Dietary carotenoids, vitamins C and E, and risk of cataract in women: A prospective study

Divisions of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215-1204, USA.
Archives of Ophthalmology (Impact Factor: 4.4). 02/2008; 126(1):102-9. DOI: 10.1001/archopht.126.1.102
Source: PubMed


To examine in prospective data the relation between dietary intake of carotenoids and vitamins C and E and the risk of cataract in women.
Dietary intake was assessed at baseline in 39,876 female health professionals by using a detailed food frequency questionnaire. A total of 35,551 women provided detailed information on antioxidant nutrient intake from food and supplements and were free of a diagnosis of cataract. The main outcome measure was cataract, defined as an incident, age-related lens opacity responsible for a reduction in best-corrected visual acuity in the worse eye to 20/30 or worse based on self-report confirmed by medical record review.
A total of 2031 cases of incident cataract were confirmed during a mean of 10 years of follow-up. Comparing women in the extreme quintiles, the multivariate relative risk of cataract was 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.95; test for trend, P = .04) for lutein/zeaxanthin and 0.86 (95% confidence interval, 0.74-1.00; test for trend, P = .03) for vitamin E from food and supplements.
In these prospective observational data from a large cohort of female health professionals, higher dietary intakes of lutein/zeaxanthin and vitamin E from food and supplements were associated with significantly decreased risks of cataract.

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    • "Studies have shown that nutritional supplements containing lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin effectively increased the macular pigment density and reduced the prevalence of AMD [2]. Christen et al. [3] studied the positive effect of vitamin E along with lutein and zeaxanthin in decreasing cataracts and AMD. Low absorption of lutein and zeaxanthin is another risk factor that increases the prevalence of AMD. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the effect of wheat germ oil (WGO) compared with groundnut oil (GNO) and mixed micelles (control) on lutein bioavailability and bioactivity in mice. The choice of carrier lipid is critical to achieve an enhanced bioavailability of lutein. Methods: Mice were intubated with single and repeated doses (2 wk) of lutein solubilized in WGO, GNO, or control mixed micelles to study lutein bioavailability, as well as changes in the lipase activity, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and fatty-acid profile. Results: Single-dose (nmol/8 h/mL) and repeated-dose (μg/dL) studies revealed that plasma lutein levels were higher (P > 0.05) in the WGO (88.4 ± 6, 3.2 ± 1) and GNO (23.36 ± 4, 4.7 ± 0.5) groups than in the control (12.4 ± 1, 2.6 ± 0.6) group. Liver and eye lutein levels in WGO (41% and 53%, respectively) and GNO (6% and 41%, respectively) groups also were found to be higher than the control group. However, the dietary lutein response in plasma and tissues was more pronounced in the WGO group than the GNO group. The decrease in plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the WGO (41%) and GNO (26.4%) groups compared with the control group indicates the higher bioavailability and bioactivity of absorbed lutein. Conclusion: The increased lutein bioavailability in the WGO group compared with the other two groups may be attributed to the polar lipids and intestinal lipase activity found in this study. The results imply a new insight into the application of WGO for improving lutein bioavailability.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Nutrition
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    • "Given the importance of oxidative stress as a factor generating cataracts, different antioxidant mechanisms have evolved because of their capacity to counteract damaging effects of pro-oxidants. It is well known that depletion of antioxidants such as carotenoids and vitamin E by pro-oxidative agents is related to higher risk of cataracts, and that the risk is decreased with dietary supplementation of these antioxidants in humans (Jacques and Chylack, 1991; Christen et al., 2008). This has also been demonstrated in other mammals (Haque and Gilani, 2005), birds (Ferguson et al., 1956) and fish (Waagbø et al., 2003). "

    Full-text · Dataset · Nov 2012
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    • "The carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin obtained principally from dark green, leafy vegetables such as spinach, kale, collard greens, mustard greens, and turnip greens were most strongly associated with reduced risk of AMD. Additionally, several prospective studies have reported that higher intakes of lutein and zeaxanthin were associated with decreased risk of cataracts [23]. After a 10-year follow-up, women consuming the most lutein and zeaxanthin had an 18 % lower risk of developing cataracts than those who consumed the least. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Lutein and zeaxanthin are macular pigments with a protective function in the retina. These xanthophylls must be obtained from the diet or added to foods or supplements via easy-to-use, stable formulations. The technique employed to produce these formulations may affect the bioavailability of the xanthophylls. Methods Forty-eight healthy volunteers were randomized into this double-blind, cross-over study investigating the plasma kinetics of lutein provided as two different beadlet formulations. Subjects (n = 48) received a single dose of 20 mg of lutein as either a starch-matrix (“SMB”, FloraGLO® Lutein 5 %) or as a cross-linked alginate-matrix beadlet (“AMB”, Lyc-O-Lutein 20 %) formulation. Plasma concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin were measured at 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 14, 24, 26, 28, 32, 36, 48, 72, 168, and 672 h. Results The mean plasma AUC(0–72h), AUC(0–672h), and Cmax for total lutein and zeaxanthin and their all-E-isomers were significantly increased (p < 0.001) from pre-dose concentrations in response to SMB and AMB. There was no difference in lutein Tmax between the two test articles. However, by 14 h post-dose, total plasma lutein increased by 7 % with AMB and by 126 % with SMB. Total lutein AUC(0–72h) and AUC(0–672h) were 1.8-fold and 1.3-fold higher, respectively, for SMB compared to AMB. Both formulations were well tolerated by subjects in this study. Conclusion These findings confirm that the bioavailability of lutein and zeaxanthin critically depends on the formulation used and document a superiority of the starch-based over the alginate-based product in this study.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · European Journal of Nutrition
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