[Rare complication of diabetic acidoketosis: the pneumomediastinum].
Pneumomediastinum is a rare condition with an incidence of 1/33,000. It can be a rare complication of diabetic acidoketosis. We present the cases of two diabetic patients and review the literature, focusing our analysis on the interrelationships between these two diseases. Both patients were young subjects, a 21-year-old woman and an 18-year-old man with type 1 diabetes who were admitted for acidoketosis. Clinically, the patients presented the cardinal signs of diabetes and a flu-like syndrome associated with dyspnea and chest pain. Physical examination revealed a poor general health status, tachycardia and polymnea, as well as a painful diffuse tumefaction of the neck with subcutaneous emphysema. Blood tests disclosed elevated glycemia and urine was positive for acetone. The diagnosis of severe metabolic acidosis was retained. The chest x-ray demonstrated the subcutaneous emphysema and air in the anterior mediastinum. On the computed tomography scan obtained in the second patient, the heart was silhouetted with a hyperlucent zone laterally. Treatment consisted in strict bed rest with oxygen therapy, fluid replacement, insulin and heparin. The pneumomediastinum resolved in both patients within three days on average. The causal effect of diabetic acidoketosis in the development of pneumomediastinum in our two patients was retained after ruling out all other potential causes, including chest trauma and asthma.
Available from: Abdulzahra Hussain
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ABSTRACT: The combination of pneumomediastinum, gastric wall gas and hepatic portal vein gas is a challenging clinical problem. Although different causes of the individual gas sign have been reported in the literature, the cause of a triad of these signs in a single patient is less clear, and represents an extremely rare condition. A 65-year-old man presented with severe lower chest and epigastric pain of a few hours' duration. Initial assessment confirmed epigastric tenderness. Computed tomography showed pneumomediastinum, air in the stomach wall, hepatic portal vein gas and bowel dilatation. Small bowel and right colon dilatation was confirmed at laparotomy. The patient was treated subsequently with antibiotics to cover Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and anaerobes. The patient was discharged in good general condition on the 12th postoperative day. In conclusion, the triad of pneumomediastinum, gastric wall gas and hepatic portal vein gas is an extremely rare condition and associated with gastric necrosis.
Available from: Kamran B Lankarani
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ABSTRACT: The 2009 H1N1 Influenza virus was the first infectious pandemic of the 21(st) century which spread rapidly throughout the world. High-risk groups, such as diabetics, suffered more and showed higher hospital admission and death rates due to this virus. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) may develop the fulminant picture of their disease after being infected with influenza. From June to December 2009 at Nemazee Hospital, affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, two patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) were admitted. The H1N1 influenza virus triggered DKA and its complications in these patients. Both patients were female, of ages 16 and 40 years. When admitted, they had signs of influenza-like illness (ILI), tachypnea, laboratory confirmation of acidosis, and high blood sugar levels. The 2009 H1N1 influenza viral RNA was detected in their nasopharyngeal specimens by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Both patients received oseltamivir, but eventually both died. This was the first report of an association between DKA and H1N1 influenza in Iran. Conclusively, rapid diagnosis of influenza by RT-PCR and early treatment with oseltamivir should be considered in diabetics and/or DKA patients with flu-like symptoms.
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