Disinhibition: Its effect on appetite and weight regulation

Institute of Psychological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
Obesity Reviews (Impact Factor: 8). 09/2008; 9(5):409-19. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2007.00426.x
Source: PubMed


Over the past 30 years, the understanding of eating behaviour has been dominated by the concept of dietary restraint. However, the development of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire introduced two other factors, Disinhibition and Hunger, which have not received as much recognition in the literature. The objective of this review was to explore the relationship of the Disinhibition factor with weight regulation, food choice and eating disorders, and to consider its aetiology. The review indicates that Disinhibition is an important eating behaviour trait. It is associated not only with a higher body mass index and obesity, but also with mediating variables, such as less healthful food choices, which contribute to overweight/obesity and poorer health. Disinhibition is also implicated in eating disorders and contributes to eating disorder severity. It has been demonstrated that Disinhibition is predictive of poorer success at weight loss, and of weight regain after weight loss regimes and is associated with lower self-esteem, low physical activity and poor psychological health. Disinhibition therefore emerges as an important and dynamic trait, with influences that go beyond eating behaviour and incorporate other behaviours which contribute to weight regulation and obesity. The characteristics of Disinhibition itself therefore reflect many components representative of a thrifty type of physiology. We propose that the trait of Disinhibition be more appropriately renamed as 'opportunistic eating' or 'thrifty behaviour'.

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Available from: Eleanor J Bryant
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    • "Eating-related disinhibition refers to a tendency to overeat in response to a variety of stimuli (i.e., emotional, cognitive, and environmental cues;Hays & Roberts, 2008). A vast body of research suggests that disinhibition is an important construct for understanding maladaptive eating behavior (for review, seeBryant, King, & Blundell, 2008). For example, individuals who score higher on measures of disinhibition tend to eat more in response to a preload (Westenhoefer, Broeckmann, Munch, & Pudel, 1994), stress (Haynes, Lee, & Yeomans, 2003), and experimentally-induced negative affect (Yeomans & Coughlan, 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Eating-related disinhibition (i.e. a tendency to overeat in response to various stimuli) is associated with weight gain and poorer long-term weight loss success. Theoretically, experiential avoidance (i.e., the desire or attempts to avoid uncomfortable internal experiences), may predispose individuals to developing negative reinforcement eating expectancies (i.e., the belief that eating will help to mitigate distress), which in turn promote disinhibition. Such relationships are consistent with an acquired preparedness model, which posits that dispositions influence learning and subsequent behavior. Drawing from this framework, the current study represents the first investigation of relations between negative reinforcement eating expectancies, experiential avoidance (both general and food-specific) and disinhibited eating. In particular, the mediating role of negative reinforcement eating expectancies in the relation between experiential avoidance and disinhibited eating was examined.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
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    • "The 21-item Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R21) will be used to measure three eating behaviors: cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating7980818283. Demographic variables (baseline only) Program leaders and all SHHC subjects will complete a questionnaire that includes basic demographic variables (e.g. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States and places substantial burden on the health care system. Rural populations, especially women, have considerably higher rates of cardiovascular disease, influenced by poverty, environmental factors, access to health care, and social and cultural attitudes and norms. Methods/Design This community-based study will be a two-arm randomized controlled efficacy trial comparing a multi-level, community program (Strong Hearts, Healthy Communities) with a minimal intervention control program (Strong Hearts, Healthy Women). Strong Hearts, Healthy Communities was developed by integrating content from three evidence-based programs and was informed by extensive formative research (e.g. community assessments, focus groups, and key informant interviews). Classes will meet twice weekly for one hour for 24 weeks and focus on individual-level skill building and behavior change; social and civic engagement are also core programmatic elements. Strong Hearts, Healthy Women will meet monthly for hour-long sessions over the 24 weeks covering similar content in a general, condensed format. Overweight, sedentary women 40 years of age and older from rural, medically underserved communities (12 in Montana and 4 in New York) will be recruited; sites, pair-matched based on rurality, will be randomized to full or minimal intervention. Data will be collected at baseline, midpoint, intervention completion, and six-month, one-year, and eighteen months post-intervention. The primary outcome is change in body weight; secondary outcomes include physiologic, anthropometric, behavioral, and psychosocial variables. In the full intervention, engagement of participants’ friends and family members in partnered activities and community events is an intervention target, hypothesizing that there will be a reciprocal influence of physical activity and diet behavior between participants and their social network. Family members and/or friends will be invited to complete baseline and follow-up questionnaires about their health behaviors and environment, height and weight, and attitudes and beliefs. Discussion Strong Hearts, Healthy Communities aims to reduce cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality, improve quality of life, and reduce cardiovascular disease-related health care burden in underserved rural communities. If successful, the long-term goal is for the program to be nationally disseminated, providing a feasible model to reduce cardiovascular disease in rural settings. Trial registration Identifier: NCT02499731 Registered on July 1, 2015.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Public Health
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    • "Examples of disinhibition include eating in response to negative affect, overeating at a social gathering, not being able to resist temptation to eat, and overeating in response to food that looks delicious (Bryant et al., 2008). Higher levels of disinhibition are associated with a higher BMI, poorer food choices, and are clearly a risk factor for obesity (Bryant et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Poor eating behaviors greatly influence the development of becoming overweight or obese. Learning to better self-regulate eating is one area in which individuals can positively influence their own health.PurposeThe purpose of this concept analysis is to provide an in-depth analysis of the concept eating self-regulation as it pertains to overweight and obese adults using Walker and Avant's method.ResultsThe definition for eating self-regulation formulated as a result of this concept analysis and based on the critical attributes is the ability to initiate goal-related behaviors, to consistently self-monitor dietary intake, to regularly apply willpower to resist temptations, to self-evaluate where one stands in relationship to goal attainment, and finally to maintain motivation to positively change eating behaviors. Cognitive restraint, moderation, mindfulness, disinhibition, delayed gratification, emotions and moods, self-efficacy, social support, the environment, and physical activity are the antecedents that may influence eating self-regulation.Conclusion Examining an individual's weight, body mass index, lipid levels, or blood pressure are some ways to determine if self-regulation of eating behavior is achieved. With a consistent definition of self-regulation and a better understanding of the critical factors that influence eating behaviors, research can better explore how to help individuals change their eating behaviors more effectively.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Nursing Forum
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