Mediterranean diet and metabolic diseases. Curr Opin Lipidol

Department of Geriatrics and Metabolic Diseases, Division of Metabolic Diseases, University of Naples SUN, Naples, Italy.
Current Opinion in Lipidology (Impact Factor: 5.66). 03/2008; 19(1):63-8. DOI: 10.1097/MOL.0b013e3282f2fa4d
Source: PubMed


The objective of this article is to present evidence illustrating the relationship between Mediterranean diets and metabolic diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome, and to briefly discuss potential mechanisms by which these diets can help in disease prevention and treatment.
Although the Mediterranean diet has long been celebrated for its impact on cardiovascular health, mounting evidence indicates a favorable effect on obesity and type 2 diabetes, as well. While health promotion strategies aimed at preventing adult obesity are emphasizing components of Mediterranean dietary patterns, a role for Mediterranean diets in attenuating the inflammatory burden associated with type 2 diabetes is also emerging. Moreover, a lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is associated with dietary patterns rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, dairy products, and unsaturated fats. Both epidemiological and interventional studies have revealed a protective effect of the Mediterranean diet against mild chronic inflammation and its metabolic complications.
Mounting evidence suggests that Mediterranean diets could serve as an anti-inflammatory dietary pattern, which could help fighting diseases that are related to chronic inflammation, including visceral obesity, type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome.

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    • "Currently, the incidence and prevalence of excessive weight gain followed by obesity has dramatically increased throughout the world, with the consequence that an estimated 325 million diabetes sufferers will exist during the next 25 years (Wild et al., 2004). Over consumption of sugar and high-fat diets are considered the main causative dietary factors of this situation (Giugliano & Esposito, 2008). Beyond the availability of a number of pharmacological and surgical treatments, lifestyle modifications (Asif, 2014) involving the consumption of foods with low energy density in addition to increasing physical activities are the basic therapeutic strategies to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). "
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are the leading worldwide risk factors for mortality. The inextricably interlinked pathological progression from excessive weight gain, obesity, and hyperglycemia to T2DM, usually commencing from obesity, typically originates from overconsumption of sugar and high-fat diets. Although most patients require medications, T2DM is manageable or even preventable with consumption of low-calorie diet and maintaining body weight. Medicines like insulin, metformin, and thiazolidinediones that improve glycemic control; however, these are associated with weight gain, high blood pressure and dyslipidemia. These situations warrant attentive consideration of the role of balanced foods. Recently, we have discovered advantages of a rare sugar, d-allulose, a zero-calorie functional sweetener having strong anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-hyperglycemic effects. Study revealed that after oral administration in rats d-allulose readily entered the blood stream and was eliminated into urine within 24 hours. Cell culture study showed that d-allulose enters into and leaves the intestinal enterocytes via glucose transporters GLUT5 and GLUT2, respectively. In addition to d-allulose's short-term effects, characterization of long-term effects has been focused on preventing commencement and progression of T2DM in diabetic rats. Human trials showed that d-allulose attenuates postprandial glucose levels in healthy subjects and in borderline diabetic subjects. The anti-hyperlipidemic effect of d-allulose, combined with its anti-inflammatory actions on adipocytes is beneficial for prevention of both obesity and atherosclerosis, and is accompanied by improvements in insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance. Therefore, this review presents brief discussions focusing on physiological functions and potential benefits of d-allulose on obesity and T2DM. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics
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    • "Adhering to the Mediterranean dietary pattern has been proposed to have a positive effect on mortality from all reasons, primary and also secondary prevention of chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular disease (CHD) and cancer [5] [6], and also obesity and type 2 diabetes [7] [8]. In addition, adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern may result in beneficial effects on human health and coronary heart disease in particular because of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects [7] [9] [10] [11] [12]. Results of previous prospective cohort, cross-sectional studies and clinical trials demonstrate that the Mediterranean diet has positive effects in regards to coronary heart disease. "
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    ABSTRACT: Mediterranean diet (MD) is considered a model for healthy eating. However, prospective evidence in Turkey evaluating the relationship between MD and cardiovascular events is scarce. We surveyed the adherence of Alanya population to MD and its association with coronary heart diseases (CHD). The study population consisted of participants in Alanya, a region placed southern Turkey. Followed-up 900 participants (52 percent women) initially free of CHD during 5.1 years. The general dietary habits of study population were detected with a food frequency questionnaire. Data obtained from that questionnaire were tested with Mediterranean diet score in order to find out the relevance to Mediterranean diet. A MD score (scale 0-8) was computed reflecting high ratio of monounsaturated to saturated fat; high intake of legumes, cereals, vegetables, and fruits; low intakes of meat and it's products, milk and dairy products. Scoring < 5 was defined as Low-MD consuming, while 5+ as High-MD consuming. We observed 25 incident cases of CHD. Consumption of High-MD was 21% in men and 19% in women. The risk for myocardial infarction, coronary bypass, coronary angioplasty, and any cardiovascular disease in men increased by 1.3 (P = 0.02), 1.4 (P = 0.03), 1.5 (P = 0.01), and 1.3 (P = 0.02), respectively, for each MD score decrease. In women, the risk for myocardial infarction and angioplasty increased by 1.3 (P = 0.02) and 1.5 (P = 0.01), respectively, for each MD score decrease. The risk for coronary bypass, and any cardiovascular disease in women, crude odds ratios ranged from 1.1 to 1.3 but were not statistically significant. The current rate of MD in Alanya is fairly low. There is an inverse association between adherence to MD and the incidence of fatal and non-fatal CHD in initially healthy adults.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
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    • "Three major dietary patterns were identified in this study and were named as " traditional, " " western, " and " healthy " dietary patterns. The traditional pattern in this study is somewhat similar to the Mediterranean diet, and this similarity includes vegetables, olive oil, fruits, nuts, and legumes (Guigliano and Esposito 2007; Gullar-Castillón et al. 2010). However, the high intake of red meat, poultry, refined grains, butter, and high dairy products as researched in this study was different from the Mediterranean pattern; the latter of which includes a considerable amount of whole grains. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to identify the association of dietary patterns with sociodemographic and health-related characteristics among coronary artery disease patients. In this cross-sectional study, the participants were 250 patients coronary artery disease aged ≥ 40 years old. Data collection was done using questionnaires related to sociodemographics, health-related factors, and food-frequency intake information. Three dietary patterns (traditional, western, and healthy) were obtained using principal component analysis. The result showed that dietary patterns were associated with sociodemographic and health-related factors. According to the result, all the factors were taken very seriously when planning a promotional program for healthy lifestyle in prevention of CAD.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Ecology of Food and Nutrition
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