Molecular Characterization of the Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Vi-Typing Bacteriophage E1

Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, United Kingdom.
Journal of bacteriology (Impact Factor: 2.81). 05/2008; 190(7):2580-7. DOI: 10.1128/JB.01654-07
Source: PubMed


Some bacteriophages target potentially pathogenic bacteria by exploiting surface-associated virulence factors as receptors.
For example, phage have been identified that exhibit specificity for Vi capsule producing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Here we have characterized the Vi-associated E1-typing bacteriophage using a number of molecular approaches.
The absolute requirement for Vi capsule expression for infectivity was demonstrated using different Vi-negative S. enterica derivatives. The phage particles were shown to have an icosahedral head and a long noncontractile tail structure. The genome
is 45,362 bp in length with defined capsid and tail regions that exhibit significant homology to the S. enterica transducing phage ES18. Mass spectrometry was used to confirm the presence of a number of hypothetical proteins in the Vi
phage E1 particle and demonstrate that a number of phage proteins are modified posttranslationally. The genome of the Vi phage
E1 is significantly related to other bacteriophages belonging to the same serovar Typhi phage-typing set, and we demonstrate
a role for phage DNA modification in determining host specificity.

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Available from: John Richard Wain, Jan 18, 2014
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    • "(iii) Viruses would seem to have an evolutionary potential to move between host species, making host species imperfect indicators of phage relatedness; however, we know of no well-documented case of a single tailed phage isolate successfully infecting very distantly related bacterial hosts. Nonetheless , phages are thought to move between related hosts at least in part through physical exchange of tail fiber genes (Haggard- Ljungquist et al., 1992; Sandmeier et al., 1992; Scholl et al., 2002; Pickard et al., 2008; Casjens and Thuman-Commike, 2011; Jacobs- Sera et al., 2012). Although a few phages are said to have a broadhost-range (e.g., uncharacterized phages BHR1-5 (Jensen et al., 1998) and WHR 8 and 10 (Bielke et al., 2007)) which infect hosts from different genera or families within the same order, most are extremely specific for single bacterial species and even serovars/ biovars/subspecies. "
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    ABSTRACT: Bacteriophages are the predominant biological entity on the planet. The recent explosion of sequence information has made estimates of their diversity possible. We describe the genomic comparison of 337 fully sequenced tailed phages isolated on 18 genera and 31 species of bacteria in the Enterobacteriaceae. These phages were largely unambiguously grouped into 56 diverse clusters (32 lytic and 24 temperate) that have syntenic similarity over >50% of the genomes within each cluster, but substantially less sequence similarity between clusters. Most clusters naturally break into sets of more closely related subclusters, 78% of which are correlated with their host genera. The largest groups of related phages are superclusters united by genome synteny to lambda (81 phages) and T7 (51 phages). This study forms a robust framework for understanding diversity and evolutionary relationships of existing tailed phages, for relating newly discovered phages and for determining host/phage relationships.
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    • "The complete sequences of each member of the Vi-specific Salmonella viruses have now been completed. A member of the ViII species, Salmonella phage E1 [16], is a siphovirus that has a genome of 45.4 kb. The remainder are all members of the Autographivirinae of the Podoviridae family [14] with Salmonella phage (Vi VI, GenBank accession number FR667955, 38.4 kb), ViIII (39.0 kb), Vi V (38.6 kb), and Vi VII (39.2 kb) belonging to the "T7-like viruses", and ViIV, with a 44.6 kb genome, associated with the "SP6-like viruses" [22]. "
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