This study investigated whether anxiety characteristics independently predicted the onset of myocardial infarction (MI) over an average of 12.4 years and whether this relationship was independent of other psychologic variables and risk factors.
Although several psychosocial factors have been associated with risk for MI, anxiety has not been examined extensively. Earlier studies also rarely addressed whether the association between a psychologic variable and MI was specific and independent of other psychosocial correlates.
Participants were 735 older men (mean age 60 years) without a history of coronary disease or diabetes at baseline from the Normative Aging Study. Anxiety characteristics were assessed with 4 scales (psychasthenia, social introversion, phobia, and manifest anxiety) and an overall anxiety factor derived from these scales.
Anxiety characteristics independently and prospectively predicted MI incidence after controlling for age, education, marital status, fasting glucose, body mass index, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure in proportional hazards models. The adjusted relative risk (95% confidence interval [CI]) of MI associated with each standard deviation increase in anxiety variable was 1.37 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.68) for psychasthenia, 1.31 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.63) for social introversion, 1.36 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.68) for phobia, 1.42 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.76) for manifest anxiety, and 1.43 (95% CI 1.17 to 1.75) for overall anxiety. These relationships remained significant after further adjusting for health behaviors (drinking, smoking, and caloric intake), medications for hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes during follow-up and additional psychologic variables (depression, type A behavior, hostility, anger, and negative emotion).
Anxiety-prone dispositions appear to be a robust and independent risk factor of MI among older men.
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"The eleven prospective studies found that the presence of a depressive disorder was associated with major cardiac events with a relative risk of 2.69 , compared to the Framingham Heart Study, in which hypertension was associated with the same major cardiac events with a relative risk of 1.92 . In a normative aging study, 735 men over sixty with no coronary/artery diseases were evaluated to verify the presence of anxiety symptoms; after 12 years, the anxiety level measured at baseline proved to be associated with myocardial infarction with a relative risk of 1.43 . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: It is highly recommended to promptly assess depression in heart disease patients as it represents a crucial risk factor which may result in premature deaths following acute cardiac events and a more severe psychopathology, even in cases of subsequent nonfatal cardiac events. Patients and professionals often underestimate or misjudge depressive symptomatology as cardiac symptoms; hence, quick, reliable, and early mood changes assessments are warranted. Failing to detect depressive signals may have detrimental effects on these patients' wellbeing and full recovery. Choosing gold-standard depression investigations in cardiac patients that fit a hospitalised cardiac setting well is fundamental. This paper will examine eight well established tools following Italian and international guidelines on mood disorders diagnosis in cardiac patients: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Cognitive Behavioural Assessment Hospital Form (CBA-H), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the two and nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2, PHQ-9), the Depression Interview and Structured Hamilton (DISH), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D/HRSD), and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Though their strengths and weaknesses may appear to be homogeneous, the BDI-II and the PHQ are more efficient towards an early depression assessment within cardiac hospitalised patients.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Depression research and treatment
"risk of MI for those who were active compared with the passive individuals.  It is obvious in our present study that the majority of participants experienced anxiety, and this support the findings of most prior studies, which revealed that anxiety and other psychological stresses were considered as main risk factors of coronary artery diseases.  Patients' Knowledge of risk factors was analyzed and revealed that more than half of participants had low level of knowledge about risk factors, and less than 10% of participants had very high level of knowledge. These results support the findings of Khan et al (2006) study in which only 42% of participants had good level of knowledge. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background: Patient education programme for cardiac patients is an essential part of quality medical care today. For the diagnosis and therapeutic regimen to be beneficial, patients must be informed about their own health and motivated to share the responsibility. Aims & Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the risk factors for myocardial infarction in Taif region, Saudi Arabia kingdom and establish a modification in the life style to decrease the incidence of cardiac diseases. Material and Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted at governmental hospital at Taif. Thirty nine subjects admitted to Emergency department during the study period with their first episode of Acute Myocardial Infarction participated in this study. Results: A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. They were 31 (79.5%) males and 8 (20.5%) females, the majority of patients (46.2%) under the scope of this study was above the age of 50 years, 87.2% of them was married and 12.8% was divorced. the main risk factors that affect the patients in Taif region, KSA were the presence of hypertension (59%) , diabetes (35.9%), consuming a highly deep fried food (76.9%) , lack of regular exercise (89.7%) and nervous mode (79.5%). the mean knowledge score of patients recruited in this study was either low (51%) or medium score (29%), and little percentage was either high (14%) or very high (6%) knowledge score. Conclusion: It is recommended to encourage health care providers especially nurses and physicians to teach their patients about disease process, risk factors, and preventive measures during providing either medical or nursing care.
"Anxiety, chronic anxiety in particular, has been linked to the development of disease . Contrary to what would be expected, chronic anxiety has been shown to be negatively associated with cardiovascular reactivity . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Although several studies have shown that enhanced cardiovascular reactivity can predict hypertension development in African Americans, these findings have not been consistent among all studies examining reactivity and hypertension susceptibility. This inconsistency may be explained by the influence of anxiety (state and trait) on the blood pressure response to stress. Therefore, this study sought to determine whether anxiety is associated with blood pressure response to cold pressor (CP) and anger recall (AR) stress tests in young healthy African Americans. Modeling using state and trait anxiety revealed that state anxiety predicts systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure DBP response to CP and AR (P ≤ 0.02). Interestingly, state anxiety predicted heart rate changes only to CP (P < 0.01; P = 0.3 for AR). Although trait anxiety was associated with SBP response to AR and not CP, it was not a significant predictor of reactivity in our models. We conclude that anxiety levels may contribute to the variable blood pressure response to acute stressors and, therefore, should be assessed when performing cardiovascular reactivity measures.