Systemic Erdheim–Chester disease
Erdheim-Chester disease is a rare xanthomatosis that may present with characteristic radiologic and histologic features. There have been conflicting reports regarding the nature of this process, including whether it represents a reactive or neoplastic lesion. We present the clinical histories, pathologic findings, and an analysis of clonality using the HUMARA assay in two patients diagnosed with Erdheim-Chester disease. One case has previously been documented in the literature. Histologically, both cases demonstrated sheets of foamy xanthomatous histiocytes with widespread infiltration of the viscera. These regions were punctuated by variable amounts of inflammation, including lymphocytes, plasma cells, and occasional Touton-type giant cells. The histiocytes were immunoreactive for CD68 and CD163; they did not stain with S100 or CD1a. One case was found to be monoclonal; however, the second case had extensive DNA degradation; thus, clonality could not be assessed. In addition to contributing an additional report of this rare disease to the literature, we demonstrate the histiocytes to express CD163, thereby further supporting a monocyte/macrophage basis. Moreover, in confirming clonality, our observations lend additional evidence to the view that Erdheim-Chester disease represents a neoplastic process.
Available from: Howard Meyerson
- "Characteristically the disease manifests as symmetric sclerotic bony lesions of the distal femur and proximal tibia and fibula . Clinical outcome is determined by the extent and severity of extraskeletal disease, with most patients dying of disease secondary to pulmonary or cardiac involvement        . Coexisting neoplastic conditions have been described in rare occurrences. "
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ABSTRACT: Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. We report a fatal case of ECD with extensive cardiac involvement associated with a marginal zone lymphoma and monoclonal proteinemia in a young man. This is the first reported association of ECD with a monoclonal gammopathy or a lymphoma.
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ABSTRACT: Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a proliferative non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis of multiple organs. This is a rare disease of unknown etiology with a high mortality. We present the case report of a 26-year-old man diagnosed with ECD. He was referred to our hospital with elevated levels of aminotransferases. Although the diagnosis was uncertain, the patient was lost to follow up at that time. One year later, the patient returned to the hospital with generalized edema. Although a specific bone lesion was not found, the patient was experiencing the following: glomerulonephritis, aplastic anemia, hepatitis, and lung involvement. A lung biopsy was performed: the immunohistochemical stain were positive for CD68 and negative for S-100 protein and CD1a. We diagnosed as the patient as havinf ECD. Approximately 50% of ECD cases present with extraskeletal involvement. ECD should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis when multiple organs are involved.
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