The Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis
Don Carlo Gnocchi Foundation ONLUS, Roma, Italy.Eating Disorders (Impact Factor: 1.48). 12/2007; 16(1):85-93. DOI: 10.1080/10640260701773660
This study examines the hypothesis of an association between adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and eating disorders (EDs). A population of young females affected by AIS has been interviewed for a possible diagnosis of EDs. The proportion of individuals with EDs resulted significantly larger than normative epidemiological data: Prevalences were 9.2% for anorexia nervosa (AN), 7.7% for bulimia nervosa (BN) and 5.3% for eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS). The relationship between EDs and AIS was further tested through a second analysis. Severity of the rachides pathology was correlated with the presence of AN. Our study supports the hypothesis of a comorbidity between AIS and EDs: Some possible clinical explanations for this association are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: The autonomic nervous system through its hypothalamic neuroendocrine control of puberty, skeletal growth and menarche contributes importantly to the pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Melatonin dysfunction detected in AIS subjects also involves the autonomic nervous system. The thoracospinal concept for the pathogenesis of right thoracic AIS in girls thought by some to result from dysfunction of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), is supported by recent vascular and peripheral nerve studies. Lower body mass index (BMI).in girls with AIS is associated with decreased circulating leptin levels. Leptin, secreted by adipocytes, is a master hormone with many regulatory functions for growth and reproduction, including: 1) appetite repression, anorexigenic; 2) initiation of puberty in girls in a permissive action, and 3) in mice, longitudinal bone growth, chondrogenic and angiogenic, and in bone formation, antiosteogenic acting centrally through the SNS and possibly directly. In AIS girls, autonomic nervous system activity was reported to be higher than in controls. We suggest that in AIS susceptible girls, given adequate nutrition and energy stores, circulating leptin talks to the hypothalamus where dysfunction leads to an altered sensitivity to leptin resulting in increased SNS activity contributing with neuroendocrine mechanisms to: 1) earlier age at, and increased peak height velocity, 2) general skeletal overgrowth, 3) earlier skeletal maturation, 4) extra-spinal skeletal length asymmetries, including periapical ribs and ilia, 5) generalized osteopenia, and 6) lower BMI. The SNS-driven effects may also add adventitious changes to the spine including asymmetries complicating the neuroendocrine effects on adolescent spinal growth. In AIS pathogenesis, the leptin-SNS concept is complementary to our NOTOM escalator concept involving the somatic nervous system. Together these two concepts view AIS in girls as being initiated by a hypothalamic dysfunction of energy metabolism (bioenergetics) affecting skeletal growth in the trunk. Where, in susceptible girls, the postural mechanisms of the somatic nervous system fail to control the asymmetric spinal and/or rib growth changes in a rapidly enlarging adolescent spine; this failure becomes evident as mild back-shape shape asymmetry, or scoliosis. The environmentally-enhanced stature of normal subjects in the last 300 years, in girls susceptible to AIS, may have exaggerated any developmental dysharmony between the autonomic and somatic nervous systems being fought out in the spine and trunk of the girl - possibly making mild back-shape asymmetry, or scoliosis more prevalent today than hitherto.
Article: Pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in girls. A double neuro-osseous theory involving disharmony between two nervous systems, somatic and autonomic expressed in the spine and trunk: possible dependency on sympathetic nervous system and hormones with implications for medical therapy[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Anthropometric data from three groups of adolescent girls - preoperative adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), screened for scoliosis and normals were analysed by comparing skeletal data between higher and lower body mass index subsets. Unexpected findings for each of skeletal maturation, asymmetries and overgrowth are not explained by prevailing theories of AIS pathogenesis. A speculative pathogenetic theory for girls is formulated after surveying evidence including: (1) the thoracospinal concept for right thoracic AIS in girls; (2) the new neuroskeletal biology relating the sympathetic nervous system to bone formation/resorption and bone growth; (3) white adipose tissue storing triglycerides and the adiposity hormone leptin which functions as satiety hormone and sentinel of energy balance to the hypothalamus for long-term adiposity; and (4) central leptin resistance in obesity and possibly in healthy females. The new theory states that AIS in girls results from developmental disharmony expressed in spine and trunk between autonomic and somatic nervous systems. The autonomic component of this double neuro-osseous theory for AIS pathogenesis in girls involves selectively increased sensitivity of the hypothalamus to circulating leptin (genetically-determined up-regulation possibly involving inhibitory or sensitizing intracellular molecules, such as SOC3, PTP-1B and SH2B1 respectively), with asymmetry as an adverse response (hormesis); this asymmetry is routed bilaterally via the sympathetic nervous system to the growing axial skeleton where it may initiate the scoliosis deformity (leptin-hypothalamic-sympathetic nervous system concept = LHS concept). In some younger preoperative AIS girls, the hypothalamic up-regulation to circulating leptin also involves the somatotropic (growth hormone/IGF) axis which exaggerates the sympathetically-induced asymmetric skeletal effects and contributes to curve progression, a concept with therapeutic implications. In the somatic nervous system, dysfunction of a postural mechanism involving the CNS body schema fails to control, or may induce, the spinal deformity of AIS in girls (escalator concept). Biomechanical factors affecting ribs and/or vertebrae and spinal cord during growth may localize AIS to the thoracic spine and contribute to sagittal spinal shape alterations. The developmental disharmony in spine and trunk is compounded by any osteopenia, biomechanical spinal growth modulation, disc degeneration and platelet calmodulin dysfunction. Methods for testing the theory are outlined. Implications are discussed for neuroendocrine dysfunctions, osteopontin, sympathoactivation, medical therapy, Rett and Prader-Willi syndromes, infantile idiopathic scoliosis, and human evolution. AIS pathogenesis in girls is predicated on two putative normal mechanisms involved in trunk growth, each acquired in evolution and unique to humans.
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ABSTRACT: Body deformities in patients with scoliosis significantly affect appearance perception. The majority of studies on this topic have analyzed the relation between radiological and clinical assessment performed by doctors, and patients' perception of deformity. The object of this study was to adapt the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ) to Polish conditions and to explore the perception of trunk deformity by female patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Forty female patients who underwent surgical treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using the Cotrel-Dubousset method were asked to complete a Polish version of the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire. The mean preoperative Cobb angle of the thoracic curve in the study group was 55.3 degrees (SD 9.7). In the final postoperative examination the Cobb angle was 29.1 degrees (SD 10.1). The general results of the SAQ demonstrated that the patients achieved a median of 34.48 points, showing a positive assessment of their appearance. Patients rated themselves most critically in the general, chest, surgical scar, symmetry of shoulders and waist domains. The logistic regression model revealed that only the size of the thoracic apical translation, with a model coefficient of -0.9138 (SE=0.350; p=0.013), has a statistically significant (p=0.002) influence on a good general result in the SAQ. Patients assessed their appearance positively after surgical treatment. A higher thoracic apical translation value is related to a lower probability of achieving a good general result in the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire.
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