00
AM
) before and after completion of 6 months of
training and analyzed for reduced glutathione (GSH), oxi-
dized glutathione (GSSG), glutathione reductase (GR), ac-
tivity, and TAS.
Measurement procedures
For the estimation of GSH and GSSG, blood samples
were collected in 10% (w/v) metaphosphoric acid and
estimated using the fluorimetric method of Hissin and
Hilf.
27
This method measures both GSH and GSSG with an
o-phthalaldehyde (OPT) as a fluorescent reagent. Briefly,
metaphosphoric acid-treated whole blood was centrifuged
and the supernatant was treated with OPT at a pH of 8 and
estimated for GSH using a fluorescence spectrophotometer
with an excitation and emission wave lengths of 350 nm and
420 nm. The same process was followed for GSSG at pH
12. For estimating GSSG, GSH can be complexed to N-
ethylmaleimide to prevent interference of GSH with the
measurement of GSSG.
To measure GR activity, whole blood was taken in an
EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic-acid)-treated vial and a
10% lysate of whole blood was prepared to measure the
activity spectrophotometrically by the method of Racker.
28
Via this method, lysate was incubated with GSSG and
NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate re-
duced) at a pH 7.5 and changes in optical density were mea-
sured at 340 nm for 3 minutes at an interval of 30 seconds.
The results were expressed as mol of NADPH oxidized
per minute per mL of lysate.
TAS was measured as an ABTS (2,2-azino-di[3-ethyl-
benzthiazoline sulphonate) radical cation decolorizing assay
using a Randox kit (Cat No. NX 2332) (Randox Laborato-
ries Ltd., Ardmore, U.K.).
Statistical analysis of the work was carried out by a Stu-
dent’s paired t test.
RESULTS
In the yoga group, GSH level increased significantly (p
0.05) from the baseline value of 235.3 16.9 nmol/L to
331.7 37.6 nmol/L after completion of training. In the
control group, the GSH level decreased. Values of GSSG
decreased in the yoga group and increased in the control
group. The ratio of GSH/GSSG increased significantly (p
0.001) from the pretraining value of 0.88 0.02 to 1.34
0.04 in the yoga group. In the control group, this ratio did
not decrease significantly. GR activity increased signifi-
cantly (p 0.05) from baseline value of 0.82 .05
mol/mL/min to 0.98 0.06 mol/mL/min after comple-
tion of training in the control group. TAS significantly (p
0.001) increased from the pretraining value of 1.23 .04
mmol/L to the post-training value of 1.96 0.03 mmol/L
in the yoga group and decreased significantly (p 0.001)
from the pretraining value of 1.37 0.05 nmol/L to the
post-training value of 1.06 0.04 nmol/L in the control
group. Comparisons of various parameters between the two
groups are presented in Table 3.
DISCUSSION
GSH is a very important substrate for antioxidant defense
system and is used by glutathione peroxidase as a donor of
a hydrogen atom to reduce hydrogen peroxide (H
2
O
2
) into
H
2
O.
29
An increased amount of GSH is very helpful for an
antioxidant defense mechanism that reduces oxidative
stress.
30
GSH is oxidized to GSSG in cells in response to
an increase in free radicals in a state of oxidative stress.
31
It is well-recognized in the literature that acute bouts of ex-
ercise can change the glutathione redox status of the cells
toward an oxidized state (i.e., a decrease in GSH level and
an increase in GSSG level).
32–35
In the case of training, re-
ports suggest that aerobic training can increase the produc-
tion of oxygen-free radicals and that oxidative stress is likely
because of electron leakage at intermediary steps in the elec-
YOGA AND ANTIOXIDANTS
1087
T
ABLE
2. P
ROTOCOL AND
S
CHEDULE FOR
Y
OGA
T
RAINING
Duration: 1 hour
Time: 6:30–7:30
AM
1st month 2nd–6th months
Ardha Halasana Kapalbhati—2 minutes
Pavan Muktasana Surya Namaskar—2 rounds
Bhujanganasana Asanas (30 minutes)
Shalabhasana Padmasana
Parvatasana Yoga Mudra
Vajrasana Paschimottanasana
Tadasana Pavanamuktasana
Chakrasana Dhanurasana
Padahastasana Suptavajrasana
Trikonasana Gomukasana
Brahmamudra Halasana
Yoga Mudra Karmapadasana
Anuloma-viloma Bhujangasana
Kapalbhati Uttanpadasana
Pranayama (15 minutes)
Bhastrika—3 minutes
Anulom-viloma—5 minutes
Kakimudra—2 minutes
Bhramari—5 minutes
Meditation—2 minutes
T
ABLE
3. C
OMPARISON OF
V
ARIOUS
O
XIDATIVE
S
TRESS
–R
ELATED
P
ARAMETERS IN
Y
OGA AND
C
ONTROL
G
ROUP
AT
B
ASELINE AND
A
FTER
T
RAINING
Yoga group
Parameters Baseline After 6 months p-value
GSH (nmol/L) 235.3 16.9 331.65 37.6 p 0.05
GSSG (nmol/L) 263.2 9.4 255.8 10.8 Not significant
GSH/GSSG 0.88 0.02 1.34 0.004 p 0.001
GR activity 0.89 0.05 0.88 0.05 Not significant
(mmol/mL/min)
TAS (mmol/L) 1.23 0.04 1.96 0.03 p 0.001
Control group
Parameters Baseline After 6 months p-value
GSH (nmol/L) 328.1 28.5 288.6 18.7 Not significant
GSSG (nmol/L) 294.3 9.3 314.6 18.5 Not significant
GSH/GSSG 1.19 0.07 0.98 0.12 Not significant
GR activity 0.82 0.05 0.98 0.06 p 0.05
(mmol/mL/min)
TAS (mmol/L) 1.37 0.05 1.06 0.04 p 0.001
Value: Mean standard error of the mean.
GSH, reduced glutathathoine; GSSG, oxidized glutathione; GR, gluthathione reductase; TAS, total antioxidant status.
A
200
250
300
350
400
Yoga group
Comparison of GSH status in yoga and control group
at baseline and after 6 months of training
Phase I
Control group
nmol/L
Phase II
B
200
240
260
320
340
Yoga group
Comparison of GSSG status in yoga and control group
at baseline and after 6 months of training
Phase I
Control group
nmol/L
220
300
280
Phase II
C
0.7
1.1
Yoga group
Comparison of GR activity in yoga and control group
at baseline and after 6 months of training
Phase I
Control group
mol/mL/min
0.75
0.8
0.85
0.9
0.95
1
1.05
Phase II
D
0.5
2.1
Yoga group
*
*
***
***
Comparison of TAS in yoga and control group
at baseline and after 6 months of training
Phase I
Control group
mmol/L
0.7
0.9
1.1
1.3
1.5
1.7
1.9
Phase II
FIG. 1. Comparison of the levels of reduced glutathione (A), oxidized glutathione (B), and glutathione reductase (C), as well as to-
tal antioxidant status (D) in the yoga and control groups. Phase I is before training. Phase II is after 6 months of training. *p 0.05;
***p 0.001.
tron-transport chain. Over the past decade, numerous stud-
ies examined exercise training as an oxidative stressor to
evaluate the ability of the body to respond to the potential
oxidative stress of training via positive adaptation to its an-
tioxidant defense. However, there was a lack of antioxidant
adaptation to aerobic and anaerobic training at substrate
level in humans.
26,36
Similarly, our results did not show this
kind of positive adaptation in the control group after 6
months of training. Proper positive adaptation might depend
on the intensity and duration of training used. These results
suggest that the aerobic training to which volunteers were
exposed might not be sufficient enough to induce positive
adaptation.
In this study, we have seen that GSH level increased sig-
nificantly in the yoga group (p 0.05) and decreased in the
control group. However, GSSG levels decreased in the yoga
group and increased in the control group but these changes
were not significant. This suggests that redox status can be
shifted toward a reduced state by practicing yoga, which is
an important adaptative strategy for minimizing oxidative
stress and its effects. GSH/GSSG ratio is another important
and sensitive marker of the antioxidant system. This ratio
increased significantly in the yoga group, which confirms
further the beneficial effect of yoga training on the antiox-
idant system. A decreased GSH/GSSG ratio in the control
group indicated a decrease in the reductive capacity of the
red blood cells.
Generally, aging persons are more susceptible to oxida-
tive stress. In this study, in spite of the subjects of the yoga
group being comparatively aged (32.8 1.4 yrs) than the
control group (25.5 1.6 yrs), the yoga group had a better
capacity to combat oxidative stress. This reaffirms that yo-
gic practices help in the management of oxidative stress.
Among antioxidant enzymes, GR is a primary enzyme for
maintaining glutathione redox status. It converts GSSG to
its reduced state (GSH). In the process of reduction GR uses
NADPH as a hydrogen donor.
29
Previous reports proposed
enhancement in GR activity after exercise.
37,38
Our study
also showed the same trend. Here, in the control group GR
activity increased significantly as a result of increased avail-
ability of its substrate (i.e., GSSG). But this increased GR
activity was not sufficient enough to maintain the body mi-
lieu in a reduced state, as a result GSSG levels were still high
in the control group. However, decreased levels of GSSG and
GR activity in the yoga group again showed a positive re-
sponse to yoga on the part of the antioxidant system.
TAS of a cell represents overall antioxidant capacity of
the cell. It has been suggested that oxidative stress occurs
during physical exercise.
39,40
In this study, significant in-
crease in TAS in the yoga group clearly showed a marked
improvement of overall cellular antioxidant level. However,
significant reductions in TAS in the control group showed
diminished antioxidant capacity, an effect that makes an in-
dividual affected more by the deleterious effects of oxida-
tion.
To achieve better comprehension we did intergroup com-
parisons and these also showed a supportive result for the
yoga group. In the GSH value at baseline, there was a
marked difference (p 0.001) between the two groups and
the redox status was much better in the control group, which
had higher GSH levels. This could be attributed to the young
age of the subjects in that group. But this trend reversed af-
ter 6 months of yoga training. Yoga augmented the GSH
levels significantly (p 0.05) in the yoga group compared
to the control group. For GSSG, there was no such signifi-
cant difference at baseline between the two groups. But af-
ter training, GSSG levels increased significantly (p 0.001)
in the control group in contrast to the yoga group. GR ac-
tivity also showed a similar trend. TAS value was moder-
ately higher in the control group almost approaching sig-
nificance (p 0.07) at baseline. But after yoga training, an
enormous raise in TAS value was seen in the yoga group
(p 0.001) compared to the control group. All these results
are clearly evidence of the fact that, despite being older, vol-
unteers in the yoga group had better antioxidant adaptation
after performing 6 months of training.
CONCLUSIONS
According to the findings of this study, it may be con-
cluded that yoga may upregulate the antioxidant capacity of
cells to combat oxidative stress.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors are grateful to the director of the Defence In-
stitute of Physiology and Allied Sciences (DIPAS), Delhi,
India, for giving necessary permission for this study to be
performed. We are thankful to the Integrated Head quarters,
in the Ministry of Defence (DGMS-Navy) for encouraging
the work. We are also grateful to Surg. Cdr. Marys Joseph,
at INHS Kalyani, and the staff members of the INHS
Kalyani, Mr. O.S Tomer, Technical Officer “B,” DIPAS,
Delhi, for their kind help in the successful completion of the
study. We are sincerely thankful to Dr. Y.K. Sharma, Sci-
entist “E,” at DIPAS, Delhi for statistical analysis. Last but
not least, we are thankful to all the volunteers from the INHS
Kalyani who were the subjects for this study.
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Uday Sankar Ray, Ph.D.
Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences
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E-mail: dipasyoga@gmail.com
SINHA ET AL.
1090
... A close look into the pattern of changes in ventilatory equivalent of oxygen (EQO2) and ventilatory equivalent of carbon dioxide (EQCO2) in different asana reveals that in most of the cases while practicing yogaasana, the exercise is well within lactate threshold (Ray et al., 2011) [22] . According to the findings of this study, it may be concluded that yoga may up regulate the antioxidant capacity of cells to combat oxidative stress (Sinha et al., 2007) [27] . Concentrations of human beta-defensin 2 (HBD2), an enzyme which is predictive of mucosal immune function, are more elevated after an acute bout of yoga than of passive rest. ...
... A close look into the pattern of changes in ventilatory equivalent of oxygen (EQO2) and ventilatory equivalent of carbon dioxide (EQCO2) in different asana reveals that in most of the cases while practicing yogaasana, the exercise is well within lactate threshold (Ray et al., 2011) [22] . According to the findings of this study, it may be concluded that yoga may up regulate the antioxidant capacity of cells to combat oxidative stress (Sinha et al., 2007) [27] . Concentrations of human beta-defensin 2 (HBD2), an enzyme which is predictive of mucosal immune function, are more elevated after an acute bout of yoga than of passive rest. ...
... The effects of meditation associated with oxidative stress have been a focus of research in recent times (Mahagita, 2010). Recent studies on different meditation and yoga practices have shown to cause significant reduction of oxidative stress and enhancement of the antioxidant system (Ingole et al., 2015;Kiecolt-Glaser et al., 2010;Lim & Cheong, 2015;Mahagita, 2010;Sinha et al., 2007). The relaxation induced by diaphragmatic breathing which is a fundamental procedure in Pranayama, Zen, transcendental meditation, and other meditation practices has also shown to lower the levels of oxidative stress (Martarelli et al., 2011). ...
... The findings of this study are consistent with a previous study on diaphragmatic breathing and how it significantly increased biological antioxidant potential and decreased reactive oxygen metabolites (Martarelli et al., 2011). Further, mindfulness activities like Sudharshana Kriya (Sharma et al., 2003) and Yoga (Sinha et al., 2007) have improved the antioxidant system by increasing the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. ...
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Objectives Recent medical research into meditation based on stress, pain, coping, and quality of life has shown an overall positive impact on health and immunological outcomes including oxidative stress. This study was aimed to assess the total nitric oxide, nitrite levels, and antioxidant capacity in experienced meditators compared to an age-, gender-, and education level–matched non-meditating group and to determine relationship between these parameters. Methods The total serum nitric oxide (NOx:NO3⁻ + NO2⁻) and nitrite (NO2⁻) levels of long-term, experienced meditators (n = 12), recruited using a validated interview, and age-, gender-, and educational level–matched control subjects (n = 12) who had never practiced meditation, were determined using the modified Griess and Griess assay respectively. The Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) was determined using the ABTS assay using Trolox as a standard. Results Serum NOx 5.03 ± 0.31 (mean ± SD) and nitrite levels 0.52 ± 0.05 of the meditators were significantly lower and TEAC values 424.35 ± 41.53 of the meditators were significantly higher compared to control group who had serum NOx levels of 5.42 ± 0.42 (p = 0.016, d = − 1.05), nitrite levels of 0.92 ± 0.52 (p = 0.014, d = − 1.08), and TEAC values of 376.15 ± 12.69 (p = 0.001, d = 1.57). There was a correlation of the TEAC levels with NO2⁻ (r = 0.562; d = 0.316) and NOx (r = 0.664; d = 0.441). Conclusions These findings indicate a lower production of nitric oxide and a higher serum antioxidant capacity in the long-term meditators with potential beneficial effects against oxidative stress.
... Many of these have been indicated by Ray et al. (7) while reporting the muscular strength endurance by yoga. Aging per se increases the oxidative stress of a person, but yogic practices help in balancing it by shifting it more to antioxidant activity with better oxidative stress management (30). All our study participants are bluecollar workers and have been attached in different types of manual works requiring better local muscular strength. ...
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To observe the effect of yogasanas and yoga breathing maneuvers (YBM) on body flexibility, balance, muscular strength and reaction time on middle aged blue-collar individuals, 8 healthy blue collar, males (age 37±6.2 years) were trained in yoga for 12 weeks. First 6 weeks, they practiced mostly yogasanas. From 7th week, progressively the YBM practice increased up to 12th week. Their body flexibility, balance, maximal hand grip strength (HGS) and HGS endurance at 50 % maximal strength for both hands, back -leg strength (BLS), reaction times for both visual (VRT) and auditory (ART) mode, were measured before and at the end of 6th and 12th weeks yoga training. Data was analysed by ANOVA. With more yogasanas practice, their body flexibility improved from base line 14.1±4.5 cm to 18.3±4.3 cm (P<0.001, magnitude 29.8%) after 6 weeks of yoga training. With proportionately greater YBM practice, still it increased in lower magnitude (9.3%) to 20±4.6 cm (p<0.001) after 12 weeks of training. Balance showed similar pattern of changes like flexibility. In VRT, baseline value of 281.4±16.4ms reduced to 271.14±16.1 ms and 251.7±15.4 ms after 6 weeks and 12 weeks respectively, indicating greater reaction time improvement by YBM. ART also showed similar pattern of changes. Left and Right HGS endurance have improved by 19% and 23.1% respectively, after 6 weeks. BLS and HGS improved in small magnitude. Detraining and age related deterioration of body flexibility, balance, reaction time and strength endurance could be controlled by yogasanas. YBM have greater positive role in reaction time.
... Oken [36] 2006 Healthy seniors (134) Asana and pranayama Running and stretching 6 months Alertness, POMS, GHQ SF-36, fatigue (MFI), balance and flexibility Sinha [37] 2007 Healthy males (51) Asana and pranayama Walking 6 months Reduced glutathione (GSS), oxidized glutathione (CSSG), GR, and total antioxidant status West [38] 2004 Healthy college students (69) Asana and pranayama African dance Single session Salivary cortisol, PSS, positive=negative affect schedule Yurkuran [39] 2007 Hemodialysis ( ...
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College students are dependent upon a significant time of psychological development, experiencing a thorough trial study, and concentrating how to work freely. It has been exhibited that physical exercises, including running and bicycling, support well-being and smooth strain. Understudies at the college additionally have poor physical movement rates. Yoga is an old mental and physical exercise which influences the state of mind and stress. Be that as it may, concentrates in peer-evaluated diaries looking at the psychophysiological impacts of yoga are phenomenal. The objective of this examination is to build up starter proof for the psychophysiological impacts of yoga on worry in understudies at school and youthful grown-ups. An accentuation has likewise been put on the psychological and physical well-being of clinical understudies. The current survey article proposed that yoga effectively affects a psychophysiological level that prompts lower pressure rates in college students.
... The increase of Cys-induced by meditation training is probably due to increased turnover of GSH, as GSH synthesis requires increased Cys utilization. Similar effects in GSH levels were seen in long-term practitioners in yoga (Sinha et al., 2007), Tai Chi (Goon et al., 2009), and Zen meditation (Kim et al., 2005), but this study provided new evidence in naïve-meditator. To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore the influence of mindfulness in antioxidant defenses. ...
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Background: Despite the crucial role of educators in encourage students' academic learning, addressing educator stress inside the classroom remains a significant challenge in the educational context. Mindfulness Meditation training (MM) has been recommended as an environmental enrichment strategy in schools to help teachers cope with stress and cultivating a state of awareness in daily life. Although studies have shown that MM can improve immune system dynamics the biological mechanism underlying glutathione metabolism in a healthy human is unclear. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether MM training benefits psychological and behavioral response, immunological functions and glutathione metabolism in service healthy female teachers from public schools. Methods: We randomly assigned 76 teachers to an 8-week Mindfulness-Based Health Program for Educators (MBHPEduca) or Neuroscience for Education program (Neuro-Educa; active control group). Using the quality of life as our primary outcome, perceived stress, negative affectivity, and resilience as our secondary outcome, and pro-inflammatory cytokines and glutathione levels as our third outcome at baseline and post-intervention that occurred in public schools. Blood samples were collected for the measurement of three proinflammatory markers, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) and three GSH metabolism, including Cysteine (Cys), Homocysteine (HCys) and GSH were conducted at pre-and post-intervention, with selfreported assessments over time. Treatment effects were analyzed using generalized estimating equations (GEE) with to intention to treat. Results: We observed statistically significant improvements to the MBHP-Educa group compared to active control in perceived stress, resilience, positive and negative affect, and quality of life after 8-weeks MM (p < 0.0001). Further, the MBHP-Educa group exhibited lower circulating IL-6 production accompanied by high circulating GSH, and Cys (p < 0.0001). Additional analyses indicated that enhancing quality of life through mindfulness meditation training was mediated by reducing perceived stress and serum levels of IL- 6 and increasing resilience and teachers 'plasma GSH levels. Conclusions: The present study is a pilot trial with low-power and provides preliminary evidence that mindfulness meditation training help teachers to cope with stress in the school environment with an impact on the quality of life, immune function, and glutathione metabolism.
... Yogic practice is one of the best possible ways to improve or maintain antioxidant defense system under normal as well as stressful environmental conditions. It has been observed that the activity of glutathione peroxidase and oxidised glutathione significantly decreased, whereas activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase, reduced glutathione and total antioxidant status increased after yogic training compared with the control group [61][62] . Even for the development of NCDs it is observed that oxidative stress has a major role 63 . ...
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After the initial outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China, the disease spreads rapidly across the whole world. It is observed that there is a rampant rise in the rate of infection in spite of best possible precautionary measures taken into consideration against Corona. As there is no scientifically validated full proofed medicine against COVID-19 till date, the only possible way is prevention against this infection by improving self-immunity, mass immunisation and controlling non-communicable diseases, if suffered from. Another possible way from the prevention from this deadly virus is development of herd immunity, but the process takes time and can be fatal for people with higher age groups and with co-morbidities. Yoga, an Indian way of mind-body purification, has been reported to improve functionality of human physiological systems and to prevent diseases. It is also observed that yoga, being a low to moderate intensity physical activity, breathing maneuvers and meditation, can also be performed by any person irrespective of age, with maximum benefit and having less stress in the vital organs during the practice. Therefore, a yoga package for improving immunity and other physical and physiological capacities and mental function to prevent Corona like disease has been formulated on the basis of knowledge from traditional yogic literature and evidence from available research publications on yoga. The yoga package might be beneficial across all age groups for improving health and wellbeing in this pandemic situation.
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Background: The stressful situation may result in obesity, which is linked to a variety of diseases. Aims: The current study sought to determine whether yoga has an effect on body composition reduction. Methods: The current study included 95 (n = 95) healthy male volunteers aged 18-24 years, with 35 (n = 35) volunteers excluded. The remaining 60 volunteers (n = 60) were divided into two groups at random: (a) Yoga Group (n = 30) and (b) Control Group (n = 30). The yoga group received 60 minutes of yoga training per day, six days per week for 12 weeks, while the control group received no yoga training. Body composition parameters were assessed in both groups at baseline, before yoga training (0 week), and after the training (12 weeks). Results: Significant reduction (P < 0.001) in the percentage of body fat; levels were noted in the yoga group after 12 weeks when compared to baseline data (0 week). However, there was no significant difference in height, weight, body mass index, body surface area and lean body mass among the yoga group after 12 weeks when compared to baseline data.
Chapter
This chapter outlines the pathophysiology of heart failure and the role Yoga plays in ameliorating the aberrant condition with experimental evidence and practical guidance.KeywordsYogaHeart failureExerciseCardiacRehabilitation
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Despite tremendous advances in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease (CHD) remains the leading cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, and its burden is increasing. According to the global burden of disease (GBD), deaths due to CHD have increased by 20% (7.3 million in 2007 to 8.93 million in 2017 [1]. Moreover, psychosocial stress, which is emerging as a strong risk factor for causation of CHD [2], has not been given adequate attention in the conventional preventive strategies. Hence, newer cost-effective strategies to prevent CHD and supplement the current treatment options are required. Yoga appears to be one such promising technique for the prevention of CHD. This chapter will review the current evidence regarding the role of yoga in the primary and secondary prevention of CHD.
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The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to investigate the efficacy of yogic intervention (YI) on pulmonary functions (PFs) and respiratory muscle strength parameters in healthy individuals. PubMed/Medline, Embase, Google Scholar, SPORTdiscus databases as well as manual searches carried out until March 2020 on yoga AND pulmonary function were included based on Prisma guidelines. Twenty studies were identified potentially relevant. They were systematically reviewed and summarized in tabular form, listing yogic intervention (YI) significant improved forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1); FEV1/FVC; peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), maximum voluntary volume (MVV), respiratory muscle strength parameters like maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), and maximum expiratory pressure (MEP or PEmax). There are encouraging results elucidated that yogic intervention improves pulmonary functions and respiratory muscle strength parameters of healthy physically fit individuals significantly.
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The main objectives of this study were 1) to examine changes in self-reported moods and emotional states from before to after lyengar Yoga classes and how they are affected by the practice of different types of Yoga poses and (2) to determine whether observed changes in mood depend on one's personality traits. The partici-pants were 11 healthy Yoga students in a nine-session Yoga course in which three different types of Yoga poses were compared: back bends, forward bends, and stand-ing poses. Each 90-minute class focused on one of the three types of poses with three repetitions of each type of class. Self-ratings of 15 moods dealing with positive, negative, and energy-related emotional states were obtained before and after each class. Personality traits of depression, anxiety, and hostility were assessed at an initial orientation. Independently of the specific pose, positive moods increased, negative moods decreased, and energy-related moods increased from before to after classes with most changes lasting for two hours. Specific poses resulted in differences in how moods were affected, with back bends associated with greater increases in positive moods. Some mood changes were dependent on one's characteristic personality traits. The positive mood effects of back bends were greater for participants who were relatively hostile or depressed. The specific and nonspecific effects of different bodily postures and move-ments on psychological processes in Yoga and other forms of physical activity deserve further study. Yoga practices should be investigated for their potential clinical application in mood disorders and depression.
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We report a two- to three-fold increase in free radical (R•) concentrations of muscle and liver following exercise to exhaustion. Exhaustive exercise also resulted in decreased mitochondrial respiratory control, loss of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) integrity, and increased levels of lipid peroxidation products. Free radical concentrations, lipid peroxidation, and SR, ER, and mitochondrial damage were similar in exercise exhausted control animals and non-exercised vitamin E deficient animals, suggesting the possibility of a common R• dependent damage process. In agreement with previous work showing that exercise endurance capacity is largely determined by the functional mitochondrial content of muscle (1–4), vitamin E deficient animals endurance was 40% lower than that of controls. The results suggest that R• induced damage may provide a stimulus to the mitochondrial biogenesis which results from endurance training.
Article
To examine the effects of increased O2 utilization on the glutathione antioxidant system in blood, eight moderately trained male volunteers were exercised to peak O2 consumption (VO2peak) and for 90 min at 65% of VO2peak on a cycle ergometer. Blood samples were taken during exercise, and for up to 4 days of recovery from submaximal exercise. During exercise to VO2peak, blood reduced glutathione (GSH) and total glutathione [GSH + oxidized glutathione (GSSG)] did not change significantly. Lactate (L), pyruvate (P), and L/P increased significantly from rest values (P less than 0.01). During prolonged submaximal exercise, GSH decreased 60% from control, and GSSG increased 100%. Total glutathione, glucose, pyruvate, and lactate concentrations and L/P did not change significantly during sustained exercise. During recovery, GSH and GSH/GSSG increased from exercise levels and significantly overshot preexercise levels, reaching maximum values after 3 days. Oxidation of GSH during submaximal exercise and its reduction in recovery suggest increased formation of active O2-. species in blood during physical exercise in moderately trained males.
Article
Reports that Ss during the practice of transcendental meditation manifested physiological signs of a wakeful, hypometabolic state: (a) reductions in oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide elimination, and rate and volume of respiration; (b) decreased blood-lactate level; (c) slowed heartbeat; (d) increased skin resistance, and (e) an EEG pattern of slow alpha waves with occasional theta-wave activity. These changes bore little resemblance to physiological changes associated with other relaxed states, e.g., sleep and hypnosis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Four Yogis who practised samadhi were investigated electroencephalographically. It was observed that their resting records showed persistent alpha activity with increased amplitude modulation during samadhi. The alpha activity could not be blocked by various sensory stimuli during meditation.Two Yogis, who could keep their hand immersed in ice cold water for 45–55 min, also showed persistent alpha activity both before and during this practice.The possible mechanism of these observation has been discussed.