Safety and efficacy of cranberry (Vaccinium Macrocarpon) during pregnancy and lactation

Graduate Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Leslie Dan Facility of Pharmacy, University ofToronto, Canada.
The Canadian journal of clinical pharmacology = Journal canadien de pharmacologie clinique 02/2008; 15(1):e80-6.
Source: PubMed


There is a lack of basic knowledge on the part of both clinicians and patients as to the indications for use and safety of herbs used during pregnancy and lactation. This is one article in a series that systematically reviews the evidence for herbs commonly used during pregnancy and lactation.
To systematically review the literature for evidence on the use, safety and pharmacology of cranberry, focusing on issues pertaining to pregnancy and lactation.
We searched 7 electronic databases and compiled data according to the grade of evidence found.
There is no direct evidence of safety or harm to the mother or fetus as a result of consuming cranberry during pregnancy. Indirectly, there is good scientific evidence that cranberry may be of minimal risk, where a survey of 400 pregnant women did not uncover any adverse events when cranberry was regularly consumed. In lactation, the safety or harm of cranberry is unknown.
Women experience urinary tract infections with greater frequency during pregnancy. Given the evidence to support the use of cranberry for urinary tract infections (UTIs) and its safety profile, cranberry supplementation as fruit or fruit juice may be a valuable therapeutic choice in the treatment of UTIs during pregnancy.

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    • "n good , and no side - effects have been as - sociated with consuming multiple servings or supplements of cranberry products . Given the strong scientific evidence sup - porting its safety profile , cranberry supplementation as whole berry or juice may be a valuable therapeutic choice in the treat - ment of UTIs during pregnancy or breastfeeding ( Dugoua et al . , 2008 ) . However , in people with a tendency to develop kidney stones or in the presence of renal impairment , it would be pru - dent to avoid cranberry therapy or to limit cranberry juice intake up to one liter per day . Moreover , episodes of gastric discom - fort caused by excessive stomach acidity have been reported after consumption of "
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic studies indicate that millions of people suffer from recurrent cystitis, a pathology requiring antibiotic prophylaxis and entailing high social costs. Cranberry is a traditional folk remedy for cystitis and, which, in the form of a variety of products and formulations has over several decades undergone extensive evaluation for the management of urinary tract infections (UTI). The aim of this retrospective study is to summarize and review the most relevant and recent preclinical and clinical studies on cranberries for the treatment of UTIs. The scientific literature selected for this review was identified by searches of Medline via PubMed. A variety of recent experimental evidence has shed light on the mechanism underlying the anti-adhesive properties of proanthrocyanidins, their structure-activity relationships, and pharmacokinetics. Analysis of clinical studies and evaluation of the cranberry efficacy/safety ratio in the prevention of UTIs strongly support the use of cranberry in the prophylaxis of recurrent UTIs in young and middle-aged women. However, evidence of its clinical use among other patients remains controversial.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Critical reviews in food science and nutrition
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    • "+ - - - 0.0781 + - - - 0.391 + - - - 0.0195 + - + + 0.0098 + + + + 0.0049 + + + + 0.0024 + + + + (Zafriri et al., 1989; Dugoua et al., 2008 "
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    ABSTRACT: Cranberries have long been the focus of interest for their beneficial effects in preventing urinary tract infections (UTIs). The objective of this study was to determine in vitro activity of cranberry extract on common etiologic agents of urinary tract infections isolated from patients. Filter sterilized methanol extract of cranberry was prepared and used in the present study. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was evaluated for active crude extract. The MIC value of methanol extract were 0.391 mg/ml for Enterobacter aerogenes and Staphylococcus aureus whereas the MIC of methanol extract of cranberry were 1.2500 and 0.0195 mg/ml for Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae respectively. The lower MIC value of cranberry extract against K. pneumoniae in comparison to other three organisms suggests that K. pneumoniae showed greater sensitivity towards the extracts of the cranberry extract.
    Full-text · Article · May 2010 · African journal of pharmacy and pharmacology
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    • "No serious adverse effects are known from cranberry fruit. Recently, the safety of cranberry products in pregnancy and lactation has been assessed as safe [28]. In adults, even high amounts of cranberry juice appear to be non-toxic, with the exception of people with a history of nephrolithiasis. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study compares the effects of daily cranberry juice to those of Lactobacillus in children with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs). Eighty-four girls aged between 3 and 14 years were randomized to cranberry, Lactobacillus or control in three treatment arms: G1, cranberry juice 50 ml daily (n=28); G2, 100 ml of Lactobacillus GG drink on 5 days a month (n=27); and G3, controls (n=29). The study lasted for 6 months. Only four subjects withdrew: 1/28 (3.5%) from G1, 1/27 (3.7%) from G2 and 2/29 (6.8%) from G3, because of poor compliance to the established protocol. There were 34 episodes of UTIs in this cohort: 5/27 (18.5%) in G1, 11/26 (42.3%) in G2 and 18/27 (48.1%) in the G3, with at least one episode of infection (p<0.05). These data suggest that daily consumption of concentrated cranberry juice can significantly prevent the recurrence of symptomatic UTIs in children.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2009 · Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
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