ArticlePDF Available

Vitreoscilla filiformis biomass improves seborrheic dermatitis

Authors:
© 2007 The Authors
1
JEADV
2007, Journal compilation © 2007 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology
JEADV ISSN 1468-3083
Blackwell Publishing Ltd
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Vitreoscilla filiformis
biomass
improves seborrheic dermatitis
Editor
Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a chronic cutaneous
inflammatory condition, marked by frequent exacerbations
affecting areas of skin in which sebaceous glands have a
dense distribution and are highly active. SD may occur on
the face as well as on the scalp. Lesions are erythematous
and scaly and may be associated with intense pruritus and
burning sensations in the involved areas.
1
SD is not simply
a result of excessive sebum production; yeast from
Malassezia
genus plays an important role in the development of this
condition.
2
Treatments of SD of the scalp have been based
on the use of antifungal shampoos and topical antifungal
or anti-inflammatory agents. These products may also be
able to restore scalp homeostasis and thus improve symptoms.
3
However, appropriate non-pharmaceutical treatment
strategies as daily use of safe effective shampoos and
lotions should be the first line approach to reduce scalp
erythema, scaling and pruritus.
Independently of these two approaches, very few
lotions specifically formulated with the aim to improve SD
of the scalp exist.
In order to address the question, we tested the efficacy
of a microorganism biomass (
Vitreoscilla filiformis
), which
had been cultured in a medium prepared with La Roche
Posay (LRP) spa water.
V. filiformis
is a Gram-negative bacteria, found in
thermal spa water classically used for dermatological
treatment.
4
Interestingly, we have recently shown, using
dendritic cells cocultured with T cells,
V. filiformis
biomass
stimulated regulatory T cells.
5
Moreover
V. filiformis
biomass did not possess any bacteriostatic activity against
Malassezia
genus
, Staphylococcus aureus
or
Propionibacterium
acnes
(personal communication). Previous clinical studies
revealed that
V. filiformis
biomass has skin moisturizing
properties and incorporated in a base cream reduced skin
symptoms of dry atopic skin.
6,7
In parallel, LRP water is rich in selenium and strontium
and has long been used as a ‘thermal cure’ for dermatologic
inflammatory disorders.
8
LRP water contains minerals that possess anti-pruritus
and anti-inflammatory effects.
9,10
We have cultured
V. filiformis
in a medium containing LRP water to obtain a bacterial
biomass that combines the properties of the
V. filiformis
biomass and of the LRP water.
For this purpose, 60 patients with moderate scalp SC
were included in a randomised, double-blind, vehicle-
controlled and parallel group comparison study (patients
with erythema and scaling with score higher than 1 (score
0–3) and an important pruritus [higher than 70 mm
(using a 100-mm visual analogical scale)].
The total clinical score (sum of erythema and scaling
subscores) showed a high improvement (62.7% decrease)
in the group treated with the test lotion (5% LRP-biomass
lotion) once daily for 4 weeks compared with vehicle-
treated group (26.1% decrease, only). The comparison
between groups (treated vs. vehicle) being highly significant
(Chi-square,
P
< 0.0001; fig. 1).
In parallel, the level of pruritus self-assessed by the
subjects showed a stronger and higher decrease (73.4%) in
the 5% LRP-biomass lotion treated group at day 28 vs. 49.4%
decrease (
t
-test,
P
= 0.01) in vehicle-treated group (fig. 2).
Moreover, the total clinical score remained almost
unchanged in the test lotion-treated group 1 week after
daily treatment was stopped.
Overall, this study showed that LRP-biomass lotion was
effective in improving SD symptoms and may be valuable
when used between conventional drug treatments. It may
fig. 1 Mean with 95% confidence interval for the total clinical score.
*P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001: significant difference between the 5%
LRP biomass and vehicle treatment groups.
Letters to the Editor
2
© 2007 The Authors
JEADV
2007, Journal compilation © 2007 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology
suggest that this LRP-biomass has tolerogenic effect and
may also modulate the defensins synthesis that may par-
ticipate to the efficacy by decreasing scalp microflora
dysregulation. More generally, the active LRP-biomass
used at lower concentration may be beneficial to reduce
scalp scaling when incorporated into a dandruff shampoo.
A Guéniche,*† A-C Cathelineau,‡ P Bastien,§ J Esdaile,‡
R Martin,¶ C Queille Roussel,‡ L Breton†
L’Oréal Recherche, Clichy, France,
Centre de Pharmacologie
Clinique Appliquée à la Dermatologie, Hôpital l’Archet 2, Nice,
France,
§
L’Oréal Recherche, Aulnay-sous-bois, France and
C/O
CRN, L’OREAL, Notre Dame D’OE, France,
*
Corresponding
author, L’Oréal – Centre Charles Zviak, Physiology and
Pharmacology Department, 90, Rue du Général Roguet –92 583
Clichy Cedex, France, tel. +33 1 47 56 40 15;
fax +33 1 47 56 40 07; E-mail: agueniche@rd.loreal.com
References
1Gee BC. Seborrheic dermatitis.
Clin Evid
2004;
12
:
2344–2352.
2Sandstrôm FMH, Tengvall Linder M, Johansson C
et al
. The
prevalence of
Malassezia
yeasts in patients with atopic
dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis and healthy controls.
Acta
Derm Venereol
2005;
85
: 17–23.
3Gupta AK, Madzia SE, Batra R. Etiology and management of
seborrheic dermatitis.
Dermatology
2004;
208
: 89–93.
4Holt JG, Krieg NR, Sneath PHA, Staley JT, Williams ST, eds.
Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology
, 9th edn.
Sections 22 and 23. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 1994.
5Voltz T, Guéniche A, Kaesler S, Breton L, Biederman T.
TLR
2
ligands of vitreosalla filiformis induce tolerogenic
dendritic cells.
J Invest Dermatol
2006;
126
: S47.
6Guéniche A, Hennino A, Goujon C
et al
. Improvement of
atopic dermatitis skin symptoms by
Vitreoscilla filiformis
bacterial extract.
Eur J Dermatol
2006;
16
: 380–384.
7Guéniche A, Dahel K, Bastien P
et al
.
Vitreoscilla filiformis
bacterial extract, to improve the efficacy of emollient used
in atopic dermatitis symptoms.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venerol
in press.
8Celerier P, Richard A, Litoux P, Dreno D. Modulator effects
of selenium and strontium salts on keratinocyte-derived
inflammatory cytokines.
Arch Dermatol Res
1995;
287
:
680–682.
9Hahn GS. Modulation of neurogenic inflammation by
strontium. In: Kydonieus AF, Wille JJ, eds.
Biochemical
Modulation of Skin Reactions
. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida,
US, 2000: 261–272.
10 Zhai H, Hannon W, Hahn GS
et al
. Strontium nitrate
suppresses chemically-induced sensory irritation in
humans.
Contact Dermatitis
2000;
42
: 98–100.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-3083.2007.02508.x
fig. 2 Mean with 95% confidence interval for the self-evaluated pruritus.
... Several recent studies indicate that topical probiotics, in addition to emollients, may be a good alternative for treating the condition [73]. A study suggested that a 5% Vitreoscilla filiformis extract-containing ointment significantly reduced eczema associated with atopic dermatitis and also reduced the severity of the symptoms in a randomized, double-blind, vehiclecontrolled trial [74]. Another study showed the effectiveness of the lactic acid bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus on the stratum corneum by improving ceramide concentrations in the skin [64]. ...
... Some studies have been carried out to evaluate the use of topical probiotics in this condition. A research study carried out on 60 patients showed a reduction in erythema, scaling and pruritis after topical application of Vitreoscilla filiformis [74,77]. Another study revealed increased IL-10 production by dendritic cells and increased Treg activity due to Vitreoscilla filiformis lysate [78]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Skin, an exterior interface of the human body is home to commensal microbiota and also acts a physical barrier that protects from invasion of foreign pathogenic microorganisms. In recent years, interest has significantly expanded beyond the gut microbiome to include the skin microbiome and its influence in managing several skin disorders. Probiotics play a major role in maintaining human health and disease prevention. Topical probiotics have demonstrated beneficial effects for the treatment of certain inflammatory skin diseases such as acne, rosacea, psoriasis etc., and also found to have a promising role in wound healing. In this review, we discuss recent insights into applications of topical probiotics and their influence on health and diseases of the skin. Patents, commercially available topical probiotics, and novel probiotic impregnated fabrics have been emphasized. A thorough understanding of the relationship between probiotics and the skin microbiome is important for designing novel therapeutic approaches in using topical probiotics.
... Recent literature suggests that topical application of postbiotics may confer direct benefits for the skin. Of these, microbial lysates are widely characterized and are widely used in cosmetic products: Bifidobacterium/Lactobacillus/Vitreoscilla filiformis (Vf ) [205][206][207][208][209][210]. ...
... Vitreoscilla filiformis extract, via TLR2 activation, reinforced innate immunity and barrier function leading to a reduction of symptoms linked to atopic dermatitis and seborrheic dermatitis [205,206,229]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The microbiome, as a community of microorganisms and their structural elements, genomes, metabolites/signal molecules, has been shown to play an important role in human health, with significant beneficial applications for gut health. Skin microbiome has emerged as a new field with high potential to develop disruptive solutions to manage skin health and disease. Despite an incomplete toolbox for skin microbiome analyses, much progress has been made towards functional dissection of microbiomes and host-microbiome interactions. A standardized and robust investigation of the skin microbiome is necessary to provide accurate microbial information and set the base for a successful translation of innovations in the dermo-cosmetic field. This review provides an overview of how the landscape of skin microbiome research has evolved from method development (multi-omics/data-based analytical approaches) to the discovery and development of novel microbiome-derived ingredients. Moreover, it provides a summary of the latest findings on interactions between the microbiomes (gut and skin) and skin health/disease. Solutions derived from these two paths are used to develop novel microbiome-based ingredients or solutions acting on skin homeostasis are proposed. The most promising skin and gut-derived microbiome interventional strategies are presented, along with regulatory, safety, industrial, and technical challenges related to a successful translation of these microbiome-based concepts/technologies in the dermo-cosmetic industry.
... IL-31 is a T cell-derived cytokine linked to pruritus in skin inflammation, while TSLP is an excellent candidate for mediating the innate immune response triggered by viruses or bacteria. All these results may explain the efficacy of Vfe in reducing pruritus of seborrheic dermatitis or AD (Gueniche et al., 2008a). ...
... This unique activity, to reduce the number of altered mitochondria and thus the quantity of intracellular ROS, is important as the activation of the inflammasome NLRP3 can be induced by skin microbiota dysbiosis, for example, an imbalance of Malassezia spp. during seborrheic dermatitis leading to inflammation (Gueniche et al., 2008a;Kistowska et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
The term probiotic has been defined by experts as live microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Probiotics are, thus, by definition, live microorganisms, and the viability of probiotics is a prerequisite for certain benefits, such as the release of metabolites at the site or adhesion properties, for example. However, some semi-active or non-replicative bacterial preparations may retain a similar activity to the live forms. On cosmetic, lysates or fractions are generally used. Topically applied Vitreoscilla filiformis extract has shown to have some similar biological activity of probiotics in the gut, for example, regulating immunity by optimisation of regulatory cell function, protecting against infection, and helping skin barrier function for better recovery and resistance. Due to their mode of action and efficacy, V. filiformis extract (lysate including membrane and cytosol) may be considered as non-replicative probiotic fractions, and this review article presents all its properties.
... Some studies have focused on the use of probiotics to treat SD (Yu et al., 2020a). Gueńiche et al. showed a decrease in erythema, pruritus, and scaling with the topical application of Vitreoscilla filiformis in 60 patients (Gueńiche et al., 2008). Besides, the oral administration of Lactobacillus paracasei improved erythema, seborrhea, and dandruff in patients with SD (Reygagne et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
The human skin harbors a wide variety of microbes that, together with their genetic information and host interactions, form the human skin microbiome. The role of the human microbiome in the development of various diseases has lately gained interest. According to several studies, changes in the cutaneous microbiota are involved in the pathophysiology of several dermatoses. A better delineation of the human microbiome and its interactions with the innate and adaptive immune systems could lead to a better understanding of these diseases, as well as the opportunity to achieve new therapeutic modalities. The present review centers on the most recent knowledge on skin microbiome and its participation in the pathogenesis of several skin disorders: atopic and seborrheic dermatitis, alopecia areata, psoriasis and acne.
... Besides oral probiotic formulations that act along the gut-skin axis, there are emerging topical probiotic formulations that can be applied directly onto the skin with promising outcomes for skin disorders like atopic dermatitis, acne, seborrheic dermatitis, and nonhealing ulcers Myles et al. 2018;AOBiome n.d.;Guéniche et al. 2008;Peral et al. 2010). It is to be noted that skin health is influenced not only by the gut microbiome but also by the skin microbiome. ...
Chapter
The human microbiome includes microorganisms and their cumulative genetic details that reside in the human body. Skin, the body’s most external organ and exposed to the external environment, is an ecosystem with 1.8 m² area. It has a varying epidermal thickness, folds, and appendages in different areas including along with varying moisture and temperature level on the skin surface. Microbial colonization on the skin surface starts from the time of birth. The mode of delivery affects the colonization process to a considerable extent. The group of microbes colonizing the skin surface is determined by physical and chemical features of it, which applies to microbes inhabiting the gut and other ecological niches in the body as well. There is several common important characteristics shared commonly by gut and skin, where both are (1) heavily vascularized, (2) richly perfused, (3) densely innervated, (4) integrated to the immune system, (5) highly associated with the endocrine system, (6) extensively colonized with recognizable microbiota, and (7) both helps our body to communicate with its external environment. It has variously been reported that a close and bidirectional association within the gut and skin in maintaining the homeostasis and allostasis of skin and also gastrointestinal (GI) health. Therefore, numerous intestinal pathologies have been linked to skin comorbidities. It has been found that skin is directly impacted by the various circumstances that principally affect the intestine. Similarly, various gastrointestinal disorders could be linked to distinct dermatological entities. In the same context, a growing body of proof proposes an association of intestinal dysbiosis with many regular inflammatory skin pathologies including atopic dermatitis (AD), psoriasis, rosacea, and acne vulgaris. And the realization of this interconnected association between skin and gut has resulted in a new concept of the “Gut-Skin Axis.” An intimate bidirectional engagement between the gut and the skin has been well established by growing research evidence in this domain. Recent reports have indicated that the administration of specific Lactobacilli strains to mice can significantly alter the overall skin phenotype. Despite increasing research efforts in this domain, a systematic investigation of the “Gut-Skin Axis” remains ill explored by both gastroenterology as well as dermatology researchers. And in this context, here we are discussing various aspects of the Gut-Skin Axis and its role in the general well-being of individuals.
... Besides oral probiotic formulations that act along the gut-skin axis, there are emerging topical probiotic formulations that can be applied directly onto the skin with promising outcomes for skin disorders like atopic dermatitis, acne, seborrheic dermatitis, and nonhealing ulcers (Rosenfeldt et al. 2003;Myles et al. 2018; AOBiome n.d.; Guéniche et al. 2008;Peral et al. 2010). It is to be noted that skin health is influenced not only by the gut microbiome but also by the skin microbiome. ...
Chapter
There is an intricate relationship between human skin health and gut microenvironment, and both are equally influenced using probiotics. In recent years, there is growing evidence suggesting the role of probiotics in metabolism, immunomodulation, wound healing, and various inflammatory and infectious conditions. Both the skin and gut are morphologically different but share some common physiological features. The gut and skin interact mainly through this microbiota and the metabolites secreted by them that interfere with a cascade of biological pathways regulating metabolism, immunity, inflammation, oxidative stress, and neuroendocrine function. Understanding the mechanism of action by which gut influences skin health (inside-out) is essential to define the cross talk between the two compartments. Probiotics can be exploited as modern therapeutics or as an adjuvant to classical therapies in the management of a variety of human diseases. However, limited data is available on the clinical potential of oral and topical probiotics in the treatment of skin- and gut-associated diseases. Although probiotics are considered safe, a comprehensive investigation is also required to establish the safety measures in immunocompromised persons. The present review highlighted the significance of probiotics in the gut-skin axis with a special reference to gut microbiota, skin homeostasis, and skin wound healing.
Article
Full-text available
The paper contains review of studies on microbiota and cutaneous microbiome using modern techniques of methagenomic analysis. The existing data on microflora of normal skin and among the patients with acne, seborrhoeic dermatitis, rosacea atopic dermatitis are consequently analyzed. The interaction between microbiome and innate/adaptive immunity is presented The perspectives of knowledge on microbiome both in dermatology and cosmetology are pointed out.
Article
Probiotics are live microorganisms, which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Semiactive, non-replicating bacteria or extracts used in dermocosmetics have interesting properties for skin quality. Vitreoscilla filiformis is cultured by a fermentation process to obtain an extract. It is considered as a probiotic fraction and topical application of this extract has shown activity to strengthen the skin physical barrier function and maintain good homeostasis of skin defenses. Vichy volcanic mineralizing water (VVMW) is a pure, highly mineralized water that has been shown to strengthen the skin against exposome aggressions. This manuscript reviews properties of probiotic fractions used in skin care, especially studies on an extract of V. filiformis grown in a medium containing VVMW (VfeV) and evaluated in combination with VVMW. Skin barrier function: In normal human epidermal keratinocyte cultures, the combination of 10% VVMW and 0.002% VfeV significantly increased transglutaminase, filaggrin, involucrin, claudin-1, and zonula occludens-1 in comparison with the controls. Antimicrobial peptide defenses: The combination of 16.7% VVMW and 0.1% VfeV increased the expression of β-defensin-4A and S100A7. Skin immune defense functions: In lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, the combination of 16.7% VVMW and 0.1% VfeV down-regulated IL-8, TNF-α, IL-12/IL-23p40, and increased IL10 and IL-10/IL-12 ratio compared to the control. Additionally, the combination of 79% VVMW plus 5% VfeV protected Langerhans cells in skin explants exposed to ultraviolet radiation. In conclusion, the combination of VfeV plus VVMW has properties to strengthen the skin barrier by stimulating skin differentiation and tight junctions, biochemical defenses by stimulating antimicrobial peptides, and cellular immune defenses by increasing the IL-10/IL-12 ratio and by protecting Langerhans cells challenged by ultraviolet radiation.
Chapter
Commensal bacteria play an essential role in maintaining the host immune system and in preventing the colonization and invasion of pathogens. The microbiome of the gastrointestinal system has been extensively studied with regard to the development of disease. The commensal bacteria of the skin have similar functions in immune regulation and disease pathogenesis to its gut counterparts. In recent years the microbiome has served as a target for new therapies in dermatology. Probiotics represent an innovative approach to manipulate the microbiome and expand the spectrum of available treatment options. This chapter reviews the cutaneous and gut microbiome’s role and impact on various cutaneous diseases, specifically in acne vulgaris, psoriasis, chronic wounds from diabetic ulcers and burn patients, seborrheic dermatitis, and cutaneous neoplasms. We present current scientific evidence demonstrating a promising role of oral and topical probiotics in preventing and treating skin disease.
Chapter
A significant upsurge has been discerned on the utilization of probiotics in the amelioration of skin associated disorders since the commencement of the twenty-first century. An extended therapeutic profile where topical probiotic therapies can be exercised has been discovered, such as inflammation, fungal infections, microbial infection, and treatment of atopic dermatitis. Topical therapy with Lactobacillus, Nitrosomonas, Streptococcus, and Bifidobacterium has shown to ameliorate skin inflammation by prompting decolonization of pathogens that reside on the skin such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Cutibacterium acnes, Acne vulgaris, etc. However, none of the probiotics have been approved to be labelled as “drugs” by the US Food and Drug Administration. Even though the emerging therapeutic effects of probiotics potentiate a wider therapeutic usage, it still necessitates a thorough assessment for its safety and efficacy profile. A review on the present-day topical probiotic therapy was formulated, and the scope and challenges associated with the therapy are discussed in the chapter.
Article
Full-text available
Cultures for Malassezia yeasts were taken from both normal-looking skin and lesional skin in 124 patients with atopic dermatitis, 16 patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis and from normal skin of 31 healthy controls. Positive Malassezia growth was found in fewer patients with atopic dermatitis (56%) than in patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis (88%) or in healthy controls (84%, p<0.01). In the patients with atopic dermatitis, fewer positive cultures were found in lesional (28%) than in non-lesional skin (44%, p<0.05), while positive cultures were found in 75% of both lesional and non-lesional skin of patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis (not significant). M. sympodialis dominated in patients with atopic dermatitis (46%) and in healthy controls (69%). In patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis both M. sympodialis and M. obtusa were cultured in 43%. A Malassezia species extract mixture would increase the possibility of detecting IgE sensitization to Malassezia in patients with atopic dermatitis.
Article
Full-text available
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronically relapsing inflammatory skin disease. The first line treatment of AD relies on the daily use of emollients to restore the skin barrier impairment associated with the disease. Vitreoscilla filiformis (V.f.) is a non photosynthetic bacterium and extracts of V.f. are endowed with properties which balance cutaneous immune-homeostasis. The aim of our study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of a 5% V.f. extract-containing ointment on mild to moderate AD in a randomised, double-blind, vehicle-controlled trial. Thirteen patients applied the treatment and the vehicle on symmetrical AD lesions (left versus right side of the body) twice daily for 4 weeks. The assessment of AD severity was done at each visit (Day 0, Day 14 and Day 28) using the modified eczema area and severity index (mEASI). Treatment with the ointment containing 5% V.f. extract significantly improved the AD skin symptoms. Beneficial effects were observed after two weeks of treatment and increased thereafter. These results suggest that V.f. extract could be favourably added to AD skin care emollients formulated for AD.
Article
Skin care products are complex formulations that may cause sensory irritation symptoms, characterized by stinging, burning, and itching. Substances capable of counteracting sensory irritation are of great practical interest. Strontium salts have been demonstrated to inhibit sensory irritation and inflammation when applied topically. In this double-blind study, we evaluated the efficacy of strontium nitrate in reducing chemically-induced skin sensory irritation in 8 subjects. In a random order, 20% strontium nitrate in 70% glycolic acid (pH=0.6) (mixture) was applied to the volar aspect of the forearm and a positive control (70% glycolic acid, pH=0.6) to the contralateral forearm. The irritation sensation was evaluated each min for the first 20 min after topical application using a scale from 0-4. The duration of the irritation sensation in min was also recorded. Strontium nitrate mixed with glycolic acid, in comparison with glycolic acid alone, markedly (p<0.01) shortened the duration of the irritation sensation from 24.4+/-4.1 (mean+/-SEM) min to 8.9+/-3.7 (mean+/-SEM) min, and significantly (p<0.05) reduced the mean magnitude of the irritation sensation at all time points (overall). The study demonstrated that strontium nitrate potently suppresses the sensation of chemically-induced irritation.
Article
Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a common dermatological disorder that varies greatly in severity between individuals and with time. The etiology of this disease is poorly understood. Early investigators focused on the role of Malassezia (previously Pityrosporum) yeasts in the development of SD. Some researchers have hypothesized that there is an immunological component to SD and that this disease is caused by an altered immune response to Malassezia yeasts. However, other researchers view this condition as the result of hyperproliferation. Both antifungal and anti-inflammatory preparations have been used to treat SD effectively and safely. The wide range of antifungal formulations available (creams, shampoos, oral drugs) provides safe, effective and flexible treatment options for SD.
TLR 2 ligands of vitreosalla filiformis induce tolerogenic dendritic cells
  • T Voltz
  • A Guéniche
  • S Kaesler
  • L Breton
  • T Biederman
Voltz T, Guéniche A, Kaesler S, Breton L, Biederman T. TLR 2 ligands of vitreosalla filiformis induce tolerogenic dendritic cells. J Invest Dermatol 2006; 126 : S47.