IDSA Guidelines for Aspergillosis • CID 2008:46 (1 February) • 327
I D S A G U I D E L I N E S
Treatment of Aspergillosis: Clinical Practice
Guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society
Thomas J. Walsh,1,aElias J. Anaissie,2David W. Denning,13Raoul Herbrecht,14Dimitrios P. Kontoyiannis,3
Kieren A. Marr,5Vicki A. Morrison,6,7Brahm H Segal,8William J. Steinbach,9David A. Stevens,10,11
Jo-Anne van Burik,7John R. Wingard,12and Thomas F. Patterson4,a
1Pediatric Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland;
3The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, and
Medical Center, San Jose, and
13University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom; and
2University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock;
4The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San
6Veterans Affairs Medical Center and
9Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina;
11Stanford University, Palo Alto, California;
14University Hospital of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France
5Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland;
8Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York;
7University of Minnesota, Minneapolis,
10Santa Clara Valley
12University of Florida, College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida;
Aspergillus species have emerged as an important cause
of life-threatening infections in immunocompromised
patients. This expanding population is composed of
patients with prolonged neutropenia, advancedHIVin-
fection, and inherited immunodeficiency and patients
who have undergone allogeneic hematopoieticstemcell
transplantation (HSCT) and/or lung transplantation.
This document constitutes the guidelines of the Infec-
tious Diseases Society of America for treatment of as-
pergillosis and replaces the practice guidelines for As-
pergillus published in 2000 . The objective of these
Received 23 October 2007; accepted 24 October 2007; electronically published
4 January 2008.
These guidelines were developed and issued on behalf of the Infectious
Diseases Society of America.
It is important to realize that guidelines cannot always account for individual
variation among patients. They are not intended to supplant physician judgment
with respect to particular patients or special clinical situations and cannot be
considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments
reasonably directed at obtaining the same results. Accordingly, the Infectious
Diseases Society of America considers adherence to these guidelines to be
voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding their application to be made
by the physician in light of each patient’s individual circumstances.
aT.J.W. and T.F.P. served as co-chairs for the Infectious Diseases Society of
America Aspergillus Guidelines Committee.
Reprints or correspondence: Dr. Thomas F. Patterson, The University of Texas
Health Science Center at San Antonio, Dept. of Medicine/Infectious Diseases,
7703 Floyd Curl Dr., MSC 7881, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900 (patterson
Clinical Infectious Diseases 2008;46:327–60
? 2008 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.
guidelines is to summarize the current evidence for
treatment of different forms of aspergillosis.Thequality
of evidence for treatment is scored according to a stan-
dard system used in other Infectious Diseases Society
of America guidelines. This document reviews guide-
lines for management of the 3 major forms of asper-
Given the public health importance of invasive asper-
gillosis, emphasis is placed on the diagnosis, treatment,
and prevention of the different forms of invasive as-
pergillosis, including invasive pulmonary aspergillosis,
sinus aspergillosis, disseminated aspergillosis, and sev-
eral types of single-organ invasive aspergillosis.
There are few randomized trials on the treatment of
invasive aspergillosis. The largest randomized con-
trolled trial demonstrates that voriconazole is superior
to deoxycholate amphotericin B (D-AMB) as primary
treatment for invasive aspergillosis. Voriconazole is rec-
ommended for the primary treatment of invasive as-
pergillosis in most patients (A-I). Although invasive
pulmonary aspergillosis accounts for the preponder-
ance of cases treated with voriconazole, voriconazole
has been used in enough cases of extrapulmonary and
disseminated infection to allow one to infer that vor-
iconazole is effective in these cases. A randomized trial
comparing 2 doses of liposomal amphotericin B (L-
AMB) showed similar efficacy in both arms, suggesting
that liposomal therapy could be considered as alter-
native primary therapy in some patients (A-I). For sal-
328 • CID 2008:46 (1 February) • Walsh et al.
vage therapy, agents include lipid formulations ofamphotericin
(LFAB; A-II), posaconazole (B-II), itraconazole (B-II), caspo-
fungin (B-II), or micafungin (B-II). Salvagetherapyforinvasive
aspergillosis poses important challenges with significant gaps
in knowledge. In patients whose aspergillosis is refractory to
voriconazole, a paucity of data exist to guide management.
Therapeutic options include a change of class using an am-
photericin B (AMB) formulation or an echinocandin, such as
caspofungin (B-II); further use of azoles should take into ac-
count host factors and pharmacokinetic considerations. Re-
fractory infection may respond to a change to another drug
class (B-II) or to a combination of agents (B-II). The role of
combination therapy in the treatment of invasive aspergillosis
as primary or salvage therapy is uncertain and warrants a pro-
spective, controlled clinical trial.
Assessment of patients with refractory aspergillosis may be
difficult. In evaluating such patients, the diagnosis of invasive
aspergillosis should be established if it was previouslyuncertain
and should be confirmed if it was previously known. The drug
dosage should be considered. Management options include a
change to intravenous (IV) therapy, therapeutic monitoring of
drug levels, change of drug class, and/or combination therapy.
Antifungal prophylaxis with posaconazole can be recom-
mended in the subgroup of HSCT recipients with graft-versus-
host disease (GVHD) who are at high risk for invasive asper-
gillosis and in neutropenic patients with acute myelogenous
leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who are at high risk for
invasive aspergillosis (A-I). Management of breakthrough in-
vasive aspergillosis in the context of mould-active azole pro-
phylaxis is not defined by clinical trial data. The approach to
such patients should be individualized on the basis of clinical
criteria, including host immunosuppression, underlying dis-
ease, and site of infection, as well as consideration of antifungal
dosing, therapeutic monitoring of drug levels, a switch to IV
therapy, and/or a switch to another drug class (B-III).
Certain conditions of invasive aspergillosis warrant consid-
eration for surgical resection of the infected focus. These in-
clude but are not limited to pulmonary lesions contiguouswith
the heart or great vessels, invasion of the chest wall, osteo-
myelitis, pericardial infection, and endocarditis (B-III). Res-
toration of impaired host defenses is critical for improved out-
come of invasive aspergillosis
neutropenia in a persistently neutropenic host or reduction of
corticosteroids in a patient receiving high-dose glucocortico-
steroids is paramount for improved outcome in invasive
A special consideration is made concerning recommenda-
tions for therapy of aspergillosis in uncommon sites, such as
osteomyelitis and endocarditis. There are very limited data on
these infections, and most involve D-AMB as primary therapy
simply because of its long-standing availability. Based on the
strength of the randomized study, the panel recommends vor-
iconazole for primary treatment of these veryuncommonman-
ifestations of invasive aspergillosis (B-III).
Management of the chronic or saprophytic forms of asper-
gillosis varies depending on the condition. Single pulmonary
aspergillomas may be best managed by surgical resection (B-
III), whereas chronic cavitary and chronic necrotizing pul-
monary aspergillosis require long-term medicaltherapy(B-III).
The management of allergic forms of aspergillosis involves
a combination of medical and anti-inflammatory therapy. For
example, management of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergil-
losis (ABPA) involves the administration of itraconazole and
Heretofore considered to be an unusual cause of infection,
Aspergillus species have emerged as important causes of mor-
bidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients [2–4].
Invasive aspergillosis currently constitutes the most common
cause of infectious pneumonic mortality in patients under-
going HSCT and is an important cause of opportunistic re-
spiratory and disseminated infection in other immunocom-
promised patients [5–11]. Furthermore, Aspergillus species
also produce a wide range of chronic, saprophytic, andallergic
conditions. Although other forms of aspergillosis, such as
ABPA, allergic sinusitis, and saprophytic infection, are also
causes of morbidity, they are seldom life-threatening.
Throughout this document, treatment recommendations are
rated according to the standard scoring system of the Infec-
tious Diseases Society of America and United Stated Public
Health Service for rating recommendations in clinical guide-
lines, as summarized in table 1.
MICROBIOLOGY AND EPIDEMIOLOGY OF
recovered from cases of invasive aspergillosis . The next
most commonly recovered species are Aspergillus flavus, As-
pergillus niger, and Aspergillus terreus . Some institutions
may have a predominance of A. flavus or A. terreus as the most
frequently recovered species of Aspergillus . A. terreus is
clinically resistant to AMB, but species, including A. flavus,
Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus ustus, As-
pergillus glaucus, and others, can also demonstrate resistance
Classification and definitions.
afflictions that are classically defined as invasive, saprophytic,
or allergic . Invasive diseases caused by Aspergillus species
include infections of the lower respiratory tract, sinuses, and
skin as portals of entry. The CNS, cardiovascular system, and
other tissues may be infected as a result of hematogenous dis-
Aspergillus fumigatus is the most commonspecies
Aspergillosis causes patient
IDSA Guidelines for Aspergillosis • CID 2008:46 (1 February) • 329
ranking recommendations in clinical guidelines.
Infectious Diseases Society of America–United States Public Health Service grading system for
Strength of recommendation
Quality of evidence
Good evidence to support a recommendation for use
Moderate evidence to support a recommendation for use
Poor evidence to support a recommendation
Evidence from ?1 properly randomized, controlled trial
Evidence from ?1 well-designed clinical trial, without randomization; from co-
hort or case-controlled analytic studies (preferably from 11 center); from
multiple time-series; or from dramatic results from uncontrolled
Evidence from opinions of respected authorities, based on clinical experience,
descriptive studies, or reports of expert committees
semination or direct extension from contiguous foci of infec-
tion. Saprophytic involvement includes Aspergillus otomycosis
and pulmonary aspergilloma. Allergic conditions encompass
allergic Aspergillus sinusitis and allergic bronchopulmonary as-
pergillosis . Although other classifications have been pro-
posed, reference to the above clinical conditions will be made
throughout these guidelines.
Members of the European Organization for Research in
Treatment of Cancer–Invasive Fungal Infection Cooperative
Group and National Institute of Allergy and InfectiousDiseases
Mycoses Study Group formed a Consensus Committee to de-
velop standard definitions for invasive fungal infections for
clinical research . Based on a review of the literature and
an international consensus, a set of research-oriented defini-
tions for invasive fungal infections (including invasive asper-
gillosis), as observed in immunocompromised patients with
cancer, was developed. Three levels of certainty of invasive as-
pergillosis were defined: proven, probable, and possible. Al-
though the definitions are intended for use in the context of
clinical and/or epidemiological research, they provide a stan-
dard set of criteria by which guidelines can be developed for
the treatment of invasive aspergillosis.
The definition for proven aspergillosis requires histopatho-
logical documentation of infection and a positive result of cul-
ture of a specimen from a normally sterile site. The definition
of probable aspergillosis requires the fulfillment of criteria
within 3 categories: host factors, clinical manifestations (symp-
toms, signs, and radiological features), and microbiologicalevi-
dence. Throughout these guidelines, the term “invasive asper-
gillosis” will assume a diagnostic certainty of proven or
probable invasive aspergillosis. With 2 important exceptions,
proven or probable infection requires the recovery of an or-
ganism. The first exception includes the fairly frequent occur-
rence of histopathological demonstration of hyphae consistent
with Aspergillus species in patients with negative cultureresults.
The other exception consists of fulfilling the diagnostic criteria
based method (i.e., a positive galactomannan assay or b-glucan
assay result and radiologically compatible CT findings) in an
immunocompromised host with clinical findings of infection
that constitute the definition of probable invasive aspergillosis.
Several other points bear note concerning these definitions
of aspergillosis. First, the term “probable” denotes a relatively
high degree of certainty that the signs and symptoms of infec-
tion in the immunocompromised host are truly due to an
Aspergillus species. A study by Stevens and Lee  that ex-
amined response of invasive aspergillosis to itraconazole using
Mycoses Study Group definitions found similar outcomes for
proven and probableinvasiveaspergillosis,suggestingthatcom-
bining these 2 categories is appropriate for outcomes analyses.
Second, the European Organization for Research in Treatment
of Cancer–Mycoses Study Group document clearly articulates
that the consensus definitions are not intended to be a direct
guide to practice . Third, the definitions are principally
applicable to immunocompromised patients with cancer and
HSCT recipients. These definitions are currently being refined
to reflect increasing understanding of the patterns of invasive
aspergillosis in an expanded population of immunocompro-
Aspergillus species grow well on standard media
and can be identified to species level in most laboratories. Cul-
ture confirmation, where possible, is important to differentiate
aspergillosis from other filamentous fungal infections, such as
fusariosis and scedosporiosis. Blood cultures are of limited util-
ity, because the results are often not positive even in dissem-
inated infection. Bronchoalveolar lavage, transthoracic percu-
taneous needle aspiration, or video assisted thoracoscopic
biopsy are standard procedures for establishing a diagnosis of
invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Fluid and tissue specimens
from these procedures may reveal characteristic angular di-
chotomously branching septate hyphae on direct microscopic
examination and/or Aspergillus species on culture. Where fea-
330 • CID 2008:46 (1 February) • Walsh et al.
sible, specimens obtained from these procedures are cultured
on fungal media for optimal growth of Aspergillus species [25,
26]. However, results of cytologic examination, pathologic ex-
amination, direct smears, and culture may be falsely negative
for clinical specimens from patients who are already receiving
systemic antifungal therapy and in cases in which thediagnostic
procedure could not be performed directly in the affected area
(e.g., when the bronchoscopic examination or washing could
not be performed directly in the affected area or when the
bronchoscope or biopsy needle could not reach the infected
tissues). Thus, lack of a positive culture or direct smear result
does not rule out the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. More-
over, recovery of Aspergillus species from clinical specimens by
invasive procedures may be impractical in patients who are
hemodynamically unstable, are severely hypoxic, have low
platelet counts, or have advanced coagulation deficits. Thus,
other markers of infection are often used in the assessment of
patients at risk for invasive aspergillosis.
Increasing recognition of the halo sign and air-crescent sign
by improved CT technology in immunocompromised patients
has greatly facilitated the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary as-
pergillosis in patients with hematologic conditions [27–31].
Although these radiological features are characteristic, they are
not diagnostic of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Infections
due to other angioinvasive filamentous fungi, such as Zygo-
mycetes, Fusarium species, and Scedosporium species, as well as
to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Nocardia species, may cause a
halo sign and other radiological features described for asper-
gillosis. Although thesemorecharacteristicradiologicalpatterns
of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis have been well described
in neutropenic hosts, less is known about the features of these
lesions in other immunocompromised patients [27, 29].
The availability of the galactomannan EIA also may con-
tribute substantially toward a non–culture-based diagnosis of
invasive aspergillosis. EIA forgalactomannanhasbeenvalidated
in animal models and in patients as a surrogate marker for
detection of invasive aspergillosis [32–42]. Galactomannan an-
tigen has also been detected in CSF samples from patients with
CNS aspergillosis [43–45] and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid
specimens from patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis,
although the use of EIA for galactomannan in such contexts
is investigational [46, 47]. In addition to facilitating early de-
tection, serial assessment of galactomannan antigenemia may
facilitate therapeutic monitoring [48, 49]. However, the use of
serial galactomannan for therapeutic monitoring remains in-
vestigational. Thus, duration of therapy should be determined,
not solely by normalization of antigenemia, but also by reso-
lution of clinical and radiological findings.
Several well-conducted studies of this EIA system have dem-
onstrated good sensitivity in the detection of invasive asper-
gillosis in patients with hematological malignancy [33, 35, 50–
52]. However, the sensitivity in nonneutropenic patients may
be lower, possibly because of a lower residual fungal burden
or anti-Aspergillus antibodies [53, 54]. The combined use of
serum galactomannan antigen measurement and detection of
pulmonary infiltrates by early use of CT should improve de-
tection of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and permit earlier
initiation of antifungal therapy.Severalvariables,including
antifungal therapy or prophylaxis, significantly reduce levels of
circulating galactomannan [35, 52]. False-positive results have
been reported in several contexts, including in patients who
have received certain antibiotics (pipercillin-tazobactam and
amoxicillin-clavulanate), in cases of neonatal colonization with
Bifidobacterium, the in cases in which plasmalyte is used in
bronchioalveolar lavage fluids, and in patients with other in-
vasive mycoses (includingPenicillium,histoplasmosis,andblas-
tomycosis) [36, 56–61]. Despite these limitations, this assay is
a useful adjunctive test to establish an early diagnosis, partic-
ularly when used in serial screening of patients at high risk of
Other potential circulating markers for detection of asper-
gillosis include (1r3)-b-D-glucans detected by the Tachypleus
or Limulus assay [62–66]. The Tachypleus or Limulus assay
used to detect the presence of (1r3)-b-D-glucans is a variation
of the limulus assay used to detect endotoxin. The presence of
(1r3)-b-D-glucans in serum signifies the presence of fungal
invasion but is not specific for Aspergillus species . False-
positive results can occur in a variety of contexts, such as
through glucan contaminated blood collection tubes, gauze,
depth-type membrane filters for blood processing, and in vitro
tests using various antibiotics (e.g., some cephalosporins, car-
bapenems, and ampicillin-sulbactam) . The Fungitell assay
(Associates of Cape Cod) for detection of (1r3)-b-D-glucans
is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
for the diagnosis of invasive mycoses, including aspergillosis
[66, 69]. One study reported that, among 283 patients with
acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome who
were receiving antifungal prophylaxis, the (1r3)-b-D-glucan
assay was sensitive and specific in early detection of 20 proven
or probable invasive fungal infections, including candidiasis,
fusariosis, trichosporonosis, and aspergillosis [66, 69]. The da-
tabase for this assay in other populations at high risk for in-
vasive aspergillosis is limited, and more research is required in
these populations [66, 69]. PCR-based diagnosis, which am-
plifies Aspergillus-specific fungal genes (usually ribosomalDNA
genes), has shown considerable promise for invasive aspergil-
losis [70–79]. However, these systems have not been standard-
ized, are not commercially available, and remaininvestigational
. Combining non–culture-based diagnostics (e.g., PCR and
GM and GM and [1r3]-b-D-glucan) is an important research
IDSA Guidelines for Aspergillosis • CID 2008:46 (1 February) • 331
direction that may improve the overall predictive value of these
The development of standardized methodology for antifun-
gal susceptibility testing is another recent advance in the lab-
oratory evaluation of Aspergillus species. Interpretive break-
points have not been established foranyof theantifungalagents
against filamentous fungi. However,newdevelopmentsthrough
the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute provide repro-
ducible methods for antifungal susceptibility testing. Further
studies using these in vitro methods may lead to improved
rationale for selection of antifungal compounds in the treat-
ment of invasive aspergillosis. Although azole resistance by As-
pergillus species is unusual, patients exposed chronically to an-
caused by isolates with elevated MICs [81, 82].
Recognizing that other filamentous fungi, such as Fusarium
species, Scedosporium species, various dematiaceous (pig-
mented) moulds, and Zygomycetes, may cause similar patterns
of infection, a definitive microbiological diagnosis should be
established where possible. Non-Aspergillus filamentous fungi
may require different antifungal agents and may carry a prog-
nosis that is distinct from those of Aspergillus species.
ANTIFUNGAL COMPOUNDS USED FOR
TREATMENT OF INVASIVE ASPERGILLOSIS
Over the past decade, a considerable expansion in antifungal
drug research and the clinical development of several newcom-
pounds and strategies targeted against invasive aspergillosis
have occurred . The following FDA-approved compounds
have in vitro, in vivo, and clinical activity against Aspergillus
species and are licensed for treatment of invasive aspergillosis:
D-AMB and its lipid formulations (AMB lipid complex
[ABLC], L-AMB, and AMB colloidal dispersion [ABCD]), itra-
conazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and caspofungin.
Voriconazole and D-AMB are the only compounds licensed
in the United States for primary treatment of invasive asper-
gillosis. The LFABs, itraconazole, and caspofunginareapproved
for salvage therapy of invasive aspergillosis. Posaconazole is
licensed for prophylaxis of invasive aspergillosis in neutropenic
patients with leukemia and myelodysplasia and in allogeneic
HSCT recipients with GVHD. Posaconazole also was approved
in the European Union for treatment of invasive aspergillosis
that is refractory to an AMB formulation or to itraconazole.
Micafungin and anidulafungin, which are also members of the
class of echinocandins, have in vitro, in vivo, and clinical ac-
tivity against aspergillosis but are not licensed in the United
States for this indication. Antifungal management of invasive
aspergillosis is summarized in table 2. A comprehensive review
of antifungal compounds is beyond the scope of these guide-
lines and is covered in detail elsewhere [84–86]. Because the
experience of administration of these agents is predominantly
in adults, specific notice is given to the need for adjustment of
dosages in pediatric patients, to obtain plasma exposures com-
parable to those of adults. These pharmacological differences
in pediatric and adult dosing are discussed in more detail else-
where [87, 88].
AMB is a natural polyene macrolide antibiotic that consists of
7 conjugated double bonds, an internal ester, a free carboxyl
group, and a glycoside side chain with a primary amino group.
It is not orally absorbed. For IV use, AMB has been solubilized
with deoxycholate as micellar suspension (D-AMB). AMB pri-
marily acts by binding to ergosterol (the principal sterol in the
cell membrane of most medically important fungi), leading to
the formation of ion channels and fungal cell death. AMB also
binds to cholesterol (the main sterol of mammalian cell mem-
branes), although with less avidity than for ergosterol,resulting
in cellular injury and end organ dysfunction. A second mech-
anism of action of AMB may involve oxidative damage of the
cell through a cascade of oxidative reactions linked to lipo-
peroxidation of the cell membrane. AMB has in vitro and in
vivo activity against most Aspergillus species. Most isolates of
A. terreus are resistant to AMB in vitro, in vivo, and in patients.
Following IV administration, AMB becomes highly protein
bound before distributing predominantly into the reticuloen-
dothelial tissues (liver, spleen, bone marrow, and lung) and the
kidney. Peak plasma concentrations of 2–4 mg/mL are achieved
following IV infusion of 1 mg/kg of D-AMB. Clearance from
plasma is slow, with a b half-life of 24–48 h and a terminal
half-life of ?15 days. Despite mostly undetectable concentra-
tions in the CSF, D-AMB is active in the treatment of some
fungal infections of the CNS because of its penetration into
infected brain tissue via a disrupted blood-brain barrier.
D-AMB causes acute infusion-related reactions and dose-
limiting nephrotoxicity. Infusion-related reactions include fe-
ver, rigors, chills, myalgias, arthralgias, nausea, vomiting,head-
aches, and bronchospasm. D-AMB–induced nephrotoxicity is
characterized by azotemia, urinary wasting of potassium and
magnesium, renal tubular acidosis, and impaired urinary con-
centration ability. Azotemia attributable to D-AMB is partic-
ularly common in the doses required for treatment of invasive
aspergillosis. D-AMB–related azotemia is exacerbated by con-
comitant nephrotoxic agents, particularly cyclosporineandtac-
rolimus. Renal toxicity associated with the use of D-AMB has
the potential to lead to renal failure and dialysis, particularly
in HSCT recipients and in patients with diabetes mellitus, pa-
tients with underlying renal impairment, and patientsreceiving
concomitant nephrotoxic agents. Hospitalized patients receiv-
Table 2. Summary of recommendations for the treatment of aspergillosis.
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis Voriconazole (6 mg/kg IV every 12 h for 1
day, followed by 4 mg/kg IV every 12
h; oral dosage is 200 mg every 12 h)
L-AMB (3–5 mg/kg/day IV), ABLC (5 mg/
kg/day IV), caspofungin (70 mg day 1 IV
and 50 mg/day IV thereafter), micafun-
gin (IV 100–150 mg/day; dose not esta-
blishedc), posaconazole (200 mg QID
initially, then 400 mg BID PO after sta-
bilization of diseased), itraconazole (dos-
age depends upon formulation)e
Primary combination ther-
apy is not routinely rec-
ommended based on
lack of clinical data; ad-
dition of another agent
or switch to another
drug class for salvage
therapy may be consid-
ered in individual pa-
tients; dosage in pediat-
ric patients for
voriconazole is 5–7 mg/
kg IV every 12 h and for
caspofungin is 50 mg/
m2/day; limited clinical
experience is reported
with anidulafungin; dos-
age of posaconazole in
pediatric patients has
not been defined; indi-
cations for surgical in-
tervention are outlined
in table 3
Similar to invasive pulmo-
Similar to invasive pulmo-
Because chronic necrotiz-
ing pulmonary aspergil-
losis requires a pro-
tracted course of
therapy measured in
months, an orally ad-
ministered triazole, such
as voriconazole or itra-
conazole, would be pre-
ferred over a parenter-
ally administered agent
This infection is associ-
ated with the highest
mortality among all of
the different patterns of
drug interactions with
caused by Aspergillus
species require surgical
pericarditis usually re-
Surgical resection of devi-
talized bone and carti-
lage is important for cu-
Systemic therapy may be
beneficial in manage-
ment of aspergillus en-
and management is rec-
ommended for all forms
of ocular infection; topi-
cal therapy for keratitis
Invasive sinus aspergillosis Similar to invasive pulmonary aspergillosisSimilar to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis
Tracheobronchial aspergillosis Similar to invasive pulmonary aspergillosisSimilar to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis
Chronic necrotizing pulmonary
aspergillosis (subacute inva-
sive pulmonary aspergillosis)
Similar to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis Similar to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis
Aspergillosis of the CNS Similar to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis Similar to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis
Aspergillus infections of the
heart (endocarditis, pericardi-
tis, and myocarditis)
Similar to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis
Aspergillus osteomyelitis and
Similar to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis
Aspergillus infections of the
eye (endophthalmitis and
Intraocular AMB indicated with partial
Similar to invasive pulmonary aspergillo-
sis; limited data with echinocandins
Comments Primary Alternativeb
Similar to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis Surgical resection is indi-
cated where feasible
Preemptive therapy is a
logical extension of em-
pirical antifungal therapy
in defining a high-risk
population with evi-
dence of invasive fungal
infection (e.g., pulmo-
nary infiltrate or positive
Efficacy of posaconazole
strated in high-risk pa-
tients (patients with
GVHD and neutropenic
patients with AML and
The role of medical ther-
apy in treatment of as-
pergilloma is uncertain;
penetration into preex-
isting cavities may be
minimal for AMB but is
Innate immune defects
demonstrated in most
of these patients; long-
term therapy may be
needed; surgical resec-
tion may lead to signifi-
cant complications; an-
ecdotal responses to
Corticosteroids are a cor-
nerstone of therapy;
itraconazole has a de-
Empirical and preemptive anti-
Similar to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis
For empirical antifungal therapy, L-AMB (3
mg/kg/day IV), caspofungin (70 mg day
1 IV and 50 mg/day IV thereafter), itra-
conazole (200 mg every day IV or 200
mg BID), voriconazole (6 mg/kg IV ev-
ery 12h for 1 day, followed by 3 mg/kg
IV every 12 h; oral dosage is 200 mg
every 12 h)
Prophylaxis against invasive
Posaconazole (200 mg every 8h) Itraconazole (200 mg every 12 h IV for 2
days, then 200 mg every 24 h IV) or
itraconazole (200 mg PO every 12 h);
micafungin (50 mg/day)
No therapy or surgical resectionItraconazole or voriconazole; similar to in-
vasive pulmonary aspergillosis
Chronic cavitary pulmonary
Itraconazole or voriconazole Similar to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis
ItraconazoleOral voriconazole (200 mg PO every 12 h)
or posaconazole (400 mg PO BID)
Allergic aspergillus sinusitisNone or itraconazoleFew data on other agents
intravenous; L-AMB, liposomal AMB; MDS, myelodysplastic syndrome; PO, orally; QID, 4 times daily.
aDuration of therapy for most conditions for aspergillosis has not been optimally defined. Most experts attempt to treat pulmonary infectionuntilresolution
or stabilization of all clinical and radiographic manifestations. Other factors include site of infection (e.g., osteomyelitis), level of immunosuppression, and
extent of disease. Reversal of immunosuppression, if feasible, is important for a favorable outcome for invasive aspergillosis.
bAlternative (salvage) therapy for patients refractory to or intolerant of primary antifungal therapy.
cMicafungin has been evaluated as salvage therapy for invasive aspergillosis but remains investigational for this indication, and the dosage has not been
dPosaconazole has been approved for the salvage treatment of invasive aspergillosis in the European Union but has not been evaluated as primary therapy
for invasive aspergillosis.
eDosage of itraconazole in treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis depends on formulation. The dosage for tablets is 600 mg/day for 3 days,followed
by 400 mg/day. Although used in some case reports, oral solution is not licensed for treatment of invasive aspergillosis. Parenteral formulation has been
studied in a limited series using a dosage of 200 mg every 12h IV for 2 days, followed by 200 mg daily thereafter (whether this is an optimal dosage has
not been defined).
fMost of these cases have been treated primarily with deoxycholate AMB in individual case reports. Although the preponderance of cases treated with
voriconazole in the randomized trial consisted of pulmonary invasive aspergillosis, successful treatment of other cases of extrapulmonary and disseminated
infection allows one to infer that voriconazole would also be effective in these cases, so that voriconazole is recommended as primary therapy for most of
gA more recent classification divides aspergilloma into 2 categories: chronic cavitary and single aspergilloma. The latter does not require antifungaltherapy
but does require surgical therapy under some circumstances, and the former requires long-term antifungal therapy.
ABLC, AMB lipid complex; AMB, amphotericin B; AML, acute myelogenous leukemia; BID, twice daily; GVHD, graft-versus-host disease; IV,
334 • CID 2008:46 (1 February) • Walsh et al.
ing D-AMB have been reported to sustain a high frequency of
renal insufficiency and an excess mortality [89, 90].
Three LFABs have been approved in the United States and the
European Union: ABCD (Amphocil or Amphotec), ABLC
(Abelcet), and a small unilamellar vesicle L-AMB (AmBisome).
Because of their reduced nephrotoxicity in comparison with
D-AMB, these compounds allow for the infusion of higher
dosages of AMB. Higher dosages are required for equivalent
antifungal efficacy, because amphotericin has to be released
from the synthetic phospholipids when in close proximity to
ergosterol, allowing for delivery of enough AMB to the site of
Each of the lipid formulations has plasma pharmacokinetic
properties that are distinct from those of AMB. All 3 LFABs
preferentially distribute to reticulo?endothelial system tissues
and functionally spare the kidney. In the kidney, less AMB is
released from the lipid carrier, because the synthetic phospho-
lipids have a greater affinity for AMB than does cholesterol in
renal epithelial cell membranes.
Infusion-related adverse effects of fever, chills, and rigor are
less frequent with L-AMB, compared with D-AMB. However,
individual cases of substernal chest discomfort, respiratorydis-
tress, and sharp flank pain have been noted during infusion of
L-AMB, and in a comparative study, hypoxic episodes asso-
ciated with fever and chills were more frequent in ABCD re-
cipients than in D-AMB recipients. Mild increases in serum
bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase levels have been observed
with all 3 formulations. Idiosyncratic reactions to one LFAB
do not preclude the use of another LFAB.
ABLC and ABCD are approved at dosages of 5 mg/kg/day
and 3–4 mg/kg/day, respectively, and L-AMB is approved at a
dosage of 3–5 mg/kg/day for salvage therapy of invasive as-
pergillosis. A dosage of 3 mg/kg/day of L-AMB is used initially
for empirical antifungal therapy in persistently febrile neutro-
penic patients. The optimal dosage for treatment of invasive
aspergillosis has not been defined for any of the LFABs. Al-
though many experts would use the higher dosage range for
treatment of documented infection, there are no data from
controlled trials supporting higher dosages. Although L-AMB
has been safely administered at dosages as high as 15 mg/kg/
day, one study did not demonstrate a trend to a dose-response
relationship . That higher dosages of L-AMB are not nec-
essarily equivalent to greater response rate was recently dem-
onstrated by Cornely et al. . This recent prospective, ran-
domized trial of L-AMB, which compared a dosage of 3 mg/
kg/day with a dosage of 10 mg/kg/day for primary treatment
of proven and probable invasive aspergillosis in 201 patients,
found similar survival rates and overall response rates; greater
toxicity wasseen inthehigher-dosagegroup.Thedose-response
relationships for ABLC and ABCD have not been well studied.
Whether higherdosages of LFABsarebeneficialinthetreatment
of CNS aspergillosis, in other sites of infection, or in certain
conditions is also not well defined. Dosages of LFABs in pe-
diatric and adult patients achieve similar plasma exposures of
The antifungal triazoles are synthetic compounds that have ?1
triazole ring attached to an isobutyl core (e.g., voriconazole,
ravuconazole, and isavuconazole) or to an asymmetric carbon
atom with a lipophilic complex mixed functional aromatic
chain (e.g., itraconazole and posaconazole). These 2 classes of
anti-Aspergillus triazoles vary in their pharmacology and mech-
anisms of resistance. Fluconazole, which also is an antifungal
triazole, is not active against invasive aspergillosis.Voriconazole
is FDA approved for the primary treatment of invasive asper-
gillosis. Itraconazole is licensed for treatment of invasive as-
pergillosis in patients who are refractory to or intolerant of
standard antifungal therapy. Posaconazole is FDA approved for
prevention of invasive aspergillosis in neutropenic patients re-
ceiving remission induction chemotherapy for acute myelo-
genous leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome and for HSCT
biosynthesis by inhibiting the fungal cytochrome P450–depen-
dent enzyme lanosterol 14-a-demethylase, resulting in altered
cell membrane function and cell death or inhibition of cell
growth and replication. The triazoles also inhibit cytochrome
P450–dependent enzymes of the fungal respiration chain. The
anti-Aspergillus triazoles are active in vitro and in vivo against
all common species of Aspergillus. Although some isolates of
A. fumigatus have been found to be resistant to itraconazole,
resistance to the anti-Aspergillus triazoles has been unusualthus
far; however, recent studies suggest that the rate may be in-
creasing [82, 93].
Voriconazole is formulated as tablets or as a
sulfobutyl-ether cyclodextrin solution for IV administration.
Sulfobutyl-ether cyclodextrin and voriconazole dissociate in
plasma and follow their own disposition. As the cyclodextrin
molecule is renally cleared, accumulation of the vehicle occurs
in individuals with renal insufficiency. The consequences of
plasma accumulation of sulfobutyl-ether cyclodextrin are un-
certain at this time, and caution is advised when using the IV
formulation in patients with renal impairment (C-III). The
relative benefits and uncertain risks of the sulfobutyl-ether cy-
clodextrin parenteral solution of voriconazole in the context
of invasive aspergillosis and renal failure should be determined
on an individual patient basis. This concern does not apply to
orally administered voriconazole. The oral formulation has
good bioavailability in the fed or fasted state. Voriconazole is
widely distributed in mammalian tissues, with CSF levels of
IDSA Guidelines for Aspergillosis • CID 2008:46 (1 February) • 335
∼50% in plasma levels. The elimination half-life of ∼6 h war-
rants twice-daily dosing. Voriconazole is hepatically metabo-
lized, with only 5% of the drug appearing unchanged in the
urine. This agent exhibits nonlinear pharmacokinetics, with
maximum concentration in plasma and area under the curve
increasing disproportionally with increasing dose. Voriconazole
is both a substrate and an inhibitor of CYP2C19, CYP2C9, and
CYP3A4. The patient’s current medications should be reviewed
for potentially deleterious drug interactions. Allelic polymor-
phisms in CYP2C19 may result phenotypically in rapid or slow
metabolism of voriconazole, possible resulting in significant
variation in plasma concentrations. Single-nucleotide poly-
morphisms contributing to slow metabolism are represented
in higher frequencies among non-Indian Asian populations
than among other populations.
Treatment of invasive aspergillosis with voriconazole is ini-
tiated with a loading dose of 6 mg/kg IV every 12 h for 2 doses,
followed by 4 mg/kg every 12 h. These dosages are greater than
those routinely administered for oral therapy (200 mg every
12 h). Oral therapy can be approximated to the standard IV
dosage by using 4 mg/kg/dose rounded up to convenient pill
sizes (B-III), although use of oral voriconazole in these doses
is investigational and has not been carefully studied. Because
patients initially received IV therapy in the originalrandomized
clinical trial of voriconazole, parenteral therapy, where feasible,
is recommended to approximate the results of that study. Be-
cause of the more accelerated metabolic clearance in pediatric
patients, the doses of voriconazole may be higher . A main-
tenance dosage of 7 mg/kg twice daily in pediatric patients is
recommended by the European Medicines Agency for the at-
tainment of plasma levels comparable to those of adults. Load-
ing regimens in pediatric populations have not been adequately
studied. Measurement of serum levels, especially in patients
receiving oral therapy, may be useful in some patients, either
to evaluate for potential toxicity or to document adequatedrug
exposure, especially in progressive infection (B-III) .
Voriconazole’s profile of adverse reactions includes transient
visual disturbances (characterized principally by photopsia);
hepatotoxicity, which may be dose limiting (manifested by el-
evated serum bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, and hepatic ami-
notransferase enzyme levels); skin rash (usually in sunlight-
exposed areas), visual hallucinations; and others .
Itraconazole is a high molecular weight,
highly lipophilic compound that is formulated as capsules, oral
solution in hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin (HPCD), and par-
enteral solution that also uses HPCD as solubilizer. Absorption
pH and dietary lipids, may be erratic or negligible in the fasting
state, particularly in granulocytopenic patients with cancer and
in patients with hypochlorhydria, and its use in seriously ill
patients with life-threatening infection is not recommended.
Absorption is improved when the capsules are taken with food
or an acidic cola beverage. HPCD solution of itraconazole pro-
vides more-uniform oral bioavailabilitythatisfurtherenhanced
in the fasting state. Systemic absorption of the cyclodextrin
carrier is negligible.
Itraconazole is extensively metabolized in the liver and is
excreted in metabolized form into bile and urine. The major
metabolite, hydroxy-itraconazole, possesses antifungal activity
that is similar to that of itraconazole [96–98]. Most observed
reactions to itraconazole are transient and include nausea and
vomiting, hypertriglyceridemia, hypokalemia, and elevated he-
patic aminotransferase enzyme levels. Gastrointestinal intol-
erance appears to be more frequent with oral HPCD itracon-
azole solution. Because itraconazole use may infrequentlycause
negative inotropic effects, it should be administered with cau-
tion to patients with ventricular dysfunction. Itraconazole is a
substrate of CYP3A4 but also interacts with the heme moiety
of CYP3A4, resulting in noncompetitive inhibition of oxidative
metabolism of many CYP3A4 substrates. Serious interactions
with some chemotherapeutic agents (e.g., cyclophosphamide)
further limit its use .
is 400 mg/day (capsules) and 2.5 mg/kg twice daily (HPCD
solution). In pediatric patients aged 15 years, a dosage of oral
itraconazole HPCD solution of 2.5 mg/kg twice daily has been
recommended . The approved adult dosages of IV HPCD
itraconazole are 200 mg twice daily for 2 days, followed by 200
mg once daily for a maximum of 12 days. Because of the erratic
bioavailability of itraconazole, measurements of plasma con-
centrations of itraconazole by bioassay or by HPLC are rec-
ommended during oral therapy of invasive aspergillosis(A-III).
Posaconazole is structurally similar to itra-
conazole but has been studied in the treatment of invasive
aspergillosis only in the oral formulation.Posaconazoleexhibits
not only linear kinetics but also saturable absorption; thus,oral
loading doses are not possible. Steady-state levels may not be
achieved for up to a week with posaconazole therapy, which
may impact its use in primary therapy. Posaconazoleundergoes
hepatic metabolism via glucuronidation and also has the ca-
pacity for drug-drug interactions through inhibitionofCYP450
3A4 isoenzymes. Significantly more toxicity was observed in
patients with acute leukemia or myelodysplasia who were re-
ceiving posaconazole for prophylaxis than in such patients re-
ceiving prophylactic fluconazole or itraconazole .
Laboratory animal studies demonstrate activity of the oral
formulation in the prevention and treatment of experimental
pulmonary and disseminated aspergillosis [101, 102]. Recently
completed clinical trials are consistent with these laboratory
findings, demonstrating activity in the prevention of invasive
aspergillosis in neutropenic patients with acute myelogenous
336 • CID 2008:46 (1 February) • Walsh et al.
leukemia and in HSCT recipients with GVHD, as well as in
salvage therapy for refractory invasive aspergillosis [103–105].
The dosage of the oral suspension of prophylaxis is 200 mg
3 times per day, and the dosage for salvage treatment is 800
mg administered in 2 or 4 divided doses. The dosage in pe-
diatric patients is not established. Limited data are available on
the use of therapeutic drug monitoring, but in one study, im-
proved efficacy occurred with higher posaconazole drug levels
Therapeutic drug monitoring.
suggests patient-to-patient variability in the pharmacokinetics
of triazoles used for treatment or prophylaxis in invasive as-
pergillosis [95, 103, 106, 107]. Absorption issues (for itracon-
azole and posaconazole), drug-drug interactions (for all tria-
zoles), and pharmacogenetic differences (for voriconazole) all
contribute in various degrees to this variability . Although
the available data do not allow consensus and specific rec-
ommendations for therapeutic drug monitoring, accumulating
reports suggest that plasma drug level monitoring may play an
important role in optimizing the safety (for voriconazole and
flucytosine) and efficacy (for itraconazole, posaconazole, and
possibly, voriconazole) of antifungals with significant interpa-
tient pharmacokinetic variability among a complex patient
population, such as patients at risk for or who have invasive
aspergillosis. The necessity of documenting or continuing ther-
apeutic drug monitoring (once therapeutic concentrations are
documented) should be individualized as determined by the
clinical status of the host (e.g., specific organ function, co-
morbidities, and receipt of concomitant medications) and the
overall treatment plans. Although further work is needed to
validate therapeutic drug monitoring approaches for antifun-
gals, the committee recommends that determination of a
plasma drug level, in conjunction with other measures of clin-
ical assessment, may be another factor in evaluating reasons
for therapeutic failure attributable to suboptimal drug expo-
sures or for toxicity attributable to the drug (B-III).
A growing body of evidence
Echinocandins: Caspofungin, Micafungin, and Anidulafungin
The echinocandins are a novel class of semisynthetic amphi-
philic lipopeptides composed of a cyclic hexapeptide core
linked to a variably configured N-acyl side chain . The
echinocandins act by noncompetitiveinhibitionofthesynthesis
of 1,3-b-glucan, a polysaccharide in the cell wall of many path-
ogenic fungi. Together with chitin, the rope-like glucan fibrils
are responsible for the cell wall’s strength and shape. They are
important in maintaining the osmotic integrity of the fungal
cell and play a key role in cell division and cell growth. Because
of their distinct mechanism of action, the echinocandins have
the potential for use in combination regimens with currently
available standard antifungal agents.
All current echinocandins are only available for IV admin-
istration. They exhibit dose-proportional plasma pharmaco-
kinetics with a b half-life of 10–15 h that allows for once-daily
dosing. All echinocandins are highly (195%) protein bound
and distribute into all major organ sites, including the brain;
however, concentrations in uninfected CSF are low. Caspofun-
gin and micafungin are metabolized by the liver and slowly
excreted into the urine and feces. Anidulafungin is slowly de-
graded nonenzymatically in plasma and then hepatically
At the currently investigated dosages, all echinocandins are
generally well tolerated, and only a small fraction of patients
enrolled in the various clinical trials have discontinued therapy
because of drug-related adverse events. The most frequently
reported adverse effects include increased liver aminotransfer-
ase enzyme levels,gastrointestinalupset,andheadaches.Aswith
other basic polypeptides, the echinocandins have the potential
to cause histamine release; however, histamine-like symptoms
have been observed only in isolated cases, which may be related
to infusion rates that are more rapid than recommended. The
current echinocandins appear to have no significant potential
for drug interactions mediated by the CYP450 enzyme system.
Caspofungin can reduce the area under the curve of tacrolimus
by ∼20% but has no effect on cyclosporine levels. However,
cyclosporine increases the area under the curve of caspofungin
by ∼35%; because of transient elevations of hepatic amino-
transferase enzyme levels in single-dose interaction studies, the
concomitant use of both drugs should be done with caution
(B-III). Finally, inducers of drug clearance and/or mixed in-
ytoin, rifampin, dexamethasone, and carbamazepine, may re-
duce caspofungin concentrations.
Caspofungin is indicated in patients with probable or proven
invasive aspergillosis that is refractory to or intolerant of other
approved therapies. The currently recommended dosage regi-
men of caspofungin in adults consists of a single 70-mg loading
dose on day 1, followed by 50 mg/day thereafter, administered
by slow IV infusion of ∼1 h. Maertens et al.  reported
the use of higher doses of caspofungin (70 mg/day) for use in
salvage combination therapy of invasive aspergillosis. In cases
of markedly reduced hepatic function, adult patients should
receive a daily dose of 35 mg. Caspofungin administration at
50 mg/m2/day in children provides exposure that is comparable
to that obtained at a dosage of 50 mg/day in adults .
Micafungin and anidulafungin have activity against Aspergillus
species but are not approved for that indication, and optimal
doses for aspergillosis have not been established. Micafungin
at a mean daily dose of 111 mg was used in one open-label
trial. However, on a mg/kg basis, higher doses may be needed
in young children and infants to achieve a plasma exposure
that is comparable to that in adults [111, 112]. Although an-
idulafungin is active in experimental pulmonary aspergillosis,
IDSA Guidelines for Aspergillosis • CID 2008:46 (1 February) • 337
there is relatively little reported experience describing its use
in the treatment of invasive aspergillosis.
TREATMENT GUIDELINE OVERVIEW
The following practice guidelines providerecommendationsfor
treatment of the different forms of aspergillosis. For each form
of aspergillosis, the objective, treatment options, outcome of
treatment, evidence, values, benefits and harms, and key rec-
ommendations are specified, where appropriate. The panelper-
formed extensive review of all the randomized, controlled, and
observational trials publishedintheEnglish-languageliterature.
Final recommendations were discussed by the panel and de-
termined by consensus. Because invasive pulmonary aspergil-
losis is the most common life-threatening form of invasive
aspergillosis, more emphasis is placed on its management than
on other aspects of clinical infection. Many of the statements
concerning treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis are
also applicable to other forms of invasive aspergillosis.
INVASIVE PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS
Without adequate therapy, invasivepulmonaryaspergillosiswill
almost always progress to relentless fatal pneumonia. In neu-
tropenic patients, this pneumonia may be characterized bydev-
astating hemorrhagic infarction or progressive necrotizing
pneumonia. Without adequate therapy, invasive pulmonaryas-
pergillosis is further complicated by dissemination to the CNS
or by extension to contiguous intrathoracic structures, includ-
ing the great vessels and the heart. Because of the potential
progression of this infection, the early administration of an-
tifungal therapy while diagnostic evaluation is undertaken is
Early initiation of antifungal therapy in patients with
strongly suspected invasive aspergillosis is warranted while
a diagnostic evaluation is conducted (A-I) [29, 92]. The de-
cision of medical therapy for treatment of invasive pulmonary
aspergillosis has been greatly facilitated by a randomized, con-
trolled trial of voriconazole versus D-AMB.
Because of better survival and improved responses of initial
therapy with voriconazole, primary therapy with D-AMB is not
recommended (A-I). For primary treatment of invasive pul-
monary aspergillosis, IV or oral voriconazole is recom-
mended for most patients (A-I). Oral therapy can be maxi-
mized by using a dose of 4 mg/kg rounded up to convenient
pill sizes (B-111). For seriously ill patients, the parenteral
pared 2 initial dosages of L-AMB (3 mg/kg/day and 10 mg/kg/
day) and showed similar efficacy in both arms but greater tox-
icity in the higher-dose arm. These results suggestthatL-AMB
may be considered as alternative primary therapy in some
patients (A-I). For salvage therapy, agents include LFABs (A-
II), posaconazole (B-II), itraconazole (B-II), caspofungin (B-
II), or micafungin (B-II). In that context, the diagnosis should
be confirmed. Therapeutic options include a change of class
using an AMB formulation or an echinocandin (B-II); ad-
ditional use of an azole should take into account prior therapy,
host factors, and pharmacokinetic considerations.
In the absence of a well-controlled, prospective clinical
trial, routine administration of combination therapy for pri-
mary therapy is not routinely recommended(B-II).Thecom-
mittee recognizes, however, that in the context of salvage
therapy, an additional antifungal agent might be added to
current therapy, or combination antifungal drugs from dif-
ferent classes other than those in the initial regimen may be
used (B-II). In addition, management of breakthrough in-
vasive aspergillosis in the context of mould-active azole pro-
phylaxis or suppressive therapy is not defined by clinicaltrial
data but would suggest a switch to another drug class (B-
III). Paramount to the successful treatment of invasive pul-
monary aspergillosis is thereversalofimmunosuppression(e.g.,
reduction in the dosage of corticosteroids) or recovery from
neutropenia. Surgical resection of Aspergillus-infected tissue
may be useful in patients with lesions that are contiguous
with the great vessels or pericardium, lesions causing he-
moptysis from a single focus, and lesions causing erosion
into the pleural space or ribs (B-III).
Duration of antifungal therapy for invasive pulmonary as-
pergillosis is not well defined. We generally recommend that
treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis be continued for
a minimum of 6–12 weeks; in immunosuppressed patients,
therapy should be continued throughout the period of im-
munosuppression and until lesions have resolved. Long-term
therapy of invasive aspergillosis is facilitated by the availability
of oral voriconazole in stable patients. For patients with suc-
cessfully treated invasive aspergillosis who will require sub-
sequent immunosuppression, resumption of antifungalther-
apy can prevent recurrent infection (A-III) [113, 114].
Therapeutic monitoring of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis
includes serial clinical evaluation of all symptoms and signs, as
well as performance of radiographic imaging, usually with CT,
at regular intervals. The frequency with which CT should be
performed cannot be universally defined and should be indi-
vidualized on the basis of the rapidity of evolution of pul-
monary infiltrates and the acuity of the individual patient. The
volume of pulmonary infiltrates may increase for the first 7–
10 days of therapy—especially in the context of granulocyte
recovery . The use of serial serum galactomannan assays
for therapeutic monitoring is promising but remains investi-
338 • CID 2008:46 (1 February) • Walsh et al.
gational [48, 49]. Progressive increase in Aspergillus antigen
levels over time signifies a poor prognosis.However,resolution
of galactomannan antigenemia to a normal level is not suf-
ficient as a sole criterion for discontinuation of antifungal
therapy (B-III). Further data elucidating the prognostic and
therapeutic value of serial galactomannan levels inpatientswith
invasive pulmonary aspergillosis are needed.
Data on antifungal therapy.
ical trials on the treatment of invasive aspergillosis. Invasive
pulmonary aspergillosis is alife-threateninginfectionassociated
with severe morbidity and mortality. Invasive pulmonary as-
pergillosis may be the source for dissemination to the CNS and
other critical organs. This infection has been extremelydifficult
to study in prospective, randomized trials. The largest pro-
spective, randomized trial for the treatment of invasive pul-
monary aspergillosis demonstrated that voriconazole was su-
perior to D-AMB, followed by other licensed antifungaltherapy
. All patients had provenorprobableinvasiveaspergillosis,
and most of them had pneumonia. Voriconazole was admin-
istered at a dosage of 6 mg/kg every 12 h for 2 doses as a
loading dose, followed by 4 mg/kg every 12 h IV for the first
7 days, followed by 200 mg twice daily thereafter. D-AMB was
administered at 1.0–1.5 mg/kg/day IV; otherlicensedantifungal
therapy was permitted if the initial therapy failed or if the
patient had intolerance to the first drug. This study demon-
strated significantly improved survival, improved overall re-
sponse rate at 12 weeks of therapy, and improved overall re-
sponse at end of therapy. Successful outcome was achieved in
53% of patients in the voriconazole arm and 32% of patients
in the D-AMB arm, resulting in an absolute difference of 21%.
Survival rate at 12 weeks was 71% among voriconazole-treated
patients and 58% among D-AMB–treated patients. Recipients
of voriconazole had fewer severe drug-related adverse events.
However, transient visual disturbances occurred more fre-
quently with voriconazole, as discussed in the earlier section
on antifungal compounds in this article. The efficacy of vori-
conazole was further demonstrated in pediatric and adult pa-
tients receiving voriconazole for treatment of invasive asper-
gillosis who were refractory to or intolerant of conventional
antifungal therapy [116–118]; theoverallresponseratewas43%
and 48% for pediatric and adult patients, respectively.
Two earlier and smaller randomized trials of the primary
treatment of invasive aspergillosis[119,120]andanotherrecent
dose comparison study of L-AMB  have been reported. An
earlier prospective, randomized trial of 2 dosages of L-AMB
(1.0 mg/kg/day vs. 4.0 mg/kg/day) for treatment of invasive
aspergillosis was conducted by the European Organization for
Research in Treatment of Cancer . Although this study
found no difference in response rate or survival between the 2
There are few randomized clin-
treatment groups, the patient population included those with
possible aspergillosis. When those patients with possible as-
pergillosis are excluded from the analysis,thedatarevealatrend
toward improved response in patients with proven and prob-
able aspergillosis who were treated with the higher dosage,
which is consistent with the data from animal models dem-
onstrating a dose-response relationship [32, 121]. Another
study randomized patients with documented invasive asper-
gillosis to receive ABCD (6 mg/kg/day) versus D-AMB (1 mg/
kg/day) for primary treatment of invasive aspergillosis .
This study found that patients randomized to either arm had
similar outcomes but poor overall responses (patients with
complete and partial responses, 17% in the ABCD group vs.
23% in the D-AMB group), and those receiving ABCD had less
nephrotoxicity (25% vs. 49%). More recently, Cornely et al.
 compared an initial dosage of L-AMB of 10 mg/kg/day
for 2 weeks with a dosage of 3 mg/kg/day. In that study, among
201 patients, overall outcomes in the 2 arms were similar (46%
in the high-dose arm vs. 50% in the low-dose arm), but there
was more toxicity (32% vs. 20%) in the high-dose arm, sug-
gesting that higher doses were not beneficial in these patients,
the majority of whom had early invasive pulmonary aspergil-
losis diagnosed by CT.
For patients who are intolerant of or refractory to voricon-
azole, a formulation of AMB is an appropriate alternative. D-
AMB historically has been used in the treatment of invasive
aspergillosis. However, the available data indicate that the
LFABs are as effective as D-AMB but less nephrotoxic [119,
122–125]. That LFABs are effective against invasive pulmonary
aspergillosis and other forms of invasive aspergillosis is also
demonstrated in several large, open-label, compassionate-re-
lease studies with a response rate of ∼40% [124–126]. For those
patients with underlying hepatotoxicity or other contraindi-
cations to voriconazole, an LFAB is less toxic than is D-AMB
and is likely to be at least as effective as D-AMB asanalternative
for primary therapy.
A study of caspofungin for patients who are intolerant of or
refractory to conventional therapy also demonstrated a favor-
able response rate of ∼40% . Higher responses (50%)
occurred with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis than with dis-
seminated aspergillosis (23%). Drug-relatednephrotoxicityand
hepatotoxicity occurred in !5% of patients.
Orally administered itraconazole has also been used to treat
patients with invasive aspergillosis who are refractory to or
intolerant of D-AMB [24, 128]. In a study of 76 evaluable
patients, all of whom were able to take oral therapy, 30 patients
(39%) had a complete or partial response, with success rates
varying widely according to site of disease and underlying dis-
ease group . More recent studies of the parenteral for-
mulation of b-hydroxy-propyl-cyclodextrin itraconazole in the
treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis that was refrac-
IDSA Guidelines for Aspergillosis • CID 2008:46 (1 February) • 339
tory to various forms of AMB have been reported, with overall
response ratesof 52%[129,130].Measurementofitraconazole
serum levels are generally recommended to document ab-
sorption of drug (B-II). Although evidence to support a cor-
relation between higher drug levels and efficacy is limited,levels
1250 ng/mL have been associated with more-favorable out-
comes. Salvage therapy of itraconazole for treatment of in-
vasive pulmonary aspergillosis that is refractory to primary
therapy with voriconazole is not recommended because of
the same mechanism of action or possible resistance and
because of the erratic bioavailability and toxicity (B-II).
Posaconazole was approved in Europe for salvage treatment
of patientswith invasiveaspergillosiswhoarerefractorytoAMB
or itraconazole. The overall success rate in an externally con-
trolled, open-label trial using Data Review Committee–assessed
global response at end of treatment was 42% for the posacon-
azole group and 26% for the control group . The differ-
ences in response between the treatment groups were preserved
across additional, prespecified subsets, including infection site
(pulmonary or disseminated), hematological malignancy,
HSCT, baseline neutropenia, and enrollment reason (refractory
or intolerant). A difference in response was also seen in a con-
firmatory analysis subpopulation (patients who received prior
antifungal therapy for 7–30 days before the start of salvage
therapy). As with other salvage trials, patients enrolled in this
study were a selected population who had received prior ther-
apy, and for posaconazole salvage studies, patients were also
selected on the basis of their ability to receive the oral for-
mulation of posaconazole. The salvage study also demonstrated
a direct relationship betweenserumconcentrationandresponse
rate. One should note, however, that these serum concentra-
tions were achieved in patients receiving the highest adult dos-
age (800 mg administered in divided doses over 24 h) at which
maximum absorption of compound is known to occur. Thus,
further increases in the oral adult dosage are unlikely to yield
higher plasma concentrations.
Most of the prospective studies of second-line therapy have
been conducted by replacing the compound to which the pa-
tient is intolerant or against which the infection is progressing.
Whether both drugs should be administered simultaneously
has seldom been prospectively studied , nor are there
compelling prospective clinical data to support combination
antifungal therapy over single-agent therapy for primary ther-
apy of invasive aspergillosis . The addition of a second
antifungal agent to a first agent that is failing or toxic is usually
practiced out of understandable desperation.Nevertheless,lim-
ited in vitro, in vivo, and nonrandomized clinical trial data
suggest the benefit of some forms of combination therapy
against invasive aspergillosis [109, 131–137]. However, not all
antifungal combinations are beneficial, and some may be del-
eterious [138, 139]. There are insufficient clinical data to sup-
port combination therapy as routine primary treatment of in-
vasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Although initial laboratory
studies, case reports, and retrospective case series indicate en-
couraging findings, the efficacy of primary combination anti-
fungal therapy requires a prospective, randomized clinical trial
to justify this approach. Additionalquestionsofoptimaldosing,
pharmacokinetic interactions, potential toxic interactions, and
cost-benefit ratios of primary combination antifungal therapy
also require further investigation.
Impact of Aspergillus species.
given to the infecting species of Aspergillus. Most isolates of A.
fumigatus are susceptible in vitro and responsive in vivo to
AMB, voriconazole, posaconazole, itraconazole, and caspofun-
gin. However, most isolates of A. terreus are resistant in vitro
and in vivo to AMB. The aggregate body of data thus far
warrants that an antifungal triazole should be used instead
of AMB in the primary treatment of infection due to A.
terreus (A-II) . Although uncommon, some isolates of A.
fumigatus that are resistant to itraconazole have been reported.
Other species of Aspergillus may also be resistant to AMB, in-
cluding A. lentulus, A. nidulans, A. ustus, and Aspergillus ver-
sicolor. Known itraconazole-resistant isolates of A. fumigatus
were recovered from patients who were not profoundly im-
munosuppressed and otherwise should have responded to itra-
conazole . Multiazole-resistant Aspergillus species have
also been recently reported . Antifungal susceptibility test-
ing, especially in the context of prior azole therapy, may be
warranted as a guide to therapy, although very limited clinical
data support this approach. Pending susceptibility data, the
administration of a different class of agent (AMB formulation
or echinocandin) may be warranted.
Use of colony-stimulating factors.
suppression is an important factor in successful treatment of
invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Persistent neutropenia and
chronic GVHD are 2 of the most important variables for poor
outcome in invasive aspergillosis [6, 141]. Failure to recover
from neutropenia is often associated with a fatal outcome of
invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Although colony-stimulating
factors are widely used to attempt to reduce the duration of
neutropenia, there are limited data from randomized, con-
trolled trials to demonstrate that granulocyte colony-stimulat-
ing factor or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating fac-
torprevents the development
aspergillosis in patients with prolonged neutropenia (duration
of neutropenia, 110 days) . Although high-risk neutro-
penic patients with invasive aspergillosis may already be re-
macrophage colony-stimulating factor as a component of
their cancer chemotherapy, those neutropenic patients who
are not receiving a colony-stimulating factor may benefit
from the addition of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor
Consideration should be
Reversal of immuno-
340 • CID 2008:46 (1 February) • Walsh et al.
or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (B-
Cytokines, such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor,
granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and IFN-g,
also augment functional properties of phagocytic cells through
upregulation of chemotaxis, phagocytosis, oxidative metabo-
lism, and/or degranulation of neutrophils, and granulocytecol-
ony-stimulating factor, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stim-
ulating factor, and IFN-g upregulate phagocytosis and the
respiratory burst of monocytes and macrophages [143, 144].
The clinical data suggest a potential role of IFN-g in selected
hosts for prevention or treatment of invasiveaspergillosis.
Although clinical data supporting its use specifically for asper-
gillosis are sparse, IFN-g is widely used for prevention of bac-
terial and fungal infections in patients with chronic granulo-
matous disease (CGD) . Individual case reports suggest
a role for IFN-g as adjunctive antifungal therapy for invasive
aspergillosis in immunocompromised nonneutropenic pa-
tients, particularly those with CGD (B-III).
Role of granulocyte transfusions.
may be another resource for the treatment of patients with
invasive pulmonary aspergillosis [147, 148]. Although use of
this modality for management of invasive pulmonary asper-
gillosis has been controversial, the key element for improved
outcome appears to be an adequate number of granulocytes
transfused to the profoundly neutropenic patient. The advent
of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor mobilization of gran-
ulocyte donors results in the strikingly (∼10-fold) increased
number of granulocytes that can be recovered andsubsequently
administered to patients. In an open-label pilot study, Dignani
et al.  have reported the use of granulocyte colony-stim-
ulating factor–mobilized granulocyte transfusionsadministered
to patients with invasive aspergillosis and other mycoses due
to filamentous fungi. Stabilization of invasive pulmonary as-
pergillosis was demonstrated in some of the patients who were
otherwise experiencing refractoryinvasivefungalinfection.Un-
less patients recoverfromneutropenia,granulocytetransfusions
will not stabilize invasive aspergillosis indefinitely.
Granulocyte transfusions can be accompanied bytransfusion
reactions, including pulmonary dysfunction evidenced by hyp-
oxia and the acute onset of adult respiratorydistresssyndrome–
like pulmonary infiltrates. Granulocyte transfusions are also
associated with the transmission of cytomegalovirus infection.
In cytomegalovirus-seronegative HSCT recipients, only cyto-
megalovirus-seronegative donors should be used for granulo-
cyte transfusions. Because there has been an association be-
tween some of these reactions and simultaneous infusion of
AMB, patients undergoing granulocyte transfusion with con-
current use of AMB products usually have the AMB staggered
by several hours from the granulocytes,withcarefulmonitoring
for this complication. Moreover, this limited blood product
resource should only be implemented for those patients with
proven or probable infection who are anticipated to require
this bridge as a temporary measure until recovery from neu-
tropenia. Granulocyte transfusions have also been used in the
treatment of refractory invasive aspergillosis and other infec-
tions in patients with CGD .
Management of immunosuppressive therapies.
drawal of corticosteroids or reduction of dosage is often crit-
ical for successful outcome in invasive aspergillosis (A-III).
The failure to reduce an immunosuppressivedosageofsystemic
corticosteroids usually results in relentless invasive fungal in-
fection. However, because control of underlying diseases, such
as GVHD, may only be achieved by intense immunosuppres-
sion, corticosteroid-sparing immunosuppressive strategies are
being used increasingly. TNF-a blockade with infliximab is one
such strategy. However, because TNF-a is a key molecule in
the initial innate host defenseagainstA.fumigatus,itsinhibition
also may have deleterious immunological consequencesleading
to invasive aspergillosis [149–151].
For patients with chronic immunosuppression, continu-
ation of antifungal therapy throughout the duration of im-
munosuppression seems to be associated with a more fa-
vorable outcome (A-III). For patients with successfully treated
invasive aspergillosis who will require subsequent immuno-
suppression, resumption of antifungal therapy may prevent re-
current infection from residual foci of infection that may or
may not be demonstrated by current imaging techniques.
Hemoptysis and surgical management.
serious complication of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis that
may lead to exsanguination and respiratory arrest. Hemoptysis
in the course of invasive aspergillosis may occur during pro-
found pancytopenia or upon recovery from neutropenia [152,
153]. Early aggressive therapy and eradication of infection may
prevent this complication; however, there are no data to de-
finitively support this hypothesis. Because life-threatening he-
moptysis complicating invasive aspergillosis is reported most
often in patients already receiving antifungal chemotherapy,
surgical resection may be the only recourse to eradicate the
Surgical resection of pulmonary lesions due to Aspergillus
species can provide a definitive diagnosis and can potentially
completely eradicate a localized infection (table 3) [28, 154–
158]. Surgical therapy may be useful in patients with lesions
that are contiguous with the great vessels or the pericardium,
hemoptysis from a single cavitary lesion, or invasion of the
chest wall (B-II). Another relative indication for surgery is
the resection of a single pulmonary lesion prior to intensive
chemotherapy or HSCT (B-II). Although a successful course
of voriconazole may preclude the need for surgical resection
of pulmonary lesions, adjunctive surgicalinterventionisusually
warranted for treatment of aspergillosis involving the heart,
Hemoptysis is a
IDSA Guidelines for Aspergillosis • CID 2008:46 (1 February) • 341
Table 3.Relative indications for surgery in treatment of invasive aspergillosis.
ConditionSurgical procedure Comment
Pulmonary lesion in proximity to
great vessels or pericardium
Resection of pulmonary lesionMay prevent erosion of pulmonary lesions
into great vessels and into pericardial
Pericardiectomy reduces organism burden
around heart and prevents tamponade
Resection of lesion may relieve pain and
prevent pleurocutaneous fistula
Reduces burden of organism in closed space
May prevent exsanguinating hemoptysis;
other measures to reduce hemoptysis in-
clude embolization of involved blood ves-
sel and cauterization; however, recurrence
of bleeding is possible
Surgical judgment used in extent of debride-
ment and resection, if indicated
Removal of infected catheters and devices
provides definitive eradication
Vegetations may be valvular or mural; single
mural lesions are resectable, particularly if
Debridement of necrotic and infected bone
reduces organism burden and allows bet-
ter drug penetration; surgical judgment de-
termines extent of debridement
Extent of debridement may vary from no in-
tervention to wide resection, depending
on surgical judgment
Extent of debridement may vary from no in-
tervention to complete resection, depend-
ing on location, neurological sequelae, ac-
cessibility, and surgical judgment
Pericardial infection Pericardiectomy
Invasion of chest wall from con-
tiguous pulmonary lesion
Persistent hemoptysis from a
single cavitary lesion
Resection of pulmonary lesion
Placement of chest tube
Resection of cavity
Infection of skin and soft tissuesDebridement, wide margin
Removal of catheters and
Resection of vegetation and
Infected vascular catheters and
OsteomyelitisDebridement of infected bone
Sinusitis Resection of infected tissues
Cerebral lesionsResection of infected tissue
to tolerate the operative procedure, as well as the potential role of alternative medical therapy.
Indications depend on multiple variables, severity of lesion, surgical judgment, and the ability of the patient
great vessels, pleural space, andbone.However,recentfavorable
experience of using secondary antifungal prophylaxis after ini-
tial successful primary therapy prior to HSCT in patients with
prior invasive aspergillosis suggests that antifungal therapy
alone may be effective [159, 160]. Early surgical evaluation and
close CT monitoring may be warranted duringmedicaltherapy,
to intervene if a lesion further encroaches upon a critical struc-
ture. Decisions concerning surgical therapy should be individ-
ualized to account for a number of variables, including the
degree of resection (e.g., wedge resection vs. pneumonectomy),
potential impact of delays in chemotherapy,comorbidities,per-
formance status, the goal of antineoplastic therapy (e.g., cu-
rative vs. palliative), and unilateral versus bilateral lesions.
Pharmacoeconomics and costs.
pharmacoeconomics and fiscal costs of antifungal therapy are
beyond thescopeof these guidelines;however,theseissuesoften
occur in the context of LFABs versus D-AMB. The poor out-
comes and fiscal costs of D-AMB–induced renal impairment
in compromised hosts are well documented. Whether there is
a population for whom D-AMB can be used as first-linetherapy
is an important question. Some pediatric patients, particularly
neonates, may tolerate D-AMB with minimalorreversiblerenal
The complex issues of
impairment. The use of D-AMB in adult patients needs to be
assessed on an individual basis for the relative risks and con-
sequences of renal impairment. In many resource-limited set-
tings, D-AMB may be the only agent for primary treatment of
invasive aspergillosis and, as such, may be considered to be the
standard of care.
Early treatment of tracheobronchial aspergillosis may result in
the prevention of anastomotic disruption and loss of the lung
graft, as well as resolution of ulcerativetracheobronchiallesions
in lung transplant recipients.
Voriconazole is recommended as
initial therapy in the treatment of tracheobronchial asper-
gillosis (B-II). Little experience is available with caspofungin
or other echinocandins in treating this infection. Because the
use of D-AMB may result in increased nephrotoxicity in as-
sociation with calcineurin inhibitors, an LFAB is recom-
mended if a polyene is considered in the patient (e.g., lung
transplant recipient) (B-III). Bronchoscopic evaluation is the
most important aspect of initial diagnosis; CT will assess the
342 • CID 2008:46 (1 February) • Walsh et al.
lack of progression to the remainder of the pulmonary tree.
Reduction of immunosuppression, where possible, is an im-
portant element in improving therapeutic outcome. Aerosol-
ized D-AMB or LFAB may have some benefit for delivering
high concentrations of polyene therapy to the infected (often
anastomotic) site; however, this approach has not been stan-
dardized and remains investigational (C-III). Cases of trach-
have not received a transplant may be managed with a similar
Heart-lung and lung transplant recipients are at
high risk for the development of invasive aspergillosis at the
site of anastomosis between the recipient trachea and thedonor
trachea or at the site of the junction of the main bronchus
[161, 162]. Tracheobronchial aspergillosis has also been de-
scribed in the absence of an anastomotic site in other patient
populations, including patientswhohaveundergoneHSCTand
patients with lymphoma, acute leukemia, or AIDS [163, 164].
The spectrum of disease encompasses simple colonization,
bronchitis, obstructing trachoebronchitis, ulcerative tracheo-
bronchitis, and pseudomembranoustracheobronchitis.Because
this form of pulmonary aspergillosis is not usually associated
with pulmonary infiltrates in its initial stages, radiographic im-
ages may not identify the infection, which is otherwise easily
seen during bronchoscopic examination. Bronchoscopic eval-
uation is necessary for early diagnosis. Voriconazole and itra-
conazole have been used successfully in the treatment of this
form of pulmonary aspergillosis . Parenteral AMB also
has been used in this context. Direct instillation of AMB has
been administered as an alternative approach to treatment of
this form of pulmonary aspergillosis, in association with sys-
temic therapy [165, 166]. Inhalational AMB in the form of
ABLC has also been used for the prevention of invasive as-
pergillosis in lung transplant recipients, in whom tracheobron-
chial aspergillosis is especially important [167, 168]. However,
this modality remains investigational.
CHRONIC NECROTIZING PULMONARY
ASPERGILLOSIS (CNPA; SUBACUTE INVASIVE
Treatment of this infection may prevent progressivedestruction
of lung tissue in patients who are alreadyexperiencingimpaired
pulmonary function and who may have little pulmonary
The greatest body of evidence re-
garding effective therapy supports the use of orally admin-
istered itraconazole (B-III). Although voriconazole (and pre-
sumably posaconazole) is also likely to be effective, there is
less published information available for its use in CNPA (B-
III). Because long-term treatment is required, oral antifungal
therapy is preferred over parenteral therapy.
of pulmonary aspergillosis that most commonly causes a slowly
progressive inflammatory destruction of lung tissue in patients
with underlying lung diseases and low grade immunosuppres-
sion (e.g., prolonged use of systemiccorticosteroids)[169,170].
The previous literature regardingCNPAincludedbothsubacute
invasive aspergillosis and other chronic forms of aspergillosis.
Because of their underlyingprimarychronicrespiratorydisease,
these patients are also at risk for succumbing to pulmonary
There are a limited number of small, nonrandomized, open-
label studies that have been conducted for treatment of CNPA
[171–175]. Although variable responses have been reported in
the small number of patients treated with itraconazole ,
itraconazole appears to be suppressive in CNPA . Other
patients with CNPA have been treated with intracavitary in-
stillation of AMB and, more recently, with voriconazole [172,
174, 175]. In general, the principles for treatment of CNPA are
similar to those for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis described
above, with a greater emphasis on oral therapy.
CNPA is a distinct clinical and radiological form
SINGLE-ORGAN, EXTRAPULMONARY FORMS
OF INVASIVE ASPERGILLOSIS
Focal extrapulmonary invasive aspergillosis can develop as a
single-organ infection or can occur in the context of dissem-
inated infection. Because these are uncommon infections and
occur in a wide spectrum of clinical conditions, no randomized
clinical trials have been completed to assess therapeutic ap-
proaches in patients with these infections. Thus, there are very
limited data on the treatment of these infections, and most
involve D-AMB as primary therapy simply because of its long-
standing availability. However, based on the strength of the
randomized study comparing voriconazole to D-AMB ,
the panel recommends voriconazole for primary treatment
of these uncommon manifestations of invasive aspergillosis
(B-III). The use of voriconazole in these contexts is further
supported by case series and anecdotal cases documenting the
efficacy of voriconazole in extrapulmonary infections, some of
which have historically been associated with abysmalresponses,
including CNS infection , osteomyelitis , and en-
docarditis [178, 179]. The use of alternative agents and salvage
therapy can be approached in a manner similar to that de-
scribed for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.
ASPERGILLOSIS OF THE CNS
Treatment of CNS aspergillosis may reduce morbidity associ-
ated with neurological deficits and improve survival.
Aggressive diagnostic and thera-
peutic intervention is important in patientswithotherwisedoc-
umented invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and signs of neu-
rological deficits or unexplained abnormalities by CT or MRI.
IDSA Guidelines for Aspergillosis • CID 2008:46 (1 February) • 343
The weight of evidence supports voriconazole as the primary
recommendation for systemic antifungal therapy of CNS as-
pergillosis (A-II). Itraconazole, posaconazole, or LFAB are
recommended for patients who are intolerant or refractory
to voriconazole (B-III). There are few data supporting the use
of echinocandins as a single agent in salvage treatment of CNS
aspergillosis. Combination therapy with voriconazole and cas-
pofungin is used for CNS aspergillosis but with minimal data
to date. Surgical resection of lesions may be the definitivetreat-
ment and may prevent serious neurological sequelae. Surgical
resection of lesions that would not result in worsening of neu-
rological deficits also may improve outcome. Treatment ofcon-
tiguous infections of the paranasal sinuses or vertebral bodies
is a necessary part of management of this infection. Reversal
of any underlying immune deficits is paramount for successful
of neurological deficits, there may be a tendency to use cor-
ticosteroids. The roleof corticosteroidsinthiscontext,however,
is deleterious and should be avoided where possible (C-III).
The practice of intrathecal or intralesional antifungal chemo-
therapy is not recommended for treatment of CNS aspergillosis
(B-III). Intrathecal administration of AMB does not allow pen-
etration beyond the pia mater and may induce chemical ar-
achnoiditis, seizures, severeheadache,andalteredmentalstatus.
Instead, high-dose systemic antifungaltherapyisrecommended
to achieve higher parenchymal concentrations.
Aspergillus dissemination to the CNS is a dev-
astating complication of invasive aspergillosis [2, 180, 181].
This complication of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis has his-
torically been associated with a mortality rate of 190%. Arising
most commonly as hematogenous dissemination from a pul-
monary focus or from direct extension of paranasal sinus in-
fection, CNS aspergillosis is the most lethal manifestation of
infection due to Aspergillus species . Compared with can-
didiasis or cryptococcosis of the CNS, focalneurologicaldeficits
or focal seizures are the most common clinical manifestation
of CNS aspergillosis . Direct extension from the paranasal
sinuses, particularly the ethmoid sinuses, may also cause in-
volvement in frontal and temporal lobes or involvement of the
cavernous sinus and, potentially, the internal carotid artery.
Focal neurological deficits may be irreversible once established.
Early recognition and treatment may limit neurological injury.
Definitive diagnosis of CNS aspergillosis is often presumptive
and based on the presence of documented invasiveaspergillosis
in other sites, in association with the presence of compatible
clinical and radiological findings. Recent reports indicate that
galactomannan antigen may be detected in CSF, thereby en-
hancing diagnostic certainty and potentially sparing aninvasive
neurological procedure for histological diagnosis [43–45].
Most observations of treatment of CNS aspergillosis are
based on open-label studies. The one randomized trial for in-
vasive aspergillosis demonstrated a trend toward improvement
of CNS aspergillosis in patients who were treated with vori-
conazole . The open-label studies of voriconazole in adult
and pediatric patients also demonstrate activity of the triazole
in treatment of CNS aspergillosis [116, 176]. Among patients
with CNS aspergillosis who received voriconazole combined
with surgical intervention, responses were favorable in 35%
(with long-term survival in 31%); thus, voriconazole is the
recommended therapy for CNS aspergillosis . Among the
LFABs, favorable responses have been achieved in case reports
with L-AMB, ABLC, and ABCD [183–185]. Itraconazole and
posaconazole have also been successfully used in treatment of
CNS aspergillosis [103, 186–188]. The recent open-label, com-
passionate release study of caspofungin demonstrated response
of CNS aspergillosis that was refractory to AMB . The
impact of these agents in the management of CNS aspergillosis
appears to be beneficial. However, because of continued high
rates of mortality, surgical resection of infected lesions may be
an important adjunct to improve antifungal therapy (A-II).
Several reports underscore the role of surgical resection of CNS
aspergillosis [176, 186, 189]. Other strategies for treatment of
CNS aspergillosis have included higher doses of single agents,
combinations of antifungal agents, and use of immunomo-
dulators ; however, there are no data from prospectively
controlled clinical studies to suggest the superiority of these
approaches, compared with standard single-agent therapy at
Epidural aspergillosis is an unusual manifestation of CNS
aspergillosis that most often arises from extension into the
epidural space from vertebral abscess .Systemicantifungal
therapy and surgical drainage are considered to be standards
of practice for management of epidural aspergillosis; however,
most of the experience in managing epidural aspergillosis is
based on individual case reports and briefcaseseries.Aspergillus
osteomyelitis is discussed later in this article.
INVASIVE SINONASAL ASPERGILLOSIS
tervention with systemic antifungal therapy and surgical resec-
tion and/or debridement (where indicated) is important. The
patient’s immune status, extent of surgery necessary, concom-
itant coagulopathy, and morbidity associated with the surgical
procedure(s) should be carefully weighed. Although random-
ized trials are lacking for this indication, AMB, itraconazole,
voriconazole, or presumably, posaconazole are reasonable
choices for initial therapy. If the infection is known to be due
to Aspergillus species, voriconazole should be initiated (B-
III). If one selects voriconazole or itraconazole as primaryther-
apy, recognition of sinonasal zygomycosis is critical, because
these triazoles lack clinical activity against this group of fungal
organisms. Thus, if the etiological organism is not known or
Early recognition and therapeutic in-
344 • CID 2008:46 (1 February) • Walsh et al.
histopathologic examination is still pending, an AMB for-
mulation should be initiated in anticipation of possiblesinus
zygomycosis (A-III). Posaconazole demonstrates salvage ac-
tivity in extrapulmonary aspergillosis and offers the theo-
retical advantage of activity against Zygomyetes in this con-
text, although published clinical experience is limited(B-III).
There are limited data supporting echinocandin use in Asper-
Sinus aspergillosis is classified asinvasiveornon-
invasive. Noninvasive aspergillosis may be further classified as
saprophytic sinus aspergillosis or allergic sinus aspergillosis.
This section will address the guidelines for treatmentofinvasive
sinus aspergillosis. Subsequent sections will review the guide-
lines for management of noninvasive sinus aspergillosis.
Several studies involving immunocompromised patients in-
dicate that this infection may be associated with invasive pul-
monary aspergillosis or complicated by CNS aspergillosis[192–
194]. Infection of the maxillary sinus may be complicated by
direct invasion into the palate, with necrosis and perforation
into the oral cavity or perforation of the nasal septum. Asper-
gillosis of the ethmoid and frontal sinuses carries the ominous
implication of direct extension into the veins that drain these
structures into the cavernous sinuses, resulting in cranial nerve
deficits and internal carotid artery thrombosis. Aspergillosis of
the ethmoid sinuses also may result in periorbital infectionand
extension into the extraocular muscles and globe of the eye,
resulting in loss of vision. Infection of the sphenoid sinuses
may result in direct extension into the cavernous sinuses. In-
fection of the mastoid sinus cells may occur as a result of a
chronic Aspergillus otitis media. Aspergillosis of the mastoid
sinus may subsequently extend into the transverse sinus, re-
sulting in venous thrombosis and severe neurological sequelae.
Although there are no randomized trials investigating sys-
temic antifungal therapy for treatment of invasive sinonasal
aspergillosis, general principles emerge from reports using a
combination of medical and surgical interventions . The
role of surgical therapy, however, is tempered by the extent of
resection necessary, the potential hemorrhagic diathesis of the
patient, the surgical candidacy of the patient, and the extent
of infection. Diagnostic imaging using CT (includingbonewin-
dows) will define the soft-tissue and bony extent of disease.
The presence of sinus air-fluid levels or sinus opacification in
an immunocompromised host should prompt otolaryngolog-
ical evaluation and sinus endoscopic examination. Brushings
and culture of necrotic or ulcerative lesions on the turbinates
or in the paranasalmucosamaydemonstrateAspergillusspecies,
but the differential diagnosis includes other filamentous fungi,
such as the various Zygomycetes, which can appear distinctive
histopathologically. Tissue samples should be cultured without
homogenization to increase viability of Zygomycetes.
Systemic antifungal therapy is necessary for treatment of
most cases of invasive sinus aspergillosis. Favorable responses
have been achieved with AMB [189, 195–197], voriconazole
, itraconazole , and caspofungin [199, 200]. Al-
though surgical debridement occupies an important role in
management of invasive Aspergillus sinusitis and may be cu-
rative in some circumstances, extensive resections or repeated
surgical debridements may increase morbidity and mortality
among neutropenic patients. Recent advances in surgery for
maxillary and ethmoidal infection may be beneficial and may
avoid more-disfiguring surgery. Local irrigations with AMB are
often administered by the surgical teams as an adjunct to sys-
temic antifungal therapy after debridement. However, the use
of this strategy is unclear in the context of systemic antifungal
therapy. As previously mentioned, the reversal of immunosup-
pression is paramount to successful outcome of this infection
and to prevention of extension and dissemination to the CNS.
Chronic invasive sinonasal aspergillosis and chronic granu-
lomatous Aspergillus sinusitis have also been documented in
immunocompetent patients living in dry-air climates, such as
India, Saudi Arabia, and Sudan[201, 202].Invasiveaspergillosis
in Sudanese patients has been predominantly due to A. flavus
and has been treated with surgical drainage in most cases. In-
vasive sinonasal aspergillosis in such patients tends to progress
in a more indolent manner over the course of months to years
in relation to its granulomatous histological characteristics.Al-
though it is more indolent, this infection may progress to in-
vasion of the orbit and other craniofacial structures and, ul-
timately, to intracranial involvement. Aggressive therapy with
combined surgical debridement and chronic antifungaltherapy
is necessary. Because of the propensity for recurrent infections,
long-term antifungal therapy for ?1 year may be warranted.
ASPERGILLUS ENDOCARDITIS, PERICARDITIS,
aggressive medical and surgical intervention is critical to pre-
venting embolic complications and valvular decompensation.
Voriconazole has been successfully used in case reports and
may be the preferred agent (B-III) [179, 180], based on data
from a randomized trial data conducted mostly in pulmonary
infection. D-AMB historically has been recommended as the
preferred initial treatment, and D-AMB therapy should be con-
tinued for a minimum of 6 weeks after surgical intervention
(B-III). Because of the potential for recurrent infections fol-
lowing replacement of an infected prosthetic valve, strong
consideration should be given to lifelong antifungal therapy
with an antifungal triazole, such as oral voriconazole or po-
Cardiac invasion by Aspergillus species may pre-
sent as pericarditis, endocarditis, or myocarditis [203–208]. As-
pergillus endocarditis may occur as a valvular or mural endo-
Early recognition, followed by rapid,
IDSA Guidelines for Aspergillosis • CID 2008:46 (1 February) • 345
cardial infection. Valvular vegetations most commonly develop
on prosthetic valves; however, Aspergillus endocarditis is re-
ported to occur on normal valves, particularly in injectiondrug
users. Valvular vegetations and, occasionally, mural vegetations
may be large and pedunculated, with a high-risk of embolic
complications, particularly CNS-related complications.Indeed,
embolization to large arteries is a common hallmark of Asper-
gillus endocarditis. When manifesting as mural endocarditis,
Aspergillus infection of the heart may be the result of dissem-
ination or involvement of the mitral valve annulus.
Aspergillus myocarditis may manifest as myocardial infarc-
tion, cardiac arrhythmias, or myoepicarditis . This infec-
tion generally occurs in the context of disseminated diseaseand
requires systemic antifungal therapy.
Aspergillus pericarditis arises as the result of direct extension
from a contiguous focus of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis,
extension from a myocardial lesion, or intraoperative contam-
ination . Pericardial tamponade may rapidly ensue, lead-
ing to hemodynamic deterioration and cardiac arrest.
The literature of reported cases consistently underscores the
poor prognosis of cardiac aspergillosis. The cornerstones of
management of Aspergillus endocarditis are antifungal che-
motherapy and surgical resection of the infected valve or mural
lesion. Attempts to manage cases with medicine alone arerarely
successful [203, 209, 210]. As a general principle, in manage-
ment of fungal endocarditis, early and aggressive surgical re-
section is endorsed before the onset of valvular destruction,
potentially fatal embolic events, or rupture of chordae tendinae
leading to acute mitral valvular decompensation . Most
cases of Aspergillus endocarditis have been treated with AMB
[209, 211, 212]. Because of the relative infrequency with which
cardiac aspergillosis occurs, there are insufficient data on the
use of antifungal triazoles or echinocandins for this infection,
although success of voriconazole in cases of tricuspid and pros-
thetic valve endocarditis has been reported [178, 179]. An ex-
tended course of antifungal therapy postoperatively is recom-
mended to eradicate residual cardiacfociandmetastaticlesions.
D-AMB has been used for treatment of most cases of As-
pergillus pericarditis, often with fatal outcome . Of par-
amount importance to successful treatment of Aspergillus per-
icarditis is aggressive surgical pericardial resection or drainage
to treat the rapid development of pericardial tamponade.
ASPERGILLUS OSTEOMYELITIS AND SEPTIC
tervention is recommended, where feasible, for management
of Aspergillus osteomyelitis and arthritis (B-III). Diagnostic
imaging with CT and/or MRI is essential for staging disease
and for providing a guide for orthopedic and/or neurosurgical
intervention. Although there is currently limited experience
Combined medical and surgical in-
with voriconazole for treatment of Aspergillus osteomyelitis,
voriconazole appears to be effective for this indication (B-
II). Historically, AMB has been used and would be appro-
of 6–8 weeks is warranted in nonimmunocompromised pa-
tients. For immunocompromised patients, consideration for
long-term suppressive therapy or treatment throughoutthedu-
ration of immunosuppression is appropriate.
Aspergillus osteomyelitis may develop by he-
matogenous dissemination, traumatic inoculation, direct ex-
tension from a visceral focus, or contamination at the time of
surgery [213–215]. Hematogenous Aspergillus osteomyelitis
may occur, especially in neutropenic patients, injection drug
users, and patients with inherited immunodeficiency, such as
CGD. The vertebral bodies and intervertebraldisksarethemost
common site of Aspergillus osteomyelitis . Successful out-
comes have been achieved with combined surgicaldebridement
and systemic antifungaltherapy(B-III).Mostcasesofsuccessful
antifungal therapy have been achieved with AMB . Med-
ical treatment alone (L-AMB, followed by oral itraconazole)
has rarely been successful in management of Aspergillus oste-
omyelitis . Although successful primary itraconazolether-
apy of Aspergillus osteomyelitis has been reported , itra-
conazole has been more widely used subsequent to a course of
AMB . More recently, voriconazole has been successfully
used as salvage and primary therapy, either alone or in com-
bination with surgical debridement [177, 219]. There is little
reported experience of the use of posaconazole  or echin-
ocandins in treatment of Aspergillus osteomyelitis.
Aspergillus arthritis may develop from hematogenous dis-
semination in immunocompromised patients and in illicit in-
jection drug users or by direct traumatic inoculation in im-
arises as an extension from a contiguous focus of Aspergillus
osteomyelitis . Most of the successfully treated cases of
Aspergillus arthritis have responded to combined medical ther-
apy and drainage of the joint . Most reported cases of
Aspergillus arthritis have used AMB as primary therapy; azoles
have less commonly been used in this role .
ASPERGILLUS ENDOPHTHALMITIS AND
Aspergillus endophthalmitis and Aspergillus keratitis are 2 sight-
threatening infections that require rapid ophthalmologic and
medical intervention to preserve and restore sight. Aspergillus
keratitis is an excruciatingly painful process; treatment of this
process may also considerably alleviate pain. If not recognized
and treated promptly, Aspergillus keratitis may requireacorneal
transplant or may be complicated by endophthalmitis.
Following a diagnosticvitrealtap,
IV AMB and, where appropriate, intravitreal AMB plus pars
346 • CID 2008:46 (1 February) • Walsh et al.
plana vitrectomy may be sight saving in Aspergillus endo-
phthalmitis (B-III). Voriconazole administered intravitreally
or systemically is an alterative regimen (B-III). Management
of Aspergillus keratitis requires emergency ophthalmologic
intervention with ophthalmologic examination, topical an-
tifungal therapy, and systemic antifungal therapy with AMB,
voriconazole, or itraconazole (B-III).Ophthalmologicsurgical
intervention has been warranted in cases with potentialcorneal
perforation or progression despite medical therapy.
Aspergillus endophthalmitis is a devastating in-
fection that may result in irreparable loss of vision and rapid
destruction of the eye. Infection may occur by one of several
mechanisms: hematogenous dissemination, direct inoculation
by trauma, and contamination by surgical procedure [222–
224]. Hematogenous dissemination occurs most commonly in
injection drug users and immunocompromised patients with
disseminated aspergillosis and endophthalmitis.Definitiveclin-
ical diagnosis requires direct ophthalmoscopicexaminationand
culture of vitreous humor or aqueous humor specimens. AMB
has been used most widely as the systemic agent in treatment
of Aspergillus endophthalmitis. Concentrations of AMB-based
compounds in the aqueous and vitreous humor are relatively
low; intravitreal administration of AMB is also used following
pars plana vitrectomy as a standard of care in management of
Aspergillus endophthalmitis and has resulted in successful out-
comes [223, 225]. Voriconazole has recently been found to be
successful in isolated cases of Aspergillus endophthalmitis and
has been administeredintravitreallyandsystemically[226,227].
Panresistant organisms, such as A. ustus, have also been re-
ported . Vitrectomy may be sight saving by removing the
bulk of inflammatory debris and infectious organisms. More
conservative measures, such as subconjunctival injection, are
seldom successful. Direct macular involvement is a poor prog-
nostic indicator for recovery of visual acuity .Itraconazole
has been used as systemic therapy, in conjunction with pars
plana vitrectomy and AMB intravitreal injection, in a few re-
ported cases. Systemic antifungal therapy with AMB and 5-
flourocytosine has also been reported in several cases.Although
5-flourocytosine penetrates well into the vitreous humor, its
role in enhancing the antifungal combination therapy against
aspergillosis is not established, and it has been noted to be
antagonistic in vitro against some Aspergillus strains .
Aspergillus keratitis is a locally invasive fungal infection of
the cornea that is characterized by ocular pain,potentiallyrapid
loss of vision, and potential development of endophthalmitis
if not recognized and treated promptly [230–232]. The cornea
is the critical structure for visual acuity and integrity of the
anterior chamber. Aspergilluskeratitismostcommonlydevelops
as a result of traumaticinoculationofAspergillusintothecornea
through injury or surgical procedures [233, 234]. Aspergillus
keratitis is commonly encountered in agriculturalworkers,who
may suffer abrasions of the cornea from branches and leaves
during the course of their work in the fields .
requiring careful slit lamp examination,assessmentofthedepth
of infection, and promptinitiationoftopicalantifungaltherapy.
Topical antifungal therapy with AMB drops or pimaricin is
most widely used, although there are no controlled data to
support their use. Intracameral injection of AMB (i.e., into the
anterior chamber) has been reported to be a suitablealternative
in patients who are refractory to topical antifungal therapy
. Oral itraconazole has been successfully used in the treat-
ment of Aspergillus keratitis, possibly because it penetrates into
the deeper corneal layer of the eyes, but itraconazole has also
been used as a topical solution [236, 237]. Voriconazole, ad-
ministered topically, systemically, or via intracameral injection
has also been successfully used in Aspergillus keratitis[238,239]
Surgical intervention, which mayincludedebridement,lamellar
keratectomy, or a conjunctival flap, is often required. Topical
therapy may be unsuccessful, and surgical resection of the in-
fected cornea may be the only recourse. A corneal transplan-
tation may be necessary in the context of progressiveAspergillus
keratitis despite medical therapy or if there is a threat of corneal
Cutaneous aspergillosis may develop in the context of hema-
or nosocomial device-related infection
Therapy for secondary cutaneous
lesions reflects that of disseminated infection, with systemic
voriconazole (A-I) recommended as primary therapy. Alter-
native agents include L-AMB (A-I), posaconazole, itracona-
zole, or an echinocandin (B-II). Surgical intervention, partic-
ularly for primary cutaneous infection, may be useful; biopsy
for confirmation of mycological diagnosis is very important to
distinguish other potential pathogens (e.g., Fusarium species
Cutaneous aspergillosis may be a primary process
or, more frequently, may develop as a result of secondary he-
matogenous dissemination in immunocompromised patients
[240–242]. Cutaneous aspergillosis rarely occurs as an infection
in immunocompetent patients. Nosocomial cutaneous aspergil-
losis may also be a sentinel of environmental contamination, as
exemplified by cutaneous infections occurring with arm boards,
direct contamination of vascular sites in the operating room,
contamination of dressings used for burn wounds, and percu-
taneous infection in newborn infants [241–244]. Itraconazole is
concentrated in skin and skin structures,whichtheoreticallymay
increase its use in treating cutaneous aspergillosis.
IDSA Guidelines for Aspergillosis • CID 2008:46 (1 February) • 347
eter and intraperitoneal dialysis with AMB, in addition to
IV administration of AMB, are recommended (B-III). Itra-
conazole or an extended-spectrum azole (voriconazoleorpo-
saconazole) may be used as a salvage therapy (C-III).
Aspergillus peritonitis may occur as a compli-
cation of chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis . Al-
though Candida species are the most common cause of fungal
peritonitis complicating chronic ambulatoryperitonealdialysis,
Aspergillus species are a well-established cause of this infection
. Removal of the dialysis catheter, combined with the ad-
ministration of intraperitoneal and IV AMB, has been associ-
ated with successful outcome [245, 247]. Itraconazole has also
been used for systemic antifungal therapy in the management
of Aspergillus peritonitis complicating chronic ambulatoryperi-
toneal dialysis . Evidence for other compounds is limited.
Removal of peritoneal dialysis cath-
ESOPHAGEAL AND GASTROINTESTINAL
ical and, where appropriate, surgical therapy is needed to pre-
vent the complications of potentially fatal hemorrhage, per-
foration, obstruction, and infarction. Systemic antifungal
therapy, as used for disseminated invasive aspergillosis, is
Aspergillosis of the esophagus and gastrointes-
tinal tract has been found to be relatively common in advanced
cases of disseminated invasive aspergillosis [249, 250]. Young
et al.  described the esophagus and gastrointestinal tract
as the third most common site of infection in autopsy-docu-
mented invasive aspergillosis. The few well-documented cases
have been associated with high morbidity and mortality. There
is no clear indication of optimal therapy. Because of the paucity
of data for esophageal and gastrointestinal aspergillosis, a ra-
tional approach is to combine medical and surgical therapy.
Once a diagnosis is established, med-
losis should be considered as initial therapy (C-III). For ex-
trahepatic or perihepatic biliary obstruction, surgical inter-
vention is warranted (C-III). For localized lesions that are
refractoryto medical therapy,
Occurring as single or multiple parenchymal le-
sions, hepatic aspergillosis may occur as a process of dissem-
ination from the gastrointestinal tract along the portal venous
system or as a component of general systemic dissemination
[17, 251]. Hepatic aspergillosis may also develop as a process
Medical therapy of hepatic aspergil-
surgical consultation is
of cholangitis . Reports of therapeutic interventions are
limited. Medical therapy for hepatic abscesses may be effective
and preclude the need for surgical resection.
urological management of renal aspergillosis allows flexibility
for the various patternsof renalaspergillosis.Nephrostomymay
reduce the complications of ureteral obstruction and allow for
AMB lavage of the pelvicalyceal system. All of the available
antifungal agents with activity against aspergillosis penetrate
renal parenchyma. However, because none of these agents is
excreted primarily into the pelvis of the kidney or urine, the
management of pelvicalyceal and ureteral infection may re-
quire nephrostomy with instillation of AMB (C-III).
Renal aspergillosis may develop as single or mul-
dissemination or, less commonly, as the resultofcontamination
of a surgical procedure or as fungal balls in the pelvis of the
kidney [253–256]. This form of Aspergillus infection may cause
hematuria, ureteral obstruction, perinephric abscess with ex-
tension into surrounding tissues, or passing of ?1 fungal ball
or fungal elements in the urine. Reports of management are
limited to individual cases. Medical management alone may be
successful if abscesses are relatively small.Managementoflarger
abscesses may require surgical drainage. Nephrectomy is per-
formed only as a last option.
A combined approach of medicaland
EMPIRICAL ANTIFUNGAL THERAPY OF
NEUTROPENIC PATIENTS WITH PROLONGED
FEVER DESPITE ANTIBACTERIAL THERAPY
AND PRESUMPTIVE THERAPY FOR INVASIVE
AMB, an LFAB, itraconazole, voriconazole, or caspofungin
is recommended for high-risk patients with prolonged neu-
tropenia who remain persistently febrile despite broad-spec-
trum antibiotic therapy (A-I). Empirical antifungal therapy
is not recommended for patients who are anticipated to have
short durations of neutropenia(durationofneutropenia,!10
days), unless other findings indicate the presence of an in-
vasive fungal infection (B-III).
This area has been reviewed in a related 2002
Guideline from the Infectious Diseases Society of America
. Early reports from the National Cancer Institute and the
European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer
underscored the importance of early initiation of D-AMB for
treatment of invasive aspergillosis and other invasive fungal
infections [258, 259]. These randomized, nonplacebo, open-
label clinical trials demonstrated that neutropenic patientswith
Empirical antifungal therapy with
348 • CID 2008:46 (1 February) • Walsh et al.
persistent fever despite broad-spectrum antibacterial therapy
have an increased risk of developing an overt invasive fungal
infection. In these studies, empirical antifungaltherapyreduced
the frequency of the development of clinically overt invasive
fungal infection and provided prophylaxis against subsequent
infections in high-risk neutropenic patients. L-AMB was found
to be as effective as but less nephrotoxic than D-AMB in a
randomized, double-blind multicenter trial; a secondary anal-
ysis demonstrated a significant reduction of invasive fungal
infections in the L-AMB arm . A randomized control
study of IV and oral formulations of itraconazole also found
this agent to be as effective as but less nephrotoxic than D-
AMB in empirical antifungal therapy . A randomized,
controlled trial of voriconazole versus L-AMB did not fulfill
prespecified criteria for the overall population but was com-
parable to L-AMB in the high-risk neutropenic population,
with a significant reduction in the rate of emergent invasive
aspergillosis during neutropenia in prespecifiedsecondaryanal-
yses . Although not FDA approved for empirical use in
patients with fever and neutropenia, the use of voriconazole in
treating both infection due to Aspergillus species and infection
due to Candida species—the leading fungal pathogens in most
patients with fever and neutropenia—provides evidencetosup-
port the recommendation for its use in patients at high risk
for these infections while a diagnostic evaluation is conducted.
Most recently, caspofungin was compared with L-AMB in a
randomized, double-blind, multinational trial for empiricalan-
tifungal therapy. This trial found that caspofungin was as ef-
fective as L-AMB in overall response; prespecified secondary
analyses found that caspofungin was more active in prolon-
gation of survival and in primary treatment of baselineinvasive
fungal infections . Empirical antifungal therapy appears
to be most beneficial in patients with prolonged neutropenia
(duration of neutropenia, 110 days). The initiation of antifun-
gal therapy still warrants an aggressive approach to establishing
a microbiological diagnosis where feasible.
Preemptive antifungal therapy is a logical extension of em-
pirical antifungal therapy, in that it defines a high-risk patient
population on the basis of more than persistent fever and neu-
tropenia (i.e., with a surrogate marker of infection, such as
abnormal CT findings or a positive result of assayforAspergillus
antigen). Because ∼40% of patients receiving empirical anti-
fungal therapy have pulmonary infiltrates, there is considerable
overlap between the approaches of empirical and preemptive
therapy. In an open-label feasibility study, Maertens et al. 
used serum galactomannan assay and CT to detect invasive
aspergillosis in a population of patients with leukemia who
received fluconazole prophylaxis. This strategy, which used
more extensive serum galactomannan and radiographic mon-
itoring than is typically performed in routine practice, reduced
the use of empirical therapy and successfully treated cases of
invasive aspergillosis diagnosed using surrogate markers.
For persistently febrile neutropenic patients who may be re-
ceiving anti-Aspergillus prophylaxis, the causes of persistent fe-
ver are less likely to be of a fungal origin . Careful eval-
uation for nonfungal causes, as well as the possibility of
breakthrough invasive fungal infections that are resistant to the
prophylactic regimen, should be considered in this patientpop-
ulation. Thus, routine initiation of empirical antifungaltherapy
in this context merits reevaluation.
PROPHYLAXIS AGAINST INVASIVE
conazole can be recommended in HSCT recipients with
GVHD who are at high risk for invasive aspergillosis and in
patients with acute myelogenous leukemia or myelodysplas-
tic syndrome who are at high risk for invasive aspergillosis
(A-I). Itraconazole may be effective, but tolerability limits
its use (B-I). Further investigation of antifungal prophylaxis is
recommended in this population and other high-risk groups.
Prophylactic strategies may be useful in patients
who are at high risk for invasive aspergillosis; selection of the
patient population in whom this strategy may be applied re-
mains a challenge. Selected high-risk patient groups may in-
clude patients with prolonged neutropenia and severe GVHD,
lung transplant recipients, patients receiving long-term high-
dose corticosteroid therapy, some liver transplant recipients,
and those with certain inherited immunodeficiency disorders
A clinical trial of posaconazole therapy has recently been
reported that demonstrated its superiority versus fluconazole
or itraconazole in prevention of invasive aspergillosis in pa-
tients with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplasia.
This study demonstrated higher survival in the posaconazole
arm, but there was greater toxicity in recipients of posacon-
azole than in fluconazole recipients. Because of the hetero-
geneity of risk for invasive aspergillosis in published series of
acute myelogenous leukemia therapy, further study is needed
to determine which populations of patients with leukemia
and myelodysplasia might benefit most from this approach.
Risk factors for invasive aspergillosis during acute myeloid
leukemia therapy from published series include the need for
11 treatment course to achieve remission or chemotherapy
for relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia. A separate
study of posaconazole prophylaxis during GVHD in HSCT
recipients also found a significant reduction in proven and
probable invasive fungal infections and similar toxicity in po-
saconazole recipients, compared with those receiving flucon-
azole . Because of the heterogeneity of risk for invasive
fungal infection in patients receiving anti-GVHDtherapy,fur-
Antifungal prophylaxis with posa-
IDSA Guidelines for Aspergillosis • CID 2008:46 (1 February) • 349
ther study is needed to define which patients would benefit
most from this approach. Risk factors for invasiveaspergillosis
in patients with GVHD include the need for prolonged high-
dose steroid therapy (11 mg/kg/day of prednisone for 2–3
weeks) and the use of certain anti-GVHD therapies, such as
infliximab and antithymocyte globulin. Earlier studies of an-
tifungal prophylaxis in hematological malignancies are sum-
marized in a large meta-analyses [265–269].
A key distinction should be made between primary and sec-
ondary prophylaxis. Primary prophylaxis involves administra-
tion of antifungal chemotherapy to patients who have no evi-
dence of infection but whose epidemiological risk profile
indicates a high propensity for the development of invasive
of antifungal therapy to a patient who is undergoing a period
of immunosuppression and who has a history of invasive as-
pergillosis. This section focuses on primary prophylaxis. How-
ever, several studies indicate that secondary prophylaxisagainst
invasive aspergillosis can be successful when an anti-Aspergillus
azole (voriconazole, posaconazole, or itraconazole) or LFAB is
given to patients receivingongoingimmunosuppressivetherapy
following treatment of a documented episode of invasive as-
pergillosis [113, 270–272].
Among the studies that investigated parenterally adminis-
tered D-AMB or L-AMB for prophylaxis, most have been
historically controlled, and some have suggested a reduction
in invasive aspergillosis. Severalprospective,randomizedtrials
using polyene therapies have demonstrated a reduction in the
number of invasive fungal infections, but none have dem-
onstrated a significant reduction of invasive aspergillosis in a
prospective, randomized study [273–276]. Studies of aero-
solized AMB have revealed conflicting results, in part because
of limitations of study design and selection of patients at risk
Itraconazole has been evaluated in several prospective trials,
but conclusions regarding efficacy have been limited, because
study designs have not included patients at significant risk for
aspergillosis [269, 280–284]. Although itraconazole oral cap-
sules are ineffective for prophylaxis because of erratic bioa-
vailability and dose-limiting toxicity, itraconazole oral solution
or IV itraconazole in neutropenic patients with hematological
dysfunction is partially effective in reducing the incidence of
invasive aspergillosis, with a mean hazard ratio of 0.52 (range,
0.3–0.91) . However, the use of itraconazole solution for
prophylaxis against Aspergillus is also reduced by dose-limiting
toxicity [285, 286]. Although micafungin showed a trend to-
wards a decreased incidence of Aspergillus infection (compared
with fluconazole) in HSCT, there were small numbers of break-
through infections in the patients studied, and the requirement
for daily IV therapy further limited widespread use . Itra-
conazole has been successfully used as prophylaxis in patients
with CGD . Voriconazole has not been studied in this
context, although clinical trials are in progress.
CHRONIC AND SAPROPHYTIC FORMS OF
ASPERGILLOMA AND CHRONIC PULMONARY
conazole, voriconazole, or presumably, posaconazole pro-
vides some potential for therapeutic benefit with compara-
tively minimal risk (B-III). Surgical resection or intracavitary
antifungal therapy may be appropriate in selected patients with
a single aspergilloma who are carefully evaluated for the risks
mentioned below. Long-term, perhaps lifelong, antifungal
treatment is required for chronic cavitary pulmonary asper-
gillosis (CCPA; B-III).
One or more pulmonary cavities with detectable
serum Aspergillus antibodies are characteristic of pulmonary
aspergilloma or chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. Patients usu-
ally have underlying pulmonary disease, such as cavitary tu-
berculosis or histoplasmosis, fibrocystic sarcoidosis, bullous
emphysema, or fibrotic lung disease. Among the serious com-
plications of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis are potentially
life-threatening hemoptysis, pulmonary fibrosis, and rarely lo-
cally, invasive aspergillosis. Pulmonary aspergilloma is defined
as a conglomeration of intertwined Aspergillus hyphae, fibrin,
mucus, and cellular debris within a pulmonary cavity or an
ectatic bronchus . The diagnosis of aspergilloma is usually
made clinically and radiographically without a lung biopsy.
Pulmonary aspergilloma radiographically appears as a solid
rounded mass, sometimes mobile, of water density, within a
spherical or ovoid cavity, and separated from the wall of the
cavity by an airspace of variable size and shape. Local pleural
thickening is highly characteristic. CCPA is defined as the oc-
currence of multiple cavities, which may or may not contain
an aspergilloma, in association with pulmonary and systemic
symptoms and raised inflammatory markers. Over years, un-
treated, these cavities enlarge and coalesce, and aspergillomas
may appear or disappear. A distinction between CNPA (pre-
viously known as subacute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis)
and CCPA is the prolonged time frame and genetic predis-
position described in the latter; defects in innate immunity are
described in CCPA . Apparent aspergillomas (which is
better termed mycotic lung sequestrum) also may develop in
consolidated lesions during recovery from neutropenia, but
preexisting cavities are not present in these cases.
The data guiding management of single aspergillomas are
based on uncontrolled trials and case reports. Therapeutic de-
cisions that involve aspergilloma are predicated on preventing
or treating life-threatening hemoptysis. The firstmajordecision
Antifungal chemotherapy with itra-
350 • CID 2008:46 (1 February) • Walsh et al.
in the management of aspergilloma is whether therapy is
Surgical resection is a definitive treatment for aspergilloma
[156, 291]. However, pulmonary resection for aspergilloma is
a difficult surgicalprocedure.AttemptstoresectCCPA(referred
to in the surgical literature as complex aspergilloma) have been
associated with high morbidity and mortality. Postoperative
complications include hemorrhage, bronchopleural fistulae,
and Aspergillus infection of the pleural space. Further contrib-
uting to the high risk of surgical resection of an aspergilloma
is the often preexisting poor pulmonary function that may
preclude thoracotomy. The optimal candidates for surgical re-
section are those with a single aspergilloma.
Bronchial artery embolization has been used to occlude the
putative vessel that supplies the bleeding site in patients ex-
periencing hemoptysis caused by chronic pulmonary aspergil-
losis . Unfortunately,bronchialarteryembolizationisusu-
ally unsuccessful or only temporarily effective because of
complex collateral vascular channels. Thus, bronchial artery
embolization should be considered as a temporizing procedure
in a patient with life-threatening hemoptysis who might be
eligible for more medical therapy or surgical resection (single
aspergilloma) if the hemoptysis were stabilized (B-III). Endob-
ronchial or transthoracic intracavitary resection instillation of
antifungal agents, particularly AMB, has been attempted with
some success [156, 293]. However, this modality may be dif-
ficult in patients with compromised pulmonary function.
Medical therapy has limited activity in treatment of asper-
gilloma ; in some cases, however, it may be of some use
. Medical therapy is the standard of care for CCPA [174,
175, 294, 295]. IV administered D-AMB appears to have min-
imal activity in treatment of aspergilloma. Response in CCPA
to systemically administered itraconazole or voriconazole is fa-
vorable, with improvement in symptoms and stabilization or
improvement in Aspergillus antibody titers and radiologic find-
ings [170, 175]. Terbinafine has been suggested to have activity
in one report, but lack of clinical data limits recommendation
for its use . The benefits of surgical resection of asper-
gilloma may offer definitive treatment; however, the risks of
compromised pulmonary function, bronchopleural fistula, and
infection of the pleural space may outweigh the benefits, de-
pending on the individual patient. Bronchial artery emboli-
zation carries modest risk and only transient benefit. Trans-
thoracic, intracavitary instillation of AMB may be effective, but
it carries a risk of pneumothorax, hemoptysis, and pleuralseed-
ing. Oral systemic antifungal therapy is unnecessary for single
aspergilloma but important for CCPA. Adverse events associ-
ated with azole antifungal drugs are infrequent but are prob-
lematic for those who develop them. If the drug is tolerated,
no additional long-term risks of azole therapy have been
ASPERGILLUS OTOMYCOSIS (OTIC
lutions of boric acid, acetic acid, or azole cream may be
effective in eradicating Aspergillus otomycosis (C-III). For
refractory casesandin contextsofperforatedtympanicmem-
branes, use of voriconazole, posaconazole, or itraconazole
may be appropriate (C-III).
Aspergillus otomycosis is a saprophytic process
that usually involves the external auditory canal . Symp-
toms include pruritus, pain, hypoacusis, and otic discharge.
Aspergillus otomycosis may involve the middle ear if the tym-
panic membrane has been perforated. Perforation of the tym-
panic membrane does not usually occur as a resultofAspergillus
otomycosis but more often ensues as the result of recurrent
bacterial otitis media. Patients with impaired mucosal or cu-
taneous immunity, such as those with hypogammaglobuline-
mia, diabetes mellitus, chronic eczema, or HIV infection and
those who receive corticosteroids, are susceptible to recurrent
bacterial otitis media, otitis externa, andAspergillusotomycosis.
If the otomycotic process is not successfully treated and the
underlying predisposing immune impairment and anatomic
defects are not corrected, Aspergillus hyphae and conidia may
extend into the mastoid sinus, creating a chronic fungal mas-
toiditis. Aspergillus otomycosis is most commonly attributable
to A. niger and A. fumigatus [297, 298]. A. niger, which is a
known cause of in vivo production of oxalic acid, may locally
elaborate this toxic metabolite in the necrotic debris of the
external auditory canal . Erosion and disruption of the
epidermis may serve as a portal of entry for superinfection by
opportunistic bacterial infections in immunocompromised pa-
tients. Data describing treatment outcomes are anecdotal or
uncontrolled. Topical therapy using irrigations with acetic acid
or boric acid are described as being beneficial. Topical anti-
fungal creams and ointments are not well studied but may be
useful for this condition. Orally administered itraconazole,vor-
iconazole, or posaconazole may be effective; however, there are
no published studies that support their use.
Topical therapy with irrigating so-
ALLERGIC FORMS OF ASPERGILLOSIS
monary aspergillosis (APBA) should consist of a combina-
tion of corticosteroids and itraconazole (A-I).
APBA is a hypersensitivity disease of the lungs
that is associated with inflammatory destruction of airways in
response to Aspergillus species . ABPA is defined through
7 primary diagnostic criteria: episodic bronchial obstruction
Treatment of allergic bronchopul-
IDSA Guidelines for Aspergillosis • CID 2008:46 (1 February) • 351
(asthma), peripheral eosinophilia, immediate scratch test reac-
tivity to Aspergillus antigen, precipitating antibodies to Asper-
gillus antigen, elevated serum IgE concentrations, history of
pulmonary infiltrates (transient or fixed), and central bron-
chiectasis. Secondary diagnostic criteria include repeated de-
tection of Aspergillus species in sputum samples using stain
and/or culture, a history of expectoration of brown plugs or
flecks, elevated specific IgE concentration directed against As-
pergillus antigen, and Arthus reaction (late skin reactivity) to
Aspergillus antigen. ABPA may progress through clinical stages
of acute corticosteroid-responsive asthma to corticosteroid-de-
pendent asthma to fibrotic end-stage lung disease with hon-
Corticosteroid therapy is the mainstay of therapy for ABPA
[301–303]. However, the few studies of corticosteroid therapy
for ABPA have involved small numbers of patients and have
been neither double-blind nor controlled . Nevertheless,
the current findings support the usefulness of corticosteroids
in the management of acute ABPA, with improved pulmonary
function and fewer episodes of recurrent consolidation. How-
ever, because chronic administration of corticosteroids causes
severe immune impairment and multiple metabolic abnor-
malities, alternative approaches to management of ABPA have
An example of such an approach is to eradicate Aspergillus
species from the airways using itraconazole as a corticosteroid-
sparing agent. The mechanism of this effect is to diminish the
antigenic stimulus for bronchial inflammation. Two double-
blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials for ABPA dem-
onstrated that itraconazole (200 mg twice daily orally for 16
weeks) resulted in significant differences in abilitytoameliorate
disease, as assessed by the reduction in corticosteroid dose,
increased interval between corticosteroid courses, eosinophilic
inflammatory parameters, and IgE concentration, as well as
improvement in exercise tolerance and pulmonary function
[305, 306]. Similar benefits of itraconazole were observed in
patients with cystic fibrosis and ABPA . Other azoles (vor-
iconazole and posaconazole) have not been studied in this con-
text. The benefits of short-term corticosteroid treatment of
ABPA include reduced frequency of acute exacerbations, pres-
ervation of pulmonary function, and improved quality of life.
However, the long-term adverse effects of corticosteroid ther-
apy may result in profound immunosuppression and debili-
tating metabolic abnormalities, including diabetes mellitus,
hyperlipidemia, and osteoporosis. Corticosteroid-induced im-
to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Itraconazole spares the ef-
fect of corticosteroids but may interact with inhaled cortico-
steroids, leading to iatrogenic Cushing syndrome in rare cases.
The benefits of the addition of itraconazole outweigh the risks
of long-term administration of high-dose prednisone.
ALLERGIC ASPERGILLUS SINUSITIS
in patients with obstructive symptoms (C-III). Itraconazole
is recommended for consideration in allergic Aspergillus si-
nusitis (AAS; C-III). Nasal or systemic corticosteroids may
be useful in some patients (C-III). The benefits of endoscopic
surgical sinus drainage outweigh the risks of surgery in cases
of AAS that present with complications of sinus obstruction.
Systemic corticosteroids are beneficial but may be fraught with
serious systemic complications with long-term use. Nasal cor-
ticosteroids are partially effective and well absorbed but, when
used continuously in high doses, can damage or atrophy the
nasal mucosa. The benefits of itraconazole in AAS outweigh
the potential for toxicity (C-III). Because patients with either
AAS and ABPA may be receiving nonsedating antihistamines,
caution is required to assess the potential for adverse drug
interactions with some of those agents associated with pro-
longed QT interval and torsades de pointe.
Katzenstein et al.  first describedtheclinical
and pathologic features of AAS in 1983 in 7 cases presenting
as chronic sinusitis. Most patients were young adults with a
of multiple sinuses. Recurrent sinusitis was common. Several
patients underwent repeated surgical drainage procedures. A
distinct mucinous material containing eosinophils, Charcot-
Leyden crystals, and hyphal elements morphologically com-
patible with Aspergillus species was found histologicallyintissue
resected from the sinuses. The condition of AAS shares similar
histopathological features with ABPA but affects the paranasal
sinuses instead of the lung. Waxman et al.  later described
the immunologic features of AAS to include an immediate
cutaneous reactivity to Aspergillus species in 60% of patients,
elevation of total serum IgE concentration in 85%, and serum
precipitins to Aspergillus species in 85%. The conditions of AAS
and ABPA may coexist in some patients. These investigators
and others have reported beneficial responses to variable
courses and doses of prednisone in nonrandomized, noncon-
trolled, observational studies . Because of the obstruction
caused by inspissated mucinous secretions, surgical drainage
and aeration is considered to be an essential component of
management, in conjunction with intranasal or systemic cor-
ticosteroid therapy. Advanced forms of AAS may present with
proptosis and optic neuropathy, necessitating prompt surgical
intervention . Fang  more recently introduced the
use of endoscopic sinus surgery in the management of AAS,
thus affording reduced risk, compared with that associatedwith
more-invasive drainage procedures. Recent case reports suggest
a benefit of itraconazole in the management of AAS and may
spare the use of steroids [311, 312]. Other azoles have not been
Endoscopic drainage may be useful
352 • CID 2008:46 (1 February) • Walsh et al.
FUTURE DIRECTIONS AND GAPS IN
KNOWLEDGE IN INVASIVE ASPERGILLOSIS
There are many unanswered and unresolved epidemiological,
laboratory, and clinical questions that need to be addressedand
understood in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of as-
pergillosis. Better diagnostic tests are needed, both to facilitate
more accurate identification of patients with invasive aspergil-
losis and to permit earlier initiation of therapy. The availability
of more-active and better-tolerated antifungal agents has sig-
nificantly improved therapy of patients at risk for serious As-
pergillus infection. However, critical gaps in knowledge remain
regarding management of these infections, including the use of
combination therapy, tools for early detection of these infec-
tions, evaluation of response, therapy for patients with break-
through or refractory infection, and the patient population for
whom prophylaxis would be most beneficial.
We thank Drs. Mahmoud Ghannoum, John R. Graybill, John R. Perfect,
and Jack D. Sobel, for their thoughtful reviews of earlier drafts of the
manuscript, and Dr. Tom M. File, for helpful suggestions and support in
drafting this document.
Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Potential conflicts of interest.
T.J.W. has Cooperative Research & De-
velopment Agreements with Vicuron (subsequently acquired byPfizer)and
with Fujisawa (Astellas). T.F.P. has had grant support from Astellas Pharma
US, Enzon, Nektar Therapeutics, Merck, Pfizer, and Schering-Plough; has
been a consultant for Merck, Pfizer, Schering-Plough, Basilea,NektarTher-
apeutics, and Stiefel Laboratories; and has been on the speaker’s bureau
for Merck, Pfizer, and Schering-Plough. E.J.A. has received grant support
from Astellas, Curagen, Enzon, Nuvelo, OrthoBiotech, and Pfizer; has been
a consultant for Astellas, Gilead Sciences, Merck, Pfizer, and Schering
Plough; and has been on the speaker’s bureau for Astellas, Gilead Sciences,
Merck, and Pfizer. D.W.D. has received grant support from Astellas,Merck,
Pfizer, F2G, OrthoBiotech, Sigma-Tau, Indevus, Basilea, Fungal Research
Trust, Wellcome Trust, and Moulton Trust; has been an advisor/consultant
for Merck, Basilea, Vicuron (now Pfizer), Schering-Plough, Indevus, F2G,
Nektar, Daiichi, Sigma Tau, Astellas, and York Pharma; has been paid for
speaking on behalf of Astellas, Merck, GSK, Chiron, AstraZenca,andPfizer;
and holds founder shares in F2G and Myconostica.R.H.hasbeenamember
of the advisory board for Astellas, Gilead, Merck, Pfizer, and Schering-
Plough and has been a member of the speaker’s bureau of Gilead, Pfizer,
Schering-Plough, and Zeneus. D.P.K. has received research support and
honoraria from Schering-Plough, Pfizer, Astellas Pharma, Enzon Phar-
maceuticals, and Merck. K.A.M. has served as a consultant for Astellas,
Enzon, Basilea, Merck, Nektar Therapeutics, Pfizer, Schering-Plough, Bas-
ilea, Merck, and Nektar. V.A.M. is a consultant for Schering-Plough,Berlex,
and BiogenIDEC andison the speaker’sbureauforAmgen,Berlex,Celgene,
Merck, Pfizer, and Schering-Plough. B.H.S. has received speaker honoraria
from Merck and Pfizer; has served as a consultant/advisor for Pfizer, Sch-
ering-Plough, Berlex, and Enzon; has been a compensated member of a
data review committee for Schering-Plough; and has received laboratory
support from Enzon and Pfizer. W.J.S. has served on the speaker’s bureau
for Pfizer and Astellas and has served as a consultant for Astellas, Merck,
and Enzon. D.A.S. has served on the advisory boards for Merck, Schering-
Plough, and Gilead; has served as a speaker for Janssen,Enzon,andAstellas;
and has received grant support from Merck, Pfizer, Gilead, Schering-
Plough, Enzon, and Astellas. J.-A.v.B. has served on the speaker’s bureau
for Schering-Plough and Astellas; has served as a clinical trial investigator
for Schering-Plough, Merck, and Astellas; and has served as a consultant
for Merck. J.R.W. has received speaker’s honoraria from Pfizer and Merck,
has received grants from Merck and Pfizer, and has served as an advisor
for Pfizer, Merck, and Schering-Plough.
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