Post traumatic stress disorder in children after Tsunami disaster in Thailand: 2 years follow-up. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, 90(11), 2370-2376

ArticleinJournal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 90(11):2370-6 · November 2007with25 Reads
Source: PubMed
Abstract
On December 26, 2004, the tsunami destroyed many families, communities, and residential areas. Adverse psychological impact on children and adolescents due to a natural disaster of this magnitude has never been reported in Thailand's history particularly as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Investigate clinical symptoms and develop a 2-year monitoring and intervention program for PTSD in children affected by the December 26, 2004 tsunami natural disaster The study period started six weeks after the event and was completed after two years. One thousand six hundred and twenty five surviving students from two schools in Takuapa district, Phang-nga Province, were enrolled. Screening tests using Pediatric symptom checklists, Childhood depressive intervention (CDI), and Revised child impact of events scales (CRIES) were done. Psychiatric evaluations were done by child and adolescent psychiatrists. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was diagnosed using criteria from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition. The prevalence of PSTD in the affected students were 57.3, 46.1, 31.6, 10.4, and 7.6% at 6 weeks, 6 months, 1 year, 1 1/2 years, and 2 years, respectively. The female: male ratio was 1.7:1. The peak age was 9-10 years old. Threatened situations were studied. Of the 176 students who risked their lives in the waves, 48 (27.3%) suffered from PTSD. Meanwhile, of the 1314 students who were not hit by the waves but were among affected friends and relatives, 42 students (3.1%) suffered from PTSD. The prevalence of PTSD in those hit by the waves were significantly higher than those who were not [p-value < 0.01, RR = 5.16 (4.04-.6.6)]. The prevalence of PSTD in children who suffered from the tsunami disaster was as high as 57.3% at six weeks after the incident. It declined sharply at two years (7.6%) with the help of integrated welfare. The children continue to get financial, rehabilitation, and mental health support to prevent long-term adverse outcomes.
    • "The majority of disaster survivors do not develop chronic reactions of distress and do not need professional help, whereas a sizeable minority may suffer for a prolonged period of time (Norris, Murphy, Baker, & Perilla, 2004; North, Kawasaki, Spitznagel, & Hong, 2004). Distressing psychological reactions are often most distinct during the first weeks after a traumatic event and gradually decrease during the following two years (Connor, Foa, & Davidson, 2006; Ford, Adams, & Dailey, 2007; Meewisse, Olff, Kleber, Kitchiner, & Gersons, 2011; Piyasil et al., 2007). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The characteristics of long-term trajectories of distress after disasters are unclear, since few studies include a comparison group. This study examines trajectories of recovery among survivors in comparison to individuals with indirect exposure. Methods: Postal surveys were sent to Swedish tourists, repatriated from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami (n=2268), at 1, 3, and 6 years after the tsunami to assess posttraumatic stress (PTS) and poor mental health. Items were used to ascertain high and moderate disaster exposure groups and an indirect exposure comparison group. Results: Long-term PTS trajectories were best characterized by a resilient (72.3%), a severe chronic (4.6%), a moderate chronic (11.2%) and a recovering (11.9%) trajectory. Trajectories reported higher levels of PTS than the comparison group. Exposure severity and bereavement were highly influential risk factors. Conclusions: These findings have implications regarding anticipation of long-term psychological adjustment after natural disasters and need for interventions after a single traumatic event with few secondary stressors.
    Article · Sep 2015
    • "After the devastating tsunami that struck Asian and African coastlines on 26 December 2004, several articles reported psychiatric consequences, particularly post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among children and adolescents (Jensen, Dyb and Nygaard, 2009; John, Russell and Russell, 2007; Kristensen, Weisaeth and Heir, 2009; Neuner, Schauer, Catani, Ruf and Elbert, 2006; Piyasil et al., 2007; Thienkrua et al., 2006; Ularntinon et al., 2008). PTSD can lead to substantial functional impairments. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common and debilitating consequence of natural disaster in children and adolescents. Accumulating data show that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for PTSD. However, application of CBT in a large-scale disaster in a setting with limited resources, such as when the tsunami hit several Asian countries in 2004, poses a major problem. Aims: This randomized controlled trial aimed to test for the efficacy of the modified version of CBT for children and adolescents with PSTD. Method: Thirty-six children (aged 10–15 years) who had been diagnosed with PSTD 4 years after the tsunami were randomly allocated to either CBT or wait list. CBT was delivered in 3-day, 2-hour-daily, group format followed by 1-month posttreatment self-monitoring and daily homework. Results: Compared to the wait list, participants who received CBT demonstrated significantly greater improvement in symptoms of PTSD at 1-month follow-up, although no significant improvement was observed when the measures were done immediately posttreatment. Conclusions: Brief, group CBT is an effective treatment for PTSD in children and adolescents when delivered in conjunction with posttreatment self-monitoring and daily homework.
    Article · Sep 2015
    • "For all psychiatrists treating the survivors, the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) should be considered most carefully after a disaster1314151617. Many studies have been conducted on children who have survived disasters and had traumatic symptoms7891011121318192021222324252627282930. Previously, 8 and 20 months after the 2011 Japanese tsunami, we collected information on activities of daily living, damage to environmental conditions, and traumatic symptoms of children who survived the disaster [9]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background On March 11, 2011, Japan was struck by a massive earthquake and tsunami. The tsunami caused tremendous damage and traumatized several people, including children. The aim of this study was to assess changes in traumatic symptoms 8, 20, and 30 months of the 2011 tsunami. Methods The study comprised three groups. Copies of the Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms for Children 15 items (PTSSC-15), a self-rating questionnaire on traumatic symptoms, were distributed to 12,524 children (8-month period), 12,193 children (20-month period), and 11,819 children (30-month period). An effective response of children 8 months, 20 months, and 30 month after the disaster was obtained in 11,639 (92.9%), 10,597 (86.9%), and 10,812 children (91.4%), respectively. We calculated the total score, PTSD subscale, and Depression subscale of PTSSC-15. We calculated the total score, PTSD subscale, and Depression subscale of PTSSC-15. Results The PTSSC-15 total score and PTSD subscale of children belonging to 1st–9th grade groups who were tested 30 and 20 months after the tsunami significantly decreased compared with those of children tested 8 months after the tsunami. The PTSSC-15 total score and PTSD subscale of children in 1st–9th grade groups tested after 30 months did not decrease significantly compared with those of children tested after 20 months. The PTSSC-15 Depression subscale and PTSD subscale of children in 1st–9th grade groups tested after 30 months significantly decreased compared with those of children tested 8 months after the tsunami. The PTSSC-15 Depression subscale of children in 1st–9th grade groups evaluated after 30 months significantly decreased compared with those of children evaluated after 20 months. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the traumatic symptoms of children who survived the massive tsunami improved with time. Nonetheless, the traumatic symptoms, which in some cases did not improve with time.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014
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