Economics of an Adolescent Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccination Catch-up Campaign in the United States

National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA.
Clinical Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 8.89). 02/2008; 46(1):1-13. DOI: 10.1086/524041
Source: PubMed


In June 2005, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended the newly licensed quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine for routine use among all US children aged 11 years. A 1-time catch-up vaccination campaign for children and adolescents aged 11-17 years, followed by routine annual immunization of each child aged 11 years, could generate immediate herd immunity benefits. The objective of our study was to analyze the cost-effectiveness of a catch-up vaccination campaign with quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine for children and adolescents aged 11-17 years.
We built a probabilistic model of disease burden and economic impacts for a 10-year period with and without a program of adolescent catch-up meningococcal vaccination, followed by 9 years of routine immunization of children aged 11 years. We used US age- and serogroup-specific surveillance data on incidence and mortality. Assumptions related to the impact of herd immunity were drawn from experience with routine meningococcal vaccination in the United Kingdom. We estimated costs per case, deaths prevented, life-years saved, and quality-adjusted life-years saved.
With herd immunity, the catch-up and routine vaccination program for adolescents would prevent 8251 cases of meningococcal disease in a 10-year period (a 48% decrease). Excluding program costs, this catch-up and routine vaccination program would save US$551 million in direct costs and $920 million in indirect costs, including costs associated with permanent disability and premature death. At $83 per vaccinee, the catch-up vaccination would cost society approximately $223,000 per case averted, approximately $2.6 million per death prevented, approximately $127,000 per life-year saved, and approximately $88,000 per quality-adjusted life-year saved. Targeting counties with a high incidence of disease decreased the cost per life-year saved by two-thirds.
Although costly, catch-up and routine vaccination of adolescents can have a substantial impact on meningococcal disease burden. Because of herd immunity, catch-up and routine vaccination cost per life-year saved could be up to one-third less than that previously assessed for routine vaccination of children aged 11 years.

Download full-text


Available from: Elizabeth R Zell
  • Source
    • "Another important aspect of the herd effect is that it can play a key role in determining policy if it enhances cost-effectiveness. In the USA, it was estimated that the introduction of the quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine saved US$551 million in direct costs and $920 million in indirect costs, including costs associated with permanent disability and premature death [3]. Childhood pneumococcal vaccination is another example; the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was estimated to prevent 38,000 cases of invasive pneumococcal infection in the USA during its first 5 y of use at a cost of US$112,000 per life-y saved. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vaccination ideally protects susceptible populations at high risk for complications of the infection. However, vaccines for these subgroups do not always provide sufficient effectiveness. The herd effect or herd immunity is an attractive way to extend vaccine benefits beyond the directly targeted population. It refers to the indirect protection of unvaccinated persons, whereby an increase in the prevalence of immunity by the vaccine prevents circulation of infectious agents in susceptible populations. The herd effect has had a major impact in the eradication of smallpox, has reduced transmission of pertussis, and protects against influenza and pneumococcal disease. A high uptake of vaccines is generally needed for success. In this paper we aim to provide an update review on the herd effect, focusing on the clinical benefit, by reviewing data for specific vaccines.
    Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
  • Source
    • "IMD and the economic burden associated with it is of significant importance for public health, not only in the epidemic prone regions, but also in areas with sporadic and hyperendemic forms of the disease [1,2]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD), is a widely distributed, complex human disease affecting all age categories. The causative agent, Neisseria meningitidis, is spread through aerosol respiratory droplets. 13 different serogroups have been identified, each with varying epidemiological features including prevalence, virulence, immunogenicity, geographical and temporal distribution. Although preventative measures are available for several of the serogroups, meningococcal disease caused by serogroup B is of particular interest due to the challenge it presents concerning vaccine development. A systematic review of peer reviewed studies and reports, the collection of data from national and international health resources, along with the analysis of the Multi Locus Sequence Typing database was carried out aimed at collecting information concerning serogroup B IMD and the epidemiology attached to it. A continuous output of related and novel STs occurring worldwide in terms of the hypervirulent clonal complexes was observed both in published studies and the MLST database in this case using the eburst software, which highlights the genetically diverse nature of serogroup B strains. With the recent dominance of serogroup B IMD seen in many countries, along with the presence of antibiotic resistance, vaccine development needs to target areas of the bacterium which tackle this widespread and heterogeneous aspect of meningococcal meningitis disease.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · BMC Infectious Diseases
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Economic assessments that guide policy making on immunizations are becoming increasingly important in light of new and anticipated vaccines for adolescents. However, important considerations that limit the utility of these assessments, such as the diversity of approaches used, are often overlooked and should be better understood. Our goal was to examine economic studies of adolescent vaccines and compare cost-effectiveness outcomes among studies on a particular vaccine, across adolescent vaccines, and between new adolescent vaccines versus vaccines that are recommended for young children. A systematic review of economic studies on immunizations for adolescents was conducted. Studies were identified by searching the Medline, Embase, and EconLit databases. Each study was reviewed for appropriateness of model design, baseline setup, sensitivity analyses, and input variables (ie, epidemiologic, clinical, cost, and quality-of-life impact). For comparison, the cost-effectiveness outcomes reported in key studies on vaccines for younger children were selected. Vaccines for healthy adolescents were consistently found to be more costly than the health care or societal cost savings they produced and, in general, were less cost-effective than vaccines for younger children. Among the new vaccines, pertussis and human papillomavirus vaccines were more cost-effective than meningococcal vaccines. Including herd-immunity benefits in studies significantly improved the cost-effectiveness estimates for new vaccines. Differences in measurements or assumptions limited further comparisons. Although using the new adolescent vaccines is unlikely to be cost-saving, vaccination programs will result in sizable health benefits.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · PEDIATRICS
Show more