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Vitreoscilla filiformis biomass improves seborrheic dermatitis

© 2007 The Authors
2007, Journal compilation © 2007 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology
JEADV ISSN 1468-3083
Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Vitreoscilla filiformis
improves seborrheic dermatitis
Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a chronic cutaneous
inflammatory condition, marked by frequent exacerbations
affecting areas of skin in which sebaceous glands have a
dense distribution and are highly active. SD may occur on
the face as well as on the scalp. Lesions are erythematous
and scaly and may be associated with intense pruritus and
burning sensations in the involved areas.
SD is not simply
a result of excessive sebum production; yeast from
genus plays an important role in the development of this
Treatments of SD of the scalp have been based
on the use of antifungal shampoos and topical antifungal
or anti-inflammatory agents. These products may also be
able to restore scalp homeostasis and thus improve symptoms.
However, appropriate non-pharmaceutical treatment
strategies as daily use of safe effective shampoos and
lotions should be the first line approach to reduce scalp
erythema, scaling and pruritus.
Independently of these two approaches, very few
lotions specifically formulated with the aim to improve SD
of the scalp exist.
In order to address the question, we tested the efficacy
of a microorganism biomass (
Vitreoscilla filiformis
), which
had been cultured in a medium prepared with La Roche
Posay (LRP) spa water.
V. filiformis
is a Gram-negative bacteria, found in
thermal spa water classically used for dermatological
Interestingly, we have recently shown, using
dendritic cells cocultured with T cells,
V. filiformis
stimulated regulatory T cells.
V. filiformis
biomass did not possess any bacteriostatic activity against
, Staphylococcus aureus
(personal communication). Previous clinical studies
revealed that
V. filiformis
biomass has skin moisturizing
properties and incorporated in a base cream reduced skin
symptoms of dry atopic skin.
In parallel, LRP water is rich in selenium and strontium
and has long been used as a ‘thermal cure’ for dermatologic
inflammatory disorders.
LRP water contains minerals that possess anti-pruritus
and anti-inflammatory effects.
We have cultured
V. filiformis
in a medium containing LRP water to obtain a bacterial
biomass that combines the properties of the
V. filiformis
biomass and of the LRP water.
For this purpose, 60 patients with moderate scalp SC
were included in a randomised, double-blind, vehicle-
controlled and parallel group comparison study (patients
with erythema and scaling with score higher than 1 (score
0–3) and an important pruritus [higher than 70 mm
(using a 100-mm visual analogical scale)].
The total clinical score (sum of erythema and scaling
subscores) showed a high improvement (62.7% decrease)
in the group treated with the test lotion (5% LRP-biomass
lotion) once daily for 4 weeks compared with vehicle-
treated group (26.1% decrease, only). The comparison
between groups (treated vs. vehicle) being highly significant
< 0.0001; fig. 1).
In parallel, the level of pruritus self-assessed by the
subjects showed a stronger and higher decrease (73.4%) in
the 5% LRP-biomass lotion treated group at day 28 vs. 49.4%
decrease (
= 0.01) in vehicle-treated group (fig. 2).
Moreover, the total clinical score remained almost
unchanged in the test lotion-treated group 1 week after
daily treatment was stopped.
Overall, this study showed that LRP-biomass lotion was
effective in improving SD symptoms and may be valuable
when used between conventional drug treatments. It may
fig. 1 Mean with 95% confidence interval for the total clinical score.
*P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001: significant difference between the 5%
LRP biomass and vehicle treatment groups.
Letters to the Editor
© 2007 The Authors
2007, Journal compilation © 2007 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology
suggest that this LRP-biomass has tolerogenic effect and
may also modulate the defensins synthesis that may par-
ticipate to the efficacy by decreasing scalp microflora
dysregulation. More generally, the active LRP-biomass
used at lower concentration may be beneficial to reduce
scalp scaling when incorporated into a dandruff shampoo.
A Guéniche,*† A-C Cathelineau,‡ P Bastien,§ J Esdaile,‡
R Martin,¶ C Queille Roussel,‡ L Breton†
L’Oréal Recherche, Clichy, France,
Centre de Pharmacologie
Clinique Appliquée à la Dermatologie, Hôpital l’Archet 2, Nice,
L’Oréal Recherche, Aulnay-sous-bois, France and
CRN, L’OREAL, Notre Dame D’OE, France,
author, L’Oréal – Centre Charles Zviak, Physiology and
Pharmacology Department, 90, Rue du Général Roguet –92 583
Clichy Cedex, France, tel. +33 1 47 56 40 15;
fax +33 1 47 56 40 07; E-mail:
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5Voltz T, Guéniche A, Kaesler S, Breton L, Biederman T.
ligands of vitreosalla filiformis induce tolerogenic
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J Invest Dermatol
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et al
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Eur J Dermatol
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7Guéniche A, Dahel K, Bastien P
et al
Vitreoscilla filiformis
bacterial extract, to improve the efficacy of emollient used
in atopic dermatitis symptoms.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venerol
in press.
8Celerier P, Richard A, Litoux P, Dreno D. Modulator effects
of selenium and strontium salts on keratinocyte-derived
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Arch Dermatol Res
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10 Zhai H, Hannon W, Hahn GS
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DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-3083.2007.02508.x
fig. 2 Mean with 95% confidence interval for the self-evaluated pruritus.
... Several recent studies indicate that topical probiotics, in addition to emollients, may be a good alternative for treating the condition [73]. A study suggested that a 5% Vitreoscilla filiformis extract-containing ointment significantly reduced eczema associated with atopic dermatitis and also reduced the severity of the symptoms in a randomized, double-blind, vehiclecontrolled trial [74]. Another study showed the effectiveness of the lactic acid bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus on the stratum corneum by improving ceramide concentrations in the skin [64]. ...
... Some studies have been carried out to evaluate the use of topical probiotics in this condition. A research study carried out on 60 patients showed a reduction in erythema, scaling and pruritis after topical application of Vitreoscilla filiformis [74,77]. Another study revealed increased IL-10 production by dendritic cells and increased Treg activity due to Vitreoscilla filiformis lysate [78]. ...
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... IL-31 is a T cell-derived cytokine linked to pruritus in skin inflammation, while TSLP is an excellent candidate for mediating the innate immune response triggered by viruses or bacteria. All these results may explain the efficacy of Vfe in reducing pruritus of seborrheic dermatitis or AD (Gueniche et al., 2008a). ...
... This unique activity, to reduce the number of altered mitochondria and thus the quantity of intracellular ROS, is important as the activation of the inflammasome NLRP3 can be induced by skin microbiota dysbiosis, for example, an imbalance of Malassezia spp. during seborrheic dermatitis leading to inflammation (Gueniche et al., 2008a;Kistowska et al., 2014). ...
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... Some studies have focused on the use of probiotics to treat SD (Yu et al., 2020a). Gueńiche et al. showed a decrease in erythema, pruritus, and scaling with the topical application of Vitreoscilla filiformis in 60 patients (Gueńiche et al., 2008). Besides, the oral administration of Lactobacillus paracasei improved erythema, seborrhea, and dandruff in patients with SD (Reygagne et al., 2017). ...
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Probiotics are live microorganisms, which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Semiactive, non-replicating bacteria or extracts used in dermocosmetics have interesting properties for skin quality. Vitreoscilla filiformis is cultured by a fermentation process to obtain an extract. It is considered as a probiotic fraction and topical application of this extract has shown activity to strengthen the skin physical barrier function and maintain good homeostasis of skin defenses. Vichy volcanic mineralizing water (VVMW) is a pure, highly mineralized water that has been shown to strengthen the skin against exposome aggressions. This manuscript reviews properties of probiotic fractions used in skin care, especially studies on an extract of V. filiformis grown in a medium containing VVMW (VfeV) and evaluated in combination with VVMW. Skin barrier function: In normal human epidermal keratinocyte cultures, the combination of 10% VVMW and 0.002% VfeV significantly increased transglutaminase, filaggrin, involucrin, claudin-1, and zonula occludens-1 in comparison with the controls. Antimicrobial peptide defenses: The combination of 16.7% VVMW and 0.1% VfeV increased the expression of β-defensin-4A and S100A7. Skin immune defense functions: In lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, the combination of 16.7% VVMW and 0.1% VfeV down-regulated IL-8, TNF-α, IL-12/IL-23p40, and increased IL10 and IL-10/IL-12 ratio compared to the control. Additionally, the combination of 79% VVMW plus 5% VfeV protected Langerhans cells in skin explants exposed to ultraviolet radiation. In conclusion, the combination of VfeV plus VVMW has properties to strengthen the skin barrier by stimulating skin differentiation and tight junctions, biochemical defenses by stimulating antimicrobial peptides, and cellular immune defenses by increasing the IL-10/IL-12 ratio and by protecting Langerhans cells challenged by ultraviolet radiation.
Commensal bacteria play an essential role in maintaining the host immune system and in preventing the colonization and invasion of pathogens. The microbiome of the gastrointestinal system has been extensively studied with regard to the development of disease. The commensal bacteria of the skin have similar functions in immune regulation and disease pathogenesis to its gut counterparts. In recent years the microbiome has served as a target for new therapies in dermatology. Probiotics represent an innovative approach to manipulate the microbiome and expand the spectrum of available treatment options. This chapter reviews the cutaneous and gut microbiome’s role and impact on various cutaneous diseases, specifically in acne vulgaris, psoriasis, chronic wounds from diabetic ulcers and burn patients, seborrheic dermatitis, and cutaneous neoplasms. We present current scientific evidence demonstrating a promising role of oral and topical probiotics in preventing and treating skin disease.
A significant upsurge has been discerned on the utilization of probiotics in the amelioration of skin associated disorders since the commencement of the twenty-first century. An extended therapeutic profile where topical probiotic therapies can be exercised has been discovered, such as inflammation, fungal infections, microbial infection, and treatment of atopic dermatitis. Topical therapy with Lactobacillus, Nitrosomonas, Streptococcus, and Bifidobacterium has shown to ameliorate skin inflammation by prompting decolonization of pathogens that reside on the skin such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Cutibacterium acnes, Acne vulgaris, etc. However, none of the probiotics have been approved to be labelled as “drugs” by the US Food and Drug Administration. Even though the emerging therapeutic effects of probiotics potentiate a wider therapeutic usage, it still necessitates a thorough assessment for its safety and efficacy profile. A review on the present-day topical probiotic therapy was formulated, and the scope and challenges associated with the therapy are discussed in the chapter.
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Cultures for Malassezia yeasts were taken from both normal-looking skin and lesional skin in 124 patients with atopic dermatitis, 16 patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis and from normal skin of 31 healthy controls. Positive Malassezia growth was found in fewer patients with atopic dermatitis (56%) than in patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis (88%) or in healthy controls (84%, p<0.01). In the patients with atopic dermatitis, fewer positive cultures were found in lesional (28%) than in non-lesional skin (44%, p<0.05), while positive cultures were found in 75% of both lesional and non-lesional skin of patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis (not significant). M. sympodialis dominated in patients with atopic dermatitis (46%) and in healthy controls (69%). In patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis both M. sympodialis and M. obtusa were cultured in 43%. A Malassezia species extract mixture would increase the possibility of detecting IgE sensitization to Malassezia in patients with atopic dermatitis.
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Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronically relapsing inflammatory skin disease. The first line treatment of AD relies on the daily use of emollients to restore the skin barrier impairment associated with the disease. Vitreoscilla filiformis (V.f.) is a non photosynthetic bacterium and extracts of V.f. are endowed with properties which balance cutaneous immune-homeostasis. The aim of our study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of a 5% V.f. extract-containing ointment on mild to moderate AD in a randomised, double-blind, vehicle-controlled trial. Thirteen patients applied the treatment and the vehicle on symmetrical AD lesions (left versus right side of the body) twice daily for 4 weeks. The assessment of AD severity was done at each visit (Day 0, Day 14 and Day 28) using the modified eczema area and severity index (mEASI). Treatment with the ointment containing 5% V.f. extract significantly improved the AD skin symptoms. Beneficial effects were observed after two weeks of treatment and increased thereafter. These results suggest that V.f. extract could be favourably added to AD skin care emollients formulated for AD.
Skin care products are complex formulations that may cause sensory irritation symptoms, characterized by stinging, burning, and itching. Substances capable of counteracting sensory irritation are of great practical interest. Strontium salts have been demonstrated to inhibit sensory irritation and inflammation when applied topically. In this double-blind study, we evaluated the efficacy of strontium nitrate in reducing chemically-induced skin sensory irritation in 8 subjects. In a random order, 20% strontium nitrate in 70% glycolic acid (pH=0.6) (mixture) was applied to the volar aspect of the forearm and a positive control (70% glycolic acid, pH=0.6) to the contralateral forearm. The irritation sensation was evaluated each min for the first 20 min after topical application using a scale from 0-4. The duration of the irritation sensation in min was also recorded. Strontium nitrate mixed with glycolic acid, in comparison with glycolic acid alone, markedly (p<0.01) shortened the duration of the irritation sensation from 24.4+/-4.1 (mean+/-SEM) min to 8.9+/-3.7 (mean+/-SEM) min, and significantly (p<0.05) reduced the mean magnitude of the irritation sensation at all time points (overall). The study demonstrated that strontium nitrate potently suppresses the sensation of chemically-induced irritation.
Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a common dermatological disorder that varies greatly in severity between individuals and with time. The etiology of this disease is poorly understood. Early investigators focused on the role of Malassezia (previously Pityrosporum) yeasts in the development of SD. Some researchers have hypothesized that there is an immunological component to SD and that this disease is caused by an altered immune response to Malassezia yeasts. However, other researchers view this condition as the result of hyperproliferation. Both antifungal and anti-inflammatory preparations have been used to treat SD effectively and safely. The wide range of antifungal formulations available (creams, shampoos, oral drugs) provides safe, effective and flexible treatment options for SD.
TLR 2 ligands of vitreosalla filiformis induce tolerogenic dendritic cells
  • T Voltz
  • A Guéniche
  • S Kaesler
  • L Breton
  • T Biederman
Voltz T, Guéniche A, Kaesler S, Breton L, Biederman T. TLR 2 ligands of vitreosalla filiformis induce tolerogenic dendritic cells. J Invest Dermatol 2006; 126 : S47.