Reliability and validity of the IPAQ-Chinese: The Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study

Department of Community Medicine and School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
Medicine &amp Science in Sports &amp Exercise (Impact Factor: 3.98). 02/2008; 40(2):303-7. DOI: 10.1249/mss.0b013e31815b0db5
Source: PubMed


Valid measurements of self-reported physical activity are very limited in Chinese populations, especially the elderly. Therefore, we examined the validity and reliability of the Chinese version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-C) in older Chinese people.
Two hundred twenty-four older adults (66.1% women, 33.9% men, mean age 65.2 +/- 5.7 yr) were randomly selected from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study, a prospective cohort of older Chinese in Southern China. To examine the test-retest reliability, the participants completed the IPAQ-C twice during a 7-d interval. The criterion validity of the IPAQ-C was tested with pedometry.
Good reliability was observed between the repeated IPAQ-C, with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) ranging from 0.81 to 0.89. Total activity measured by IPAQ-C correlated moderately with the pedometer-measured steps (partial r = 0.33 adjusted for sex, age, and education; P < 0.001). The walking domain of IPAQ-C was strongly associated with the number of steps (partial r = 0.58, P < 0.001), but there were no significant associations between other activity domains of the IPAQ-C and the pedometer data.
This is the first reported validation study of an international standardized questionnaire (IPAQ-C) in older Chinese adults. Our study shows that the IPAQ-C is adequately valid and reliable for assessing total physical activity and that it may be a useful instrument for generating internationally comparable data on physical activity in this population.

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Available from: G Neil Thomas, Feb 26, 2014
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    • "Interestingly, our results also indicated total weekly PA was much higher than the average level demonstrated by women in western developed countries (i.e., more than five times the recommended dose in the American PA Guidelines) [33]. Our PA findings approximate data (4672 ± 1692 MET · min · week−1) also collected by IPAQ in the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study [35]. Additionally, the time spent in leisure-time PA among the current study’s middle-aged women was relatively low (27.7%) while the transport-related PA was relatively high (29.7%) "
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    ABSTRACT: Background High levels of physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are each associated with a favorable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile. However, the relationship between CRF and obesity is still inconsistent across studies, and there has been no thorough exploration of the independent contribution of CRF to different CVD risk factors in Chinese women. This study investigated the relationship between CRF and CVD risk factors in 40–49 year old women in Beijing. Methods The study included 231 urban-dwelling asymptomatic 40–49 year old women. Body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%), blood glucose, blood lipids, blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured at rest. Cycle ergometer exercise tests were conducted to assess CRF as indicated by maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Participants were categorized into three CRF levels (low, moderate and high). Results High CRF level was associated with significantly less BF%, lower PWV, and higher weekly physical activity compared with low and moderate CRF (P < 0.05). Compared to high CRF, the odds ratios for having ≥3 main CVD risk factors (overweight, hypertension, and dyslipidemia) in low and moderate CRF were 2.09 (95% CI: 1.48-2.94) and 1.84 (95% CI: 1.29-2.62), respectively. The proportion of participants with clinical ST segment depression and prolonged QTC interval during cycle ergometer testing was significantly higher in women with low CRF. Conclusions Overall, Chinese middle-aged women demonstrated a moderate level of CRF. CRF was independently associated with CVD risk factors, including overweight, hypertension, dyslipidemia, arterial stiffness, and abnormal ECG during exercise, with the least fit women exhibiting the highest number of CVD risk factors.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · BMC Women's Health
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    • "As noted previously [3], the level of self-reported transport-related walking among Hong Kong elders was strikingly higher than that observed in corresponding Western samples [5], but similar to that previously reported in Mainland Chinese elders [24]. The observed large volumes of walking for transport may be due to cultural differences [25], more walkable and destination-rich environments [26], as well as lower levels of car ownerships in the study site [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Walking for transport can contribute to the accrual of health-enhancing levels of physical activity in elders. Identifying destinations and environmental conditions that facilitate this type of walking has public health significance. However, most findings are limited to Western, low-density locations, while a larger proportion of the global population resides in ultra-dense Asian metropolises. We investigated relationships of within-neighborhood objectively-measured destination categories and environmental attributes with walking for transport in 484 elders from an ultra-dense metropolis (Hong Kong). Methods We estimated relationships of diversity (number of different types) and prevalence of within-neighborhood destination categories (environmental audits of 400 m buffers surrounding residential addresses) with transport-related walking (interviewer–administered questionnaire) in 484 Chinese-speaking elders able to walk unassisted and living in 32 neighborhoods stratified by socio-economic status and transport-related walkability. We examined the moderating effects of safety and pedestrian infrastructure-related neighborhood attributes on destination-walking associations. Results Participants reported on average 569 and 254 min/week of overall and within-neighborhood walking for transport, respectively. The prevalence of public transit points and diversity of recreational destinations were positively related to overall walking for transport. The presence of a health clinic/service and place of worship, higher diversity in recreational destinations, and greater prevalence of non-food retails and services, food/grocery stores, and restaurants in the neighborhood were predictive of more within-neighborhood walking for transport. Neighborhood safety-related aspects moderated the relationship of overall walking for transport with the prevalence of public transit points, this being positive only in safe locations. Similar moderating effects of safety-related attributes were observed for the relationships of within-neighborhood walking for transport with diversity of recreational and entertainment destinations. Pedestrian-infrastructure attributes acted as moderators of associations of within-neighborhood walking for transport with prevalence of commercial destination categories. Composite destinations indices consisting of destination categories related to the specific measures of walking were positively associated with walking for transport. Conclusions The availability of both non-commercial and commercial destinations may promote within-neighborhood walking for transport, while recreational facilities and public transit points may facilitate overall walking for transport. However, destination-rich areas need to also provide adequate levels of personal safety and a physically-unchallenging pedestrian network.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
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    • "Portable accelerometers, electronic motion sensors that provide minute-by-minute activity counts [2], have therefore become a very popular research tool to collect objective physical activity data during free-living conditions, as they have been shown to be more valid than traditional physical activity questionnaires [3]. However, due to their high cost (US$ 200– 500) [4], studies using accelerometers to measure physical activity have tended to have limited sample size. The largest sample size found in the literature was 6622 [5] [6], but typically the sample sizes are much less than one thousand [7] [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Participant compliance is an important issue in studies using accelerometers. Some participants wear the accelerometer for the duration specified by the researchers but many do not. We investigated a range of demographic factors associated with participant compliance in obtaining analyzable accelerometer data. A total of 3601 participants (aged 47.6±13.1 years, 44.6% male) were included. They were asked to wear an accelerometer (ActiGraph) for four consecutive days after completing a household survey during March 2009-January 2011 in Hong Kong. Participants wore the accelerometer on average for 13.9h in a 24-h day. No significant difference was found between males and females (p=0.38). Using log-linear regression, it was found that older participants (0.5% more wearing hours for each year of age, p<0.001), those with full-time job (p<0.01), with tertiary education (p<0.01), non-smokers (p<0.01) and with high self-reported health (p<0.05) wore the accelerometer for more hours. These results provide details for estimating compliance rates for samples with different characteristics and thus sample size calculation to account for participant compliance.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Gait & posture
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