State law is generally the controlling authority for whether parental consent is required or minors may consent for their own health care, including vaccination. At the federal level, no vaccination consent law exists; however, federal law requires that vaccine information statements be given to the parent or another person who is qualified under state law to consent to vaccination of a minor. All states allow minors to consent for their own health care in some circumstances on the basis of either (1) their status (eg, age, emancipation, marriage) or (2) the kind of health care services they are seeking (eg, family planning services, treatment of sexually transmitted disease). In each state, a specific analysis of laws will be required to determine the circumstances under which a minor can consent for vaccination.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.
"In most countries vaccination is generally recommended for girls aged between 10 and 14 years  . However, prior parental consent is usually required for this age group   . Parents are therefore considered the main vaccine decision-makers and their perceived acceptability of vaccines in general and of the HPV vaccine more specifically, may play a critical role in ensuring successful implementation of the HPV vaccination. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer is a major public health concern in Morocco where it represents the second most common and lethal cancer in women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have been licensed in Morocco since 2008 but there are no available data on their acceptability. This study aimed to assess awareness of HPV and the vaccine, and to identify factors associated with acceptability of the vaccine among parents in Morocco. We carried out a questionnaire-based survey using face-to-face interviews in a sample of 852 parents (670 mothers and 182 fathers) with at least one unmarried daughter ≤26 years. We collected data within public and private health centres and clinics in four regions in Morocco between July and August 2012. The main outcome measure was parental acceptability of the HPV vaccine for their daughter(s). Responses revealed very low awareness of HPV infection (4.7%) and the HPV vaccine (14.3%). None of the participants had vaccinated their daughter(s) against HPV and vaccine acceptability was low among mothers (32%) and fathers (45%). Higher education and income, previous awareness of the HPV vaccine and endorsement of the belief that a recommendation from the Ministry of Health or a doctor to have the vaccine would be encouraging, were associated with mothers' HPV vaccine acceptability. Non-acceptability among mothers was associated with having more than two daughters, believing the vaccine was expensive, lack of information and believing that whatever happens to an individual's health is God's will. The only factor associated with the fathers' acceptability of the vaccine was the cost of the vaccine. Increasing HPV and HPV vaccine awareness through educational campaigns, along with active recommendation by physicians and a publically funded vaccination programme could increase parental acceptability of the HPV vaccine in Morocco.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Propagation measurements were conducted on Roorkee-Dehradun double knife-edge diffraction path (54 km) for a period of 18 months. The results are presented in the form of diffraction loss and its temporal variation. The experimental results have also been compared with other theoretical results. The study 'is in confirmity with CCIR (1982) Study Programme IA-2/5.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: This paper examines the effectiveness of EMI driven MCM substrate
routing in reducing coupled noise in the MCM and subsequently on the
motherboard. Different layouts of a three chip, laminate MCM were
performed with and without EMI driven routing constraints. Quantic Labs
EMC software was then used to simulate the crosstalk on critical nets
for the different routings. It is shown that proper routing constraints
can greatly reduce noise on susceptible nets and reduce noise on all
nets in general. A software package to automatically generate router
constraints base on EMI considerations is being developed to simplify
the routing process. For experimental validation of the Quantic
software, simple test structures were fabricated, tested and compared to
simulation predictions. Also, a comparison of the coupled noise on the
motherboard with an MCM versus three individual surface mount packages
shows that the MCM significantly reduces the conducted emissions at the
system level. Effective design of automotive MCM's with proper
consideration to EMI requirements can substantially reduce conducted
emissions from an engine controller unit onto the wiring harness. This
results in improved system performance and potentially lower cost by
eliminating EMI filtering components