Sexual Orientation and Childhood Gender Nonconformity: Evidence From Home Videos

Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, 2029 Sheridan Road, Swift Hall #102, Evanston IL 60208, USA.
Developmental Psychology (Impact Factor: 3.21). 02/2008; 44(1):46-58. DOI: 10.1037/0012-1649.44.1.46
Source: PubMed


Homosexual adults tend to be more gender nonconforming than heterosexual adults in some of their behaviors, feelings, and interests. Retrospective studies have also shown large differences in childhood gender nonconformity, but these studies have been criticized for possible memory biases. The authors studied an indicator of childhood gender nonconformity not subject to such biases: childhood home videos. They recruited homosexual and heterosexual men and women (targets) with videos from their childhood and subsequently asked heterosexual and homosexual raters to judge the gender nonconformity of the targets from both the childhood videos and adult videos made for the study. Prehomosexual children were judged more gender nonconforming, on average, than preheterosexual children, and this pattern obtained for both men and women. This difference emerged early, carried into adulthood, and was consistent with self-report. In addition, targets who were more gender nonconforming tended to recall more childhood rejection.

  • Source
    • "Bogaert and McCreary (2011) found that gynephilic men who scored higher on indices that measure masculine characteristics or roles tended to overreport their actual height compared to gynephilic men who scored lower on indices measuring masculine characteristics or roles (see alsoPozzebon, Visser, & Bogaert, 2012). Although they did not investigate androphilic men, androphilic men might be less likely to overestimate their height to conform to a physical ideal of a traditional masculine gender role because, on average, androphilic men tend to be relatively more feminine compared to gynephilic men (Bailey & Zucker, 1995;Ellis, Ratnasingam, & Wheeler, 2012;Lippa, 2000Lippa, , 2002Rieger, Linsenmeier, Gygax, & Bailey, 2008). Thus, perhaps gynephilic men were found to be taller than androphilic men in the studies conducted thus far using self-reported height because of a response bias to overestimate their heights to appear taller, whereas androphilic men would be less likely to overestimate their heights to appear taller to conform to a traditional masculine gender role. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies that have used mostly self-reported height have found that gynephilic men and androphilic women are shorter than androphilic men and gynephilic women, respectively. This study examined whether an objective height difference exists or whether a psychosocial account (e.g., distortion of self-reports) may explain these putative height differences. A total of 863 participants, recruited at a Canadian university, the surrounding region, and through lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) events across Canada, self-reported their height and had their height measured. Androphilic men were shorter, on average, than gynephilic men. There was no objective height difference between gynephilic, ambiphilic, and androphilic women. Self-reported height, statistically controlling for objective height, was not related to sexual orientation. These findings are the first to show an objective height difference between androphilic and gynephilic men. Also, the findings suggest that previous studies using self-reported height found part of a true objective height difference between androphilic and gynephilic men. These findings have implications for existing biological theories of men’s sexual orientation development.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · The Journal of Sex Research
  • Source
    • "Statements included " I was a masculine girl, " and " As a child I preferred playing with boys rather than girls, " and were endorsed with 7-point scales. Reported adulthood masculinity-femininity was measured in all 345 women with the Continuous Gender Identity Scale (Rieger et al., 2008) described in Study 1. Cronbach's alpha exceeded .85 for each scale. Two averages were computed for each participant, one each for selfreported childhood and adulthood masculinity-femininity. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies with volunteers in sexual arousal experiments suggest that women are, on average, physiologically sexually aroused to both male and female sexual stimuli. Lesbians are the exception because they tend to be more aroused to their preferred sex than the other sex, a pattern typically seen in men. A separate research line suggests that lesbians are, on average, more masculine than straight women in their nonsexual behaviors and characteristics. Hence, a common influence could affect the expression of male-typical sexual and nonsexual traits in some women. By integrating these research programs, we tested the hypothesis that male-typical sexual arousal of lesbians relates to their nonsexual masculinity. Moreover, the most masculine-behaving lesbians, in particular, could show the most male-typical sexual responses. Across combined data, Study 1 examined these patterns in women's genital arousal and self-reports of masculine and feminine behaviors. Study 2 examined these patterns with another measure of sexual arousal, pupil dilation to sexual stimuli, and with observer-rated masculinity-femininity in addition to self-reported masculinity-femininity. Although both studies confirmed that lesbians were more male-typical in their sexual arousal and nonsexual characteristics, on average, there were no indications that these 2 patterns were in any way connected. Thus, women's sexual responses and nonsexual traits might be masculinized by independent factors. (PsycINFO Database Record
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
  • Source
    • "This scale measured self-report of perceived gender nonconformity. We used five out of 10 items of the original scale items (i.e., items 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 in the men's version) (Rieger et al., 2008), which included statements such as " People think I should act more masculine than I do " (for male participants). Equivalent items were included for men and women. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this survey study, the impact of gender and gender nonconformity on Dutch same-sex-attracted youth’s perceived experiences of same-sex sexuality-related victimization was systematically compared across social contexts. Participants were between ages 16 and 18 and enrolled in secondary education (n = 305). In contexts of school and strangers, boys and participants reporting more gender nonconformity reported more perceived experiences of victimization. Effects were negligible in contexts of parents, extended family, and heterosexual friends. The effect of gender nonconformity was not stronger for boys than girls in any social context. Our findings underpin the role of context in victimization research.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of LGBT Youth
Show more