The BCR-ABL kinase inhibitor imatinib has shown significant efficacy in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and is the standard front-line therapy for patients in chronic phase. However, a substantial number of patients are either primarily refractory or acquire resistance to imatinib. While a number of mechanisms are known to confer resistance to imatinib, increasing evidence has demonstrated a role for BCR-ABL-independent pathways. The Src-family kinases (SFKs) are one such pathway and have been implicated in imatinib resistance. Additionally, these kinases are key to the progression of CML and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL). The dual SFK/BCR-ABL inhibitor dasatinib is now clinically available and has markedly greater potency compared with imatinib against native BCR-ABL and the majority of imatinib-resistant BCR-ABL mutants. Therefore, this agent, as well as other dual SFK/BCR-ABL inhibitors under development, could provide added therapeutic advantages by overcoming both BCR-ABL-dependent (i.e. BCR-ABL mutations) and -independent forms of imatinib resistance and delaying transition to advanced phase disease. In this review, we discuss the preclinical and clinical evidence demonstrating the involvement of SFKs in imatinib resistance and the progression of CML and Ph+ ALL, as well as the potential role of dual SFK/BCR-ABL inhibition in the management of these diseases.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.
"In addition, bosutinib effectively targets SRC at nanomolar concentrations with an half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.2 nM in SRC enzymatic assay (bosutinib corresponds to compound 31a).22 This is of special interest because the SRC family kinases have been linked to disease progression and BCR-ABL-independent forms of IM resistance (reviewed in Li23). Additionally, in chemical proteomics and in vitro kinase assays, more than 45 potential target tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases of bosutinib were discovered. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Bosutinib (SKI-606) is an orally available, once-daily dual Src and Abl kinase inhibitor, approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of adults with chronic, accelerated, or blast-phase Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia who are intolerant of or resistant to first- or second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Bosutinib effectively overcomes the majority of imatinib-resistance-conferring BCR-ABL mutations except V299L and T315I. In the Bosutinib Efficacy and Safety in chronic myeloid LeukemiA (BELA) trial, bosutinib attained a faster and deeper molecular response than imatinib in newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myelogenous leukemia patients. Treatment-emergent adverse events are usually very manageable. Low grade, mostly self-limiting diarrhea represents the most frequently observed toxicity of bosutinib. Anti-diarrheal drugs, antiemetic agents, and/or fluid replacement should be used to treat these patients. The improved hematological toxicity of bosutinib compared with other tyrosine kinase inhibitors has been ascribed to its minimal activity against platelet-derived growth factor receptor and KIT. In this review, we give an overview on the profile of bosutinib, the clinical potential and treatment-emergent adverse events.
"These kinases interact with various signal transduction pathways downstream of different surface receptors, including receptor tyrosine kinases, integrins, G protein-coupled receptors, and antigen receptors.17 SRC kinases are presumably involved in malignant cell transformation, disease progression, and metastatic spread of solid tumors.18–20 In CML, SRC family kinases have been associated with disease progression, and BCR-ABL-independent forms of imatinib resistance have been reviewed elsewhere.20 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Bosutinib (SKI-606) is an orally available, once-daily, dual Src and Abl kinase inhibitor with promising clinical potential in first-, second-, and third-line treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Bosutinib effectively inhibits wild-type BCR-ABL and most imatinib-resistant BCR-ABL mutations except for V299L and T315I. Low hematologic toxicity is a remarkable characteristic of this novel second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and this has been ascribed to its minimal activity against the platelet-derived growth factor receptor and KIT. Low-grade, typically self-limiting diarrhea, which usually appears within the first few weeks after treatment initiation, represents the predominant toxicity of bosutinib. Other treatment-associated adverse events are mostly mild to moderate. Bosutinib has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of chronic, accelerated, or blast phase Philadelphia chromosome-positive CML in adult patients with resistance or intolerance to prior therapy. This review summarizes the main properties of bosutinib and the currently available data on its clinical potential in the treatment of CML.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · OncoTargets and Therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Transmethylation is an important reaction that transfers a methyl group in S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to substrates such as DNA, RNA, and proteins. It is known that transmethylation plays critical roles in various cellular responses. In this study, we examined the effects of transmethylation on tumorigenic responses and its regulatory mechanism using an upregulation strategy of adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) acting as a negative feedback inhibitor. Treatment with adenosine dialdehyde (AdOx), an inhibitor of transmethylation-suppressive adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) hydrolase (SAHH), enhanced the level of SAH and effectively blocked the proliferation, migration, and invasion of cancer cells; the treatment also induced the differentiation of C6 glioma cells and suppressed the neovascular genesis of eggs in a dose-dependent manner. Through immunoblotting analysis, it was found that AdOx was capable of indirectly diminishing the phosphorylation of oncogenic Src and its kinase activity. Interestingly, AdOx disrupted actin cytoskeleton structures, leading to morphological changes, and suppressed the formation of a signaling complex composed of Src and p85/PI3K, which is linked to various tumorigenic responses. In agreement with these data, the exogenous treatment of SAH or inhibition of SAHH by specific siRNA or another type of inhibitor, 3-deazaadenosine (DAZA), similarly resulted in antitumorigenic responses, suppressive activity on Src, the alteration of actin cytoskeleton, and a change of the colocalization pattern between actin and Src. Taken together, these results suggest that SAH/SAHH-mediated transmethylation could be linked to the tumorigenic processes through cross-regulation between the actin cytoskeleton and Src kinase activity.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Biochemical pharmacology