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Abstract

Same-sex friendships are an important source of social support and typically contribute to positive adjustment. However, there can be adjustment trade-offs if the friends co-ruminate (i.e., talk excessively about problems) in that co-rumination is related to having close friendships but also to increased internalizing symptoms. The current study utilized an experimental manipulation that elicited co-rumination in young women and thus mirrored an everyday response to stress. Observed co-rumination was associated with a significant increase in the stress hormone, cortisol (after controlling for self-reported co-rumination and for cortisol levels assessed before the discussion of problems). These findings suggest that co-rumination can amplify, rather than mitigate, the hormonal stress response to personal life stressors.

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... Higher levels of co-rumination are also related to biological stress indicators. Specifically, higher levels of co-rumination between young women were related to higher levels of cortisol (Byrd-Craven et al., 2008) and alpha-amylase (Byrd-Craven et al., 2011). These studies suggest co-rumination may have complex effects that involve the two main components of the stress response. ...
... Despite the research that has focused on biological responses to corumination (Byrd-Craven et al., 2008, 2011, little is known about how one individual affects their close friend's HPA reactivity and regulation and how that impacts the processes underlying a friendship dyad. Understanding these connections may be key to illuminating the costs, benefits, and paradoxical effects of co-rumination as an interactional style within friendships. ...
... Videos were coded for co-rumination following procedures outlined in Byrd-Craven et al. (2008). Total co-rumination and each of the subcomponents of co-rumination were scored on a 1-5 scale with (1) being very untrue of the dyad to (5) being very true of the dyad. ...
... Co-rumination also has been found to predict depressive symptoms among college students (Calmes & Roberts, 2008). Two studies used behavioral coding to evaluate whether specific dimensions of corumination, consisting of speculation about the causes of problems, mutual encouragement to discuss problems, rehashing these concerns, and focusing on negative affect, predicted physiological markers of stress during a problem discussion task (Byrd-Craven, Geary, Rose, & Ponzi, 2008;Byrd-Craven, Granger, & Auer, 2011). Results indicated that only focusing on negative affect predicted increases in cortisol and salivary alpha amylase, suggesting there may be both adaptive and maladaptive components of corumination. ...
... Because research has highlighted the importance of assessing the effects of specific features of rumination on psychopathology (Raes, 2010;Roelofs, Huibers, Peeters, & Arntz, 2008) and co-rumination on the stress response (Byrd-Craven et al., 2011), examination of the factor structure of the CRQ can provide further information on the functional and dysfunctional aspects of co-rumination. While the scale was originally developed to measure co-rumination in adolescents, subsequent studies have found that undergraduates engage in corumination as well (i.e., Byrd-Craven et al., 2008Calmes & Roberts, 2008). Additionally, young adulthood is characterized by increased diversity of support networks compared to adolescence (Furman & Buhrmester, 1992). ...
... These differences may be due to a developmental trajectory in co-rumination. Research suggests that college-aged participants report higher mean co-rumination scores compared with Rose's (2002) younger sample (see Byrd-Craven et al., 2008. Additionally, the transition from adolescence to young adulthood is likely associated with changes in social support networks. ...
Article
Co-rumination is an interpersonal behavior that can deepen friendships but also lead to the development of depressive and anxious symptoms. While there has been considerable interest in studying this construct, little psychometric information on the self-report instrument designed to measure co-rumination, the Co-Rumination Questionnaire (CRQ), is available. The current study investigated the factor structure, reliability, and convergent and discriminant validity of the CRQ. Exploratory factor analyses revealed responses were best characterized by a 3-factor structure, termed Rehashing, Mulling, and Encouraging Problem Talk. A confirmatory factor analysis suggested a hierarchical model with the three first-order factors provided a good fit to the data. The CRQ subscales evidenced adequate internal consistency and were differentially related to observational measures of co-rumination and to self-report measures of depression, worry, rumination, and attachment, suggesting the importance of examining specific facets of co-rumination.
... It has some common factors with rumination, such as negative thoughts or feelings, which is linked with poor problem-solving and depression (2). This concept has negative and positive effects, including social benefits in friendship (3,4) and on the other hand, increasing the risk of internalizing symptoms, especially in female adolescents such as anxiety and depression (1,(5)(6)(7), externalizing symptoms (8), alcohol consumption (9), and stress (10). ...
... Table 1 presents substance content, factor loading, and percentage of explained variance by these two factors. We talk for a long time trying to figure out all different reasons why the problem may happen 0.74 8 We talk a lot about all of different bad things that may happen because of the problem 0.69 4 We talk a lot about parts of the problem that do not make sense to us 0.67 5 We spend a long time talking about how sad or mad the person with the problem feels 0.67 13 We spend a lot of time talking about what bad things are going to happen because of the problem 0.66 3 We try to figure out each bad thing that may happen because of the problem 0.65 15 We spend a long time talking about how sad or mad the person with the problem feels 0.64 7 We talk a lot about the problem in order to understand why it happened 0.62 14 We try to figure out everything about the problem, even if there are parts we may never understand 0.6 12 We talk about all unlikely reasons for that problem 0.6 9 We spend a lot of time trying to figure out parts of the problem we cannot understand 0.57 10 We talk for a long time about how upset it has made one of us with the problem 0.54 6 We talk about every part of the problem over and over 0.50 To assess the concurrent validity, total score correlation, and items of the CRQ were measured using the BDI and RRS. Table 2 presents the findings. ...
... Adult participants would be dependent on parents, while adults may have transitioned to use friend networks and romantic partners for social support (23). Additionally, adult participants have higher co-rumination scores and depressive scores (10). In exploratory factor analysis, differences would be due to developmental transition. ...
Article
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Background: Although growing studies support features of co-rumination as a vulnerability factor in internalizing symptoms and positive factor in friendship, little attention has been paid to the psychometric properties of the Co-Rumination Questionnaire (CRQ). Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the psychometric properties of the persian version of this questionnaire. Methods: This research is a descriptive-exploratory study.550 high school students who were selected by cluster random sampling from schools in Tehran. They completed CRQ, Beck depression inventory-II (BDI-II) and Ruminative Response Scale (RRS) in winter 2014-spring and summer 2015. constructs validity, internal consistency reliability and factor structure were investigated. results: The factor analysis identified two interpretable factors with the eigenvalue higher than 2. Results from concurrent validity measurement in the current study showed that the co-rumination has a positive correlation with depression signs (P<0.01) and rumination response style (P<0.01). the CRQ validity was determined using the half-split method employing Spearman-Brown (0.82) and Guttman correlation test (0.81) and internal consistency (0.90). According to these values, this questionnaire has acceptable internal consistency reliability.
... As new ways o f co m m unicating develop, th ere is a need to understand the effects that these new forms o f co m m unication may have on the health and well-being of individuals. Prior research has shown that some forms of interpersonal com m unication may be adversely associated with health and well being (Byrd-Craven, Geary, Rose, & Ponzi, 2008;B yrd-C raven, G ran g er, & A uer, 2011;C alm es & R oberts, 2008;Rose, 2002;Rose, C arlson, & Waller, 2007). Rose (2002) id en tified a type of com m unication that focuses on negative topics, in which individuals excessively rehash problem s, as corumination. ...
... H igher levels of corum ination have been positively related to symptoms of depression a n d anxiety (Rose, 2002;Rose et al., 2007; see also Calmes & Roberts, 2008). R ecent work has also shown th at h ig h e r levels o f c o ru m in a tio n are related to higher levels of cortisol and alpha amylase, which are two biological indicators of stress (Byrd-Craven et al., 2008;Byrd-Craven et al., 2011). T he purpose o f the present research was to investigate the novelty o f the extent to which individuals using Facebook engage in corumination and whether corumination carried out on Facebook is associated with health. ...
... R e c e n t w ork (B y rd -C rav en e t al. , 2008;Byrd-Craven et al., 2010) has shown that corumina tion has biological consequences, which are likely related to negative health outcomes. In a study of young college women, Byrd-Craven et al. (2008) found that higher levels of corum inadon occurring between friends were related to h ig h er levels of cortisol, a stress horm one. In a m ore recent study, Byrd-Craven et al. (2011) found that higher levels of corum ination were related to higher levels of alpha-amylase, an enzyme associated with the stress response, as well as higher levels of cortisol. ...
Article
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Prior research has shown that face-to-face communications that involve excessive focus on problems and negative aspects of situations are related to higher stress. This type of communication has been called co-rumination (Rose, 2002). We hypothesized that co-rumination can also occur in communications carried out on Facebook. We report a study involving 100 college students. We analyzed their communications carried out through Facebook and examined their self-reported co-rumination behaviors from daily life. The results confirmed the hypothesis that participants that individuals co-ruminate when communicating through Facebook that is similar to the way that individuals communicate face to face. The results also showed that co-rumination in daily life was significantly correlated (negatively) with health in an analysis that took into account the positive effects of social support. Implications for interventions designed to reduce stress and to improve overall health of Facebook users are discussed.
... Higher levels of co-rumination are also related to biological stress indicators. Specifically, higher levels of co-rumination between young women were related to higher levels of cortisol (Byrd-Craven et al., 2008) and alpha-amylase (Byrd-Craven et al., 2011). These studies suggest co-rumination may have complex effects that involve the two main components of the stress response. ...
... Despite the research that has focused on biological responses to corumination (Byrd-Craven et al., 2008, 2011, little is known about how one individual affects their close friend's HPA reactivity and regulation and how that impacts the processes underlying a friendship dyad. Understanding these connections may be key to illuminating the costs, benefits, and paradoxical effects of co-rumination as an interactional style within friendships. ...
... Videos were coded for co-rumination following procedures outlined in Byrd-Craven et al. (2008). Total co-rumination and each of the subcomponents of co-rumination were scored on a 1-5 scale with (1) being very untrue of the dyad to (5) being very true of the dyad. ...
... Co-ruminating or engaging in extensive problem-talk with peers focused on negative emotions and dissecting the causes and potential consequences of problems [55], increases risk for depression and anxiety in adolescents and young adults [21,22,56,57]. Co-rumination is a poor emotion regulation strategy that serves to maintain negative affect [58] and increase cortisol levels [59,60]. A definitional hallmark of co-rumination that differentiates it from other supportive interactions that co-ruminative discussions focus almost entirely on problems and negative reactions. ...
... Participants who tended to engage in greater co-rumination did not report less loneliness or greater social support, instead they reported higher levels of loneliness. A potential explanation for this pattern is that co-ruminating tends to increase stress response [59], and exacerbate problems [56,61]. Thus, if participants' co-ruminative exchanges focused on the loneliness that they were experiencing, it stands to reason that in the context of social distancing during COVID-19, these interactions could magnify, rather than decrease, feelings of loneliness. ...
Article
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Background Social distancing presents a significant obstacle for relationships and threatens mental health. Identifying maladaptive, voluntary coping strategies may inform how to maintain interpersonal relationships and mental health during quarantine. Co-ruminating with peers on negative events, moods and fears has adjustment trade-offs of increasing depression and anxiety risk while also enhancing friendship quality. Similarly, social media use is associated with social benefits and risk to mental health. We extend prior research by examining whether co-ruminating on COVID-19, social media use, and social media use focused on COVID-19 during social isolation was associated with heightened depression and anxiety symptoms but also lower loneliness and higher social support during initial lockdown measures in the USA. Methods Adults were recruited through social media (n = 345) to complete self-report surveys on co-rumination, social media use, social distancing, social support from March–May 2020. During this cross-sectional assessment, in addition to completing surveys on current depressive symptoms and state and health anxiety, participants also provided retrospective report of their perceived health anxiety levels six months prior. Results Co-ruminating on COVID-19 with peers and greater time on social media focused on COVID-19 predicted perceived increases in health anxiety and were also associated with higher depressive symptoms and state anxiety, even after controlling for significant demographic predictors. Further, in the context of social distancing, both interaction strategies failed to confer social benefits. Conclusions Results have direct implications for maintaining psychosocial health during social distancing restrictions. Adults may modify how they engage with peers by limiting COVID-19 content on social media and COVID-19 discussion.
... RSA SYNCHRONY BETWEEN ADOLESCENT FRIENDS 5 ANS assessments of co-rumination are currently limited to intrapersonal SNS assessment among samples of undergraduate women. For example, discussing a problem with a friend was associated with increases in salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol (Byrd-Craven, Geary, Rose, & Ponzi, 2008;, indicating an increased stress response. These findings align with prior work supporting co-rumination is a maladaptive ER process that amplifies and maintains negative affect (Stone et al., 2019;Zelic, Ciesla, Dickson, Hruska, & Ciesla, 2016). ...
... Only adolescent girls higher on trait co-rumination exhibited RSA withdrawal during the support task relative to baseline, whereas low-trait co-ruminators exhibited RSA activation relative to baseline. This finding extends prior research indicating that discussing problems with a peer corresponds with an increase SNS arousal and cortisol among undergraduates (Byrd-Craven et al., 2008;Cook, 2020). We interpret this pattern as aligning with polyvagal theory, such that discussing a problem with a peer increases SNS arousal, but only induces a stress response coupled with RSA withdrawal among individuals who over-rely on their friends to regulate their emotions. ...
Article
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Effective emotion regulation (ER) is integral to adolescents’ mental well-being and socio-emotional development. During adolescence, peer interactions have an increasingly salient influence on the development of effective ER, but not all supportive peer interactions support adaptive ER. Co-rumination reflects the tendency to seek ER support by engaging with peers in negatively-focused discussion of ongoing problems. We examined associations between co-rumination (state and trait) with measures of individual autonomic (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA) and affective regulation (self-report) among 30 female close-friend dyads (ages 11-17; 74% White) while engaged in a support-seeking discussion in the laboratory. We found that trait co-rumination corresponded with RSA withdrawal during peer support, suggesting a potential mechanism by which co-rumination contributes to dysregulated ER. We also examined dyadic patterns of physiological regulation via prospective change actor partner interdependence models (APIM). Partner effects were moderated by behaviorally-coded state co-rumination. Dyads with high state co-rumination displayed coupled RSA movement in opposite directions while dyads with low state co-rumination exhibited coupled RSA movement in the same direction. These findings are consistent with similar physiologic linkages in close relationships observed in other developmental periods. Results highlight the importance of multi-modal assessment for characterizing social ER processes across development. Keywords: co-rumination, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, emotion regulation, parasympathetic, adolescence, peer support
... This makes it difficult to disentangle if trait rumination , depression, or other cognitions associated with rumination (e.g., neuroticism or low internal locus of control; ) are driving HPA-axis effects. Studies that examined the impact of situationally induced state rumination on HPA-axis responses showed consistent positive links (Byrd-Craven et al., 2008 Denson et al., 2009; Gianferante et al., 2014; Kuehner et al., 2009; LeMoult and Joormann, 2014; Zoccola et al., 2008 Zoccola et al., , 2014), although exceptions exist (Puterman et al., 2011; Rudolph et al., 2011). However, most studies used correlational or quasi-experimental designs that obscure directionality (Byrd-Craven et al., 2008 Gianferante et al., 2014). ...
... Studies that examined the impact of situationally induced state rumination on HPA-axis responses showed consistent positive links (Byrd-Craven et al., 2008 Denson et al., 2009; Gianferante et al., 2014; Kuehner et al., 2009; LeMoult and Joormann, 2014; Zoccola et al., 2008 Zoccola et al., , 2014), although exceptions exist (Puterman et al., 2011; Rudolph et al., 2011). However, most studies used correlational or quasi-experimental designs that obscure directionality (Byrd-Craven et al., 2008 Gianferante et al., 2014). Rumination may impact neuroendocrine stress responses; but it is also possible that HPA-axis responses induce rumination, given evidence that HPA-axis activation can modulate multiple cognitive functions (Lupien et al., 2009 ). ...
Article
There is a growing realization that cognitive processes associated with stress coping, such as rumination and distraction, can impact the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis (HPA-axis). Yet, little is known about what aspects of the HPA-axis stress response (rate of activation, duration of activation, rate of recovery) is impacted by such cognitive processes. This study examines the impact of both ruminative trait tendencies and experimentally induced rumination on salivary cortisol responses to a social evaluative stress task. Participants (n = 71) were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and were then randomized to complete either a rumination or distraction task. Trait rumination was also assessed at baseline. Results showed no main effects of either trait rumination or experimental condition, but they interacted to predict the cortisol response. Specifically, participants high in trait rumination had prolonged duration of cortisol activation in the rumination condition, compared to those in the distraction condition. In contrast, cortisol responses of participants with low trait rumination did not differ by condition. Notably, our interaction effect was only significant in females. Our findings highlight the complex relationship between rumination and HPA-axis activity, suggesting an interaction of trait and state rumination in shaping HPA-axis responses to stress, and call attention to sex differences in this relationship.
... For girls and women, same-sex close friends are essential sources of social support, particularly for coping with psychosocial stressors (Rose & Rudolph, 2006;Taylor et al., 2000). In these relationships, intimacy is typically established through dyadic self-disclosure followed by empathy and validation of emotions, particularly negative ones (Benenson, & Christakos, 2003; Byrd-Craven, Geary, Rose, & Ponzi, 2008;Rose, 2002). This creates an avenue whereby women J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f THE ENDOCRINOLOGY OF FEMALE FRIENDSHIPS 3 are more vulnerable to relationship distress, even if the distress is not their own (Rose, Glick, Smith, Schwartz-Mette, & Borowski, 2017). ...
... We did not find an impact of experimental condition (rejection, acceptance, or control) on progesterone attunement between the friends, which implies that their discordance may have been a response to the separation and lack of information exchange. Taken together with previous findings, our results suggest that progesterone may function to facilitate the kind of information exchange that would eventually lead to stress system attunement and the transfer of emotional responses seen in previous work on female friendship dyads (Byrd-Craven et al., 2008;Byrd-Craven, Granger, & Auer, 2011;Rankin et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Friendships constitute important relationships, and often function to reduce stress, but have been under-studied. In mother-child dyads, infants coordinate their stress response with their caregivers without experiencing the stressor themselves. The current study used a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test to examine whether i) friends are physiologically attuned (i.e., cortisol and progesterone); ii) attunement differs as a function of social acceptance or rejection external to the dyad; and, iii) friends can ‘catch’ a stress response only through non-verbal cues. Friends showed both cortisol and progesterone attunement at the beginning of the study. Friends showed cortisol attunement across time and conditions. Friends’ progesterone levels were significantly, but negatively associated across time and conditions. They did not, however, show a stress contagion as a result of one friend experiencing stress. These findings suggest that cortisol and progesterone play different roles in the attunement of stress and subsequent affiliation.
... vicinanza e soddisfazione relazionale (Calmes e Roberts, 2008;Jones, 1991;Rose, Carlson e Waller, 2007;Starr e Davila, 2009), dall'altra è associato a una compromissione del funzionamento psicologico, in particolare a sintomi internalizzanti, quali ansia, depressione e disturbi psicosomatici (Balsamo, Carlucci, Sergi, Murdock e Saggino, 2015;Calmes e Roberts, 2008;Hankin, Stone e Wright, 2010;Rose, Carlson e Waller, 2007;Schwartz-Mette e Rose, 2012;Starr e Davila, 2009;Stone, Hankin, Gibb e Abela, 2011;White e Shih, 2012), sintomi esternalizzanti (Tompkins, Hockett, Abraibesh e Witt, 2011) e a un'accresciuta risposta allo stress, con produzione di cortisolo (Byrd-Craven et al., 2008;, nonché a condotte di abuso di alcol nelle studentesse universitarie (Ciesla et al., 2011). ...
... La letteratura corrente sottolinea l'importanza di discriminare tra le diverse caratteristiche della co-ruminazione, suggerendo che potrebbero essere presenti, insite nel processo interpersonale, componenti adattive e maladattive. Sembra, in effetti, che specifiche dimensioni della co-ruminazione, come il focalizzarsi su emozioni negative, e non tanto lo speculare sulle cause dei problemi né il mutuo incoraggiamento a discutere di problemi personali, predicano markers fisiologici di stress, quali l'aumento del cortisolo e dell'alfaamilasi salivare (Byrd-Craven et al., 2008;. ...
... Research conducted by Rose and her colleagues (Rose, 2002;Rose, Carlson, & Waller, 2007) documents that co-rumination (e.g., "discussing the same problem repeatedly," "focusing on negative feelings"; Rose, p. 1832) with same-sex friends increases self-reports of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Byrd-Craven and her colleagues (see Byrd-Craven, Geary, Rose, & Ponzi, 2008;Byrd-Craven, Granger, & Auer, 2010) also found that co-rumination between female, samesex friends was related to physiological stress in a conversational setting. Participants talked with a "best" or "close" same-sex friend about a problem that either one or both of them was experiencing. ...
... It is possible that there are aspect(s) of co-rumination more likely to predict rumination about events, such as the Zimmerman trial. Byrd-Craven and her colleagues (Byrd-Craven et al., 2008;Byrd-Craven et al., 2010) arranged for female close friends to discuss, in a laboratory situation, a problem that one or the other woman was experiencing. Behavioral coding indicated that dwelling on the negative affect associated with a problem was associated with an increase in levels of the stress hormone, cortisol. ...
Article
We document how prior experiences with racism, sequentially mediated by co-rumination about racial problems with a friend and thought intrusions, are associated with negative reactions to a racially charged event--the fatal shooting of Trayvon Martin by George Zimmerman and the subsequent trial and acquittal of Mr. Zimmerman. African Americans’ prior experiences with racial discrimination predicted more co-rumination about racial problems with a friend. In turn, co-rumination was associated with more thought intrusions about the trial, leading to more negative affect and less forgiveness for Zimmerman. Co-rumination about racism and worrisome thinking about high profile race-related events may amplify concern about racism for a frequent target of racial discrimination, lowering the threshold for negative psychological reactions to racist acts (including acts of violence) that may happen to other African Americans or to oneself.
... Finally, we did not separate the different types of peer victimization into relational and physical victimization. This might be informative since the specific topic of co-rumination may contribute to the impact on adolescents' psychological difficulties (Byrd-Craven, Geary, Rose, & Ponzi, 2008). ...
Article
This study examined the moderating role of co-rumination with friends on the relations between peer victimization and psychological maladjustment (depressive symptoms, anxiety) in Chinese adolescents. Participants included 282 adolescents (118 boys, Mage = 12.90 years, SD = 0.71) who had same-gender reciprocated best friends in rural China. Data on peer victimization, co-rumination with friends, depressive symptoms, and anxiety were collected from peer nomination and self-reports. The findings revealed that the associations between peer victimization and psychological maladjustment were stronger among adolescents who had a higher level of co-rumination with friends. This result suggests that co-rumination with friends may worsen the psychological problems that victimized adolescents face. The results can inform prevention and intervention efforts to improve victimized adolescents' psychological problems by considering the role of victims' high-level of co-rumination with friends.
... The research on co-rumination operationalizes co-rumination as the frequency of discussing the problem, discussing the same problem repeatedly, speculation about parts of the problem that were not understood, and focusing on negative feelings (Rose, 2002). But most of the research on co-rumination and cognitive rumination has found that it is the continued focus on negative affect or brooding that is problematic and not reflection on the problem in general (see Byrd-Craven, Geary, Rose, & Ponzi, 2008;Nolen-Hoeksema, 2000). Therefore, it is important to distinguish between cognitive and verbal brooding rather than ruminative thought and talk more broadly. ...
Article
This study examined whether a need for closure explains why people verbally brood and whether the support received when they verbally brood during a conversation reduces anxiety and cognitive brooding afterward. In two studies, friends came into the laboratory and were randomly assigned to be a subject or confederate. The confederate was trained to provide “good support” or “poor support” to the subject who talked about a stressor he or she could not stop thinking and talking about recently with that friend. The overall models suggested that individuals were more likely to verbally brood when they had a higher need for closure and were more likely to feel better and positively reframe the stressor when the friend was supportive rather than unsupportive, which reduced anxiety. However, if individuals did feel better and/or positively reframed their stressor, even if they received “poor support,” it reduced their anxiety. Finally, positive reframing of the stressor, rather than simply feeling better, helped subjects reduce their cognitive brooding 20 minutes after the conversation.
... Studies examining corumination (Byrd-Craven, Geary, Rose, & Ponzi, 2008;Byrd-Craven, Granger, & Auer, 2011) were excluded because this construct regards talking about own concerns, and not thinking/thoughts/cognitions. A series of studies in which Borkovec and colleagues (Borkovec & Hu, 1990;Borkovec, Lyonfields, Wiser, & Deihl, 1993;Lyonfields, Borkovec, & Thayer, 1995) inspected heart rate responses to fearful imagery (after worry or relaxation) were excluded as imagery itself might be conceived as a subtype of perseverative cognition. ...
Article
Rumination about the past and worries about the future (perseverative cognition) are extremely common, although pervasive and distressing, dysfunctional cognitive processes. Perseverative cognition is not only implicated in psychological health, contributing to mood worsening and psychopathology but, due to its ability to elicit prolonged physiological activity, is also considered to play a role in somatic health. Although there is emerging evidence that such negative and persistent thoughts have consequences on the body, this association has not yet been quantified. The aim of this study was to meta-analyze available studies on the physiological concomitants of perseverative cognition in healthy subjects. Separate meta-analyses were performed on each examined physiological parameter. Sixty studies were eligible for the analyses. Associations emerged between perseverative cognition and higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) (g = .45) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (g = .51) in experimental studies, and higher heart rate (HR) (g = .28 and g = .20) and cortisol (g = .36 and g = .32), and lower heart rate variability (HRV) (g = .15 and g = .27) in experimental and correlational studies, respectively. Significant moderators were sex, ethnicity, type of induction used to elicit perseverative cognition, assessment of state versus trait perseverative cognition, focus on worry or rumination, duration of physiological assessment, and quality of the studies. With the exception of blood pressure, results were not influenced by publication bias. Results show that perseverative cognition affects cardiovascular, autonomic, and endocrine nervous system activity, suggesting a pathogenic pathway to long-term disease outcomes and clarifying the still unexplained relationship between chronic stress and health vulnerability. (PsycINFO Database Record
... Future research should examine the extent to which partners coruminate in response to stress. Evidence from young women indicates that teenagers that co-ruminate on a Stressor experience greater negative affect, both in the laboratory and in naturalistic settings (Calmes & Roberts, 2008;Rose, 2002), and greater corfisol responses (Byrd-Craven, Geary, Rose, & Ponzi, 2008). As such, future work should investigate the impact of partners' rumination on one another in response to shared Stressors. ...
Article
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Relationships among rumination, social support, and negative affect were examined using a daily process methodology. trait rumination predicted subsequent daily rumination about daily family stress. however, findings from multilevel modeling indicated that these effects were moderated by social support. Social support also attenuated the effect of state rumination on negative affect. When those higher in support ruminated, the effect on negative affect was buffered as compared to those lower in social support. Although our findings suggest that those high in trait rumination are more likely to respond to daily stressors with increases in daily rumination, we found that this effect too was attenuated among those with higher social support. trait rumination was more strongly predictive of daily rumination among those who reported lower social support. implications for models of rumination are discussed within a social contextual framework.
... The CRQ has demonstrated moderate retest reliability at 6 months, r = .54 [2], and excellent internal consistency in non-clinical samples, alphas = .96-.97 [1,2,25]. Exploratory factor analysis indicated a single factor with all loadings over .45; ...
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Research on co-rumination has investigated its relationship with internalizing symptoms, but few studies have addressed underlying maladaptive cognitive-affective processes that may play an important role in the maintenance of this relation. This study examines if Young's schema domains mediate the relation between co-rumination and depression in a community sample of non-clinical young adults. Participants completed the Co-Rumination Questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire-L3, and Teate Depression Inventory. Correlations and path analysis were calculated for the full sample and separately by gender. The schema domains of Overvigilance/Inhibition and Other-Directedness fully mediated the relation between co-rumination and depression. When analyses were performed separately for males and females, mediation persisted only for females. Findings suggest that among young women, co-rumination with a friend may be associated with depressive symptoms because of its activation of specific maladaptive cognitive schemas. Better understanding of the content and processes underpinning co-rumination may have important implications for the prevention and treatment of depression.
... Jex, 1998) but could even strengthen exclusion's negative impact on employee outcomes through ruminative thoughts (cf. Byrd-Craven et al., 2008). ...
Article
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We integrate belongingness and social support theories to simultaneously consider the influence of work-related support (i.e., perceived organizational support; POS) and non-work-related support (i.e. family and social support; FSS) that we contend will have differential effects on the relationships between coworker exclusion and outcomes. Employees reporting high levels of coworker exclusion and high levels of POS demonstrate higher levels of performance and increased levels of organization-based self-esteem (OBSE) than do those reporting low levels of POS. FSS exacerbated the negative relationship between coworker exclusion and OBSE and the positive relationship between coworker exclusion and job-induced tension.
... This effect might also be exacerbated by reexperiencing stress. Byrd-Craven et al. (2007) show that co-rumination (extensively discussing and revisiting problems with others, speculating about problems, and focusing on negative emotions) increases the level of the stress hormone cortisol. If co-rumination amplifies the hormonal stress response, sharing can be detrimental for people who communicate experiences with others. ...
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Consumers often share their service experiences with others and, in doing so, may change their evaluation of the experience. In three studies, we analyze the influence of social sharing of consumption-related emotions on the sharer’s satisfaction with the consumption experience and related outcomes. Study 1 demonstrates that the sharing of negative emotions amplifies the sharer’s dissatisfaction. Study 2 shows that the specific nature of the negative emotion (anger vs. regret) and that of the recipient (friend vs. stranger) moderate this negative effect. Study 3 finds that the effects of sharing further depend on whether the recipient is viewed as a prospective customer or not. From a theoretical perspective, the findings contradict the claim that cathartic venting contributes to a person’s relief and well-being. In addition, the assertion that strong ties are better than weak ties does not always hold. The benefits of sharing depend on the specific emotion involved and the recipient’s interests. From a managerial perspective, the findings should help companies devise programs to compensate the negative consequences of service failures. For example, by offering customers the opportunity to express anger to strangers through their corporate websites or social media communities, managers may be able to reduce customer dissatisfaction and thus maintain the relationship. In addition, such opportunities may help the firm identify dissatisfied consumers and, in turn, apply service recovery strategies to retain them.
... Although previous research using psychosocial stress protocols such as the TSST has found pronounced reductions in neuroendocrine reactivity across multiple exposures, and numerous studies have indicated a high amount of interindividual variability in HPA-axis habituation (Epel et al., 2000;Kudielka et al., 2006;Schommer et al., 2003;Wüst et al., 2005), there is conflicting evidence regarding its association with rumination. For example, some studies revealed a positive relationship between rumination and increased cortisol activity (Byrd-Craven et al., 2008, 2014Gouin et al., 2012;Zoccola et al., 2008), while other results contradict this relationship (Rudolph et al., 2011;van Santen et al., 2011;Young and Nolen-Hoeksema, 2001). Conversely, habitual use of strategies for emotion regulation that are considered more functional, such as trait reappraisal, was found to be associated with higher HPA-axis habituation (Roos et al., 2019). ...
Article
Social self-threat during physical stress, such as exposure to the cold pressor test and isometric handgrip test, has been shown to induce activation of the HPA axis, in addition to autonomic responses. However, previous research has suggested that dysfunctional post-event processing may play a major role in neuroendocrine reactivity at initial as well as subsequent social stress exposure. In the present study, we investigated how the interplay of context (i.e. performance feedback) with state (i.e. self-esteem) as well as trait-like factors (i.e. ruminative tendencies) affects stress responses to repeated, short bouts of physical activity. On two sessions, 1 week apart, 53 participants (27 women) performed an isometric handgrip task for 3 min, during which they were exposed to social-evaluative threat. In addition, participants received fake feedback on their performance immediately after the task, labeling it as either ‘above’ (positive) or ‘below average’ (negative). In addition to neuroendocrine (cortisol), cardiovascular (heart rate, blood pressure) and subjective stress reactivity, performance-related and social dimensions of state self-esteem were assessed before and after stress induction. Substantial increases in cardiovascular parameters were found on both days, regardless of feedback condition. However, positive feedback led to significantly diminished neuroendocrine responses on day 1, whereas baseline cortisol on session 2 was significantly higher in the negative feedback group. Conversely, social self-esteem decreased after stress induction on both days only for participants who had received negative feedback. Changes in self-esteem reported on day 1 were associated with increased baseline cortisol at the second session, while interindividual differences in self-reported (trait) rumination were associated with cortisol reactivity at session 1. Taken together, the results suggest that effects of social evaluation during short periods of physical stress rely on post-event processing and might be counteracted by positive appraisal directly after stress exposure. Post-hoc framing (in terms of success vs. failure) may predict subsequent stress-related hormonal effects better than task demands per se, which should be considered as a potential moderator in future acute stress research, but might also be relevant to many practical applications in fields ranging from sports/performance to health psychology.
... Future studies should collect measures of co-rumination across a number of relationships. Additionally, as both acute co-rumination elicited in the lab (Byrd-Craven, Granger, & Auer, 2010; Byrd-Craven et al., 2008) and peer victimization ( ) have been found to alter cortisol production , the effect of these two processes on physiological measures should be looked at as well. The relationship between chronic co-rumination and cortisol response is also an area for future research, as the long-term effects of co-rumination on the HPA axis are currently unknown. ...
Article
Co-rumination, or the tendency to revisit and endlessly discuss problems and negative events, has been linked to depression and other emotional difficulties (Rose, Carson, & Waller, 2007). The current study examined the moderating effect of co-rumination on the relationship between peer victimization and depression, anxiety, PTSD symptoms, and health problems in 108 adolescents aged 10-15 years. Adolescents and a parent completed measures of adolescents' peer victimization, co-rumination, depression, and health problems. Results indicate that adolescents who are both peer victimized and engaged in high levels of co-rumination were at highest risk for psychological problems. Co-rumination also moderated the relationship between peer victimization and physical health problems via general depressive symptoms (i.e., moderated mediation). Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Indeed, coruminating or "extensively discussing and revisiting problems, speculating about problems, and focusing on negative feelings" Human Communication Research (2014) © 2014 International Communication Association (Rose, 2002(Rose, , p. 1830 with close others has been associated with depression symptoms, anxiety, and other internalizing problems (e.g., Rose, 2002;Schwartz-Mette & Rose, 2012). For example, Byrd-Craven, Geary, Rose, and Ponzi (2008) examined corumination during problem-solving discussions among female same-sex friends. They found that corumination was associated with increased cortisol and sAA after the problem-solving task, largely due to dwelling on negative emotions. ...
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The impact of spouses' communication about economic uncertainty on biological stress responses was examined. The sample included 82 Latino and Caucasian couples and one of their adolescents. Wives with low economic uncertainty experienced the greatest cortisol increase to a stressful discussion with their spouse, while wives with high economic uncertainty experienced a blunted cortisol response. Husbands with high economic uncertainty exhibited a low, unresponsive cortisol pattern. Wives who experienced elevated cortisol used more corumination and had low community support. The amount parents talked about their financial worries to their adolescent was not associated with the adolescent's mental health or biosocial markers, but the parents' economic uncertainty and corumination with each other were negatively associated with their own mental health.
... In addition, there is evidence for negative associations between relative social status and other important physiologic processes(Baker et al., 1988; Rose & Marmont, 1981; Moller et al., 1991). There have been links between adrenocorticol activity and adaptive coping(Essex et al., 2002), competition stress(Gladue et al., 1989; Hasegawa et al., 2008;Kivlighan & Granger, 2006), dominance(Wirth et al., 2006), brief social separation and attachment anxiety(Hennessy, 1996; Quirin et al., 2008), co-rumination in friendships(Byrd-Craven et al., 2008), social support(Heinrichs et al., 2003), as well social rejection and achievement stress(Stroud et al., 2002). Due to the extensive literature undergirding the link between environmental stressors and the release of cortisol in the human body as a direct response, the use of CORT in this study to gauge reactivity to social stress in dyads engaging in cooperative ...
... Guided by the definition of co-rumination, friend dyads were given scores for (a) how long they discussed problems, (b) rehashing problems, (c) speculating about problems, (d) mutual encouragement of problem talk, and (e) dwelling on negative affect associated with problems. This assessment was developed with a small pilot sample (Rose, Schwartz, & Carlson, 2005) and subsequently used with small samples of undergraduate women (Byrd-Craven, Geary, Rose, & Ponzi, 2008;Byrd-Craven, Granger, & Auer, 2011). The current research is the first large-scale study of observed co-rumination between adolescent friends. ...
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Co-rumination is a dyadic process between relationship partners that refers to excessively discussing problems, rehashing problems, speculating about problems, mutual encouragement of problem talk, and dwelling on negative affect. Although studies have addressed youths' tendency to co-ruminate, little is known about the nature of co-ruminative conversations. The primary goal of the present study (N = 314 adolescent friend dyads) was to identify microsocial processes that sustain and reinforce problem talk among adolescent co-ruminating friends. Results indicated that co-rumination was characterized by friends responding to each other's statements about problems with engaged statements (e.g., questions, supportive statements) that elicited even more problem talk. Results also indicated that some aspects of co-rumination (i.e., extensively talking about problems, rehashing problems, speculating about problems, and mutual encouragement of problem talk) were associated with positive friendship adjustment, whereas other aspects (i.e., dwelling on negative affect) were associated with internalizing problems. The present research highlights the utility of attending to microsocial processes in friends' conversations and has implications for intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
... Building upon research on co-rumination, we further propose that gender differences in sleep problems could potentially be mediated through the same pathway. Unfortunately, despite previous research efforts that demonstrate the link between co-rumination and negative affect (Byrd-Craven, Geary, Rose, & Ponzi, 2008;Byrd-Craven et al., 2011;Rose, 2002), the implications of co-rumination on physical health outcomes, including sleep problems, have not attracted much research attention. Thus, the possible mediating roles of co-rumination and depressive symptoms between gender and sleep problems is still unknown. ...
Article
Co-rumination is a dyadic tendency in which two members excessively discuss and revisit problems while focus-ing on negative feelings. Co-rumination is more prominent among female friends than male friends, which helps to account in part for gender differences in depressive symptoms. The current study adopted a socioemotional perspective to examine whether gender differences in sleep problems could be mediated by co-rumination in friendships and depressive symptoms. A sample of 172 young adults (M age = 19.15) participated in a self-report study. Mediation analysis showed that females reported higher co-rumination and depressive symptoms, both of which were related to more sleep problems. Moderated mediation analysis further revealed that the mediational role of depressive symptoms between co-rumination and sleep problems was stronger for females compared to males.
... While this area of research has shown promise in providing greater explanation of the bidirectionality of symptoms in parent-child relationships, more research is needed to explain these mechanisms of transmission in dyads. A handful of studies have investigated self-reported co-rumination in collegeaged emerging adults (Boren, 2013; Byrd-Craven, Geary, Rose, & Ponzi, 2008; Byrd Craven, Granger, & Auer, 2011; Calmes & Roberts, 2008; Ciesla, Dickson, Anderson, & Neal, 2011; Davila et al., 2012; Govindarajan, 2012; White & Shih, 2012) Overall, results supported an extension of the correlation between peer co-rumination with depression and anxiety to the developmental stage of late adolescence/emerging adulthood. Findings also replicated gender patterns of variations in peer co-rumination (Calmes & Roberts, 2008). ...
Article
Beginning in adolescence and continuing into adulthood, internalizing disorders have higher rates of prevalence in females. Cognitive and interpersonal theorists have described etiological factors in the development these symptoms, which may contribute to the symptom disparity across gender. Drawing on aspects of both models, repetitive conversations found in close female friendships have been proposed as a potential contributing factor to this gender disparity in internalizing arising in adolescence. Co-rumination, although associated with both depression and anxiety, does not fully consider anxiety-specific aspects of dyadic conversations, which may be important to understanding the differential developmental trajectory of the disorder. Co-worry, defined as repetitive, dyadic conversations about threat perception, inability to control worry, inability to cope in future scenarios, and anticipation of future negative events, was developed to assess for anxious patterns of communication in relationships. Using a late adolescence sample of college students, the present study sought to expand upon prior findings by examining the role of gender on the relationships between interpersonal conversations and internalizing disorders. Results suggested that both co-rumination and co-worry were associated with internalizing; however, differential patterns emerged by gender. Peer co-rumination was more frequently endorsed by females and associated with support and depth of peer relationships, whereas peer co-worry was more frequently endorsed by males and was not associated with higher quality friendships. For males, higher levels of co-worrying were associated with lower levels of depression and anxiety; the opposite pattern was found for female adolescents. These findings suggest that overlooked aspects of male friendships may be beneficial. Additionally, this study substantiates and expands upon findings that conversational tendencies within female friendships may pose inherent risk factors on mental health.
... Jex, 1998) but could even strengthen exclusion's negative impact on employee outcomes through ruminative thoughts (cf. Byrd-Craven et al., 2008). ...
Article
When does social support alleviate or exacerbate the effects of being excluded by colleagues in the workplace? This study integrates belongingness and social support theories to predict and demonstrate the differential effects of work-related support (i.e., perceived organizational support; POS) and non-work-related support (i.e., family and social support; FSS) on employee reactions to coworker exclusion. Consistent with our predictions, we found that employees reporting high levels of coworker exclusion and high levels of perceived organizational support demonstrate higher levels of performance and increased levels of self-worth than those reporting low levels of POS. Alternatively, support from family or friends intensified the negative relationship between coworker exclusion and self-esteem and the positive relationship between coworker exclusion and job-induced tension. Unexpectedly, FSS did not influence the supervisor-rated task performance of excluded workers, nor did POS mitigate the relationship between coworker exclusion and job-induced tension. Implications for theory, research and practice are discussed.
... Further, while most friendships are associated with positive adjustment and well-being, this is not always the case. For instance, increased cortisol levels are seen in female friends who engage in co-rumination or talk excessively about problems (Byrd-Craven, Geary, Rose, & Ponzi, 2008). Lastly, exploring differential cortisol reactivity when meeting potential friends may illuminate factors that contribute to daily stress, theoretically impacting the mental and physical health of individuals with social anxiety. ...
Article
Socially anxious people report less closeness to others, but very little research has examined how social anxiety is related to closeness in real-time social interactions. The present study investigated social anxiety, closeness, and cortisol reactivity in zero-acquaintance interactions between 84 same-sex dyads (168 participants). Dyads engaged in either a high or low self-disclosure discussion task and completed self-report measures of closeness and desired closeness post-task. Salivary cortisol was collected before, during, and after the self-disclosure task. Multilevel models indicated that in the high self-disclosure condition, individuals higher in social anxiety displayed flatter declines in cortisol than those lower in social anxiety; cortisol declines were not significantly related to social anxiety in the low self-disclosure condition. Further, across both conditions, individual’s social anxiety was associated with decreased levels of closeness and desired closeness, particularly when individuals were paired with partners higher in social anxiety. These findings are discussed in relation to previous work on hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal function, social anxiety, and interpersonal closeness.
... Responses to these questions were written on notecards and used by friendship dyads during a 15-min task designed to assess both conflict and support in the friendship, as well as potentially induce interpersonal stress in youth. Discussing issues of conflict is an ecologically valid way to assess how participants handle stress brought on by conflict in the relationship and is commonly used by researchers collecting data from romantic partners (Gunlicks-Stoessel & Powers, 2009;Powers et al., 2006) and to a lesser extent friends (Byrd-Craven et al., 2008). ...
Article
Dyadic synchrony within friendships examines the reciprocal exchange that may unfold between friends, such that the individuals within the dyad may share their emotions in response to or in anticipation of another’s emotions. Researchers have not examined synchrony in response to a stressor in late adolescents’ friendship dyads. This is surprising given the important role of friends in shaping social and emotional development. The current study examined affective and physiological synchrony within 50 college students who were in the developmental period of late adolescence (70% female, M age = 18.85, SD = 0.80) and observed friendship characteristics (friendship quality and negative escalation) that might strengthen synchrony associations. Results suggested that friends shared negative and positive affect, cortisol, and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) responses across a laboratory paradigm designed to induce interpersonal stress. Characteristics associated with lower quality friendships were found to strengthen synchrony associations for sAA and cortisol responses. These findings extend previous research on the ways in which friends may be similar to one another and suggest potential interventions to strengthen social and emotional development.
... described below(Byrd-Craven et al., 2010;Byrd-Craven, Geary, Rose, & Ponzi, 2008;Rose et al., 2014). ...
Article
The primary aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in problem content and dyadic problem talk duration as potential contributors to previously documented depressogenic effects of co-rumination in late adolescence. Participants (N = 176 undergraduate students) included pairs of same-gender female (n = 37), same-gender male (n = 15), and cross-gender (n = 36) friends who completed self-report measures assessing individual depressive symptom severity, as well as within-dyad co-rumination habits and friendship quality. Dyads also participated in an observational problem talk task, which asked each dyad member to identify a current personal problem and discuss it with their friend during a 16-minute videotaped session. Each participant’s identified problem was coded for inclusion of interpersonal and dependent content, and videotaped conversations were coded for the total time each dyad spent discussing problems and the total time each dyad member spent discussing their own problem (own-problem talk) and their friend’s problem (friend-problem talk). Consistent with existing depression literature, results indicated that females reported greater depressive symptom severity than males. Female dyads also reported the most co-rumination and engaged in the longest total problem talk, and both male and female participants reported engaging in more co-rumination when their dyad partner was female. However, own- and friend-problem talk did not vary by gender, and neither co-rumination nor total, own-, or friend-problem talk duration were predictive of depressive symptoms. Although female gender did not predict problem content, and problem content was not associated with depressive symptoms, interpersonal problem content predicted increased own-problem talk. These findings are in contrast to the overwhelming majority of research that has found co-rumination to be predictive of depressive symptoms, and provide no direct support suggesting that problem content and problem talk duration contribute to the depression gender gap. However, results do indicate that problem talk, a key component of co-rumination, is most likely to be prolonged when the problem being discussed has interpersonal content. The current results thus suggest that cumulative rather than interactive effects of gender and problem content may impact the co-rumination habits of late adolescents.
... Therefore, there will be answers to support this discontent. If negative emotions are already more resistant to change, as proposed by the Law of Hedonic Asymmetry [21] , reliving bad experiences and finding individuals who support these negative feelings will generate greater discontent in research shoppers [43] , influencing in a negative and more pronounced way in their satisfaction and, consequently, o draw a negative brand image. ...
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This paper analyzes the effect of the existence or not of failures, as well as the response of retailers to an eventual failure, influences the emotions developed by research shoppers. The empirical research is based on a survey with a sample of 636 mobile phone users. The results derived from the application of a structural equations model indicate that research shoppers develop more intense positive emotions when they do not have any complain with the retailers or if they solved the failure satisfactorily. Likewise, the relationship between research shoppers and the development of negative emotions is less intense when customers do not have any complain with the retailer or the company has solved the failure satisfactorily.
... Jex, 1998) but could even strengthen exclusion's negative impact on employee outcomes through ruminative thoughts (cf. Byrd-Craven et al., 2008). ...
... Customers can also communicate their negative experience through WOM and e-WOM communication. Reliving bad experiences and finding individuals who support these negative feelings will generate even more discontent in the customers (Byrd-Craven et al., 2007), thus negatively influencing their satisfaction. All these reflections lead us to make the following hypotheses: ...
Article
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Purpose Customer journey is more omnichannel than ever. Currently, one of the most influential omnichannel behaviors is research shopping in its two predominant forms: webrooming and showrooming. The purpose of this study is to determine the possible moderating effect of each of these behaviors from a cognitive-affective perspective. Design/methodology/approach The proposed theoretical framework was applied to a sample of 636 mobile phone users. Findings The results indicated that research shopping moderated the intensity of the relationship between emotions and perceived value and between emotions and satisfaction. The analysis of the moderating effect of each concrete type of research shopping behavior indicated that negative emotions had a more intense negative effect on perceived value and satisfaction in the case of webrooming than in the case of showrooming. Originality/value This study focused on determining the possible moderating effect of research shopping vs one-stop shopping and webrooming vs showrooming on the intensity of the relationship between emotions, perceived value and satisfaction, considering determining factors of customer engagement to retailers (Han and Jeong, 2013). To achieve this objective, the authors performed a quantitative research in the Spanish market, choosing mobile phones as a reference product. The results will contribute to the current state of omnichannel retailing research by the analysis – through a cognitive-affective approach – of the consequences that research shopping and each of its two basic types (webrooming and showrooming) have on retailers.
... If the network member's supportive abilities deteriorate, they could experience longterm relationship ramifications, as those perceived as lacking supportive skills are less desirable relationship partners (Burleson, 2003). Additionally, if both relational partners respond to the transgression with communal coping, it is possible that corumination could present additional complications and lead to deleterious outcomes (Byrd-Craven, Geary, Rose, & Ponzi, 2008). The potential negative outcomes and pressure to provide support might build over time, escalating the negative outcomes for transgressed individuals and network members alike. ...
Article
Following stressful experiences like relational transgressions, individuals often turn to members of their personal network for support. This study explored how third-party network members approach coping (communal vs. individual) with a transgressed individual. Fifty network members accompanied transgressed individuals to a communication lab where they completed a questionnaire assessing their perceptions and feelings about the transgression. Findings show that network members’ reports of communal coping with another person’s transgression experience are associated with feelings of hurt and anger, as well as unforgiveness towards the transgressor. This study expands communal coping research to understand the outcomes of communal approaches within stressors typically perceived as individual and suggests that effects of stressors and their subsequent coping behaviors ripple throughout personal networks.
... Prior work has emphasized the importance of measuring the impact of aspects of co-rumination on psychopathology. 69,78,79 Therefore, it would seem that some facets of co-rumination are more useful, or at least less dysfunctional with respect to others. The mediation of the effect of corumination on anxiety suggests that co-rumination's negative, dysfunctional, nonsolution-focused component might consist of Disconnection/Rejection, Impaired Autonomy, and Overvigilance/Inhibition schema contents. ...
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Background This study investigated maladaptive cognitive schemas as mediators of the relationship between co-rumination and anxiety. Methods Self-report measures of co-rumination, trait cognitive and somatic anxiety, and early maladaptive cognitive schemas were provided to a nonclinical sample of 461 young adults. Mediation of co-rumination and trait somatic and cognitive anxiety by each early maladaptive schema domain was tested using nonparametric, bootstrap-based resampling. Results Significant associations between co-rumination and trait and cognitive anxiety were mediated by schema domains related to Rejection and Disconnection, Overvigilance and Inhibition, and Impaired Autonomy. The association between co-rumination and somatic anxiety was mediated by domains related to Rejection and Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy. Conclusion The results of this study showed that those who engage in co-rumination, potentially resulting in clinical levels of anxiety, might benefit from treatment that focuses on themes of rejection sensitivity and belonging, beliefs about autonomy, and when the anxiety is more cognitive, treatment that focuses on hypercriticalness and emotional inhibition too.
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Adolescents' and emerging adults' social interactions increasingly revolve around cellphone use, but little research has investigated the psychological properties of cellphone interactions. The current study explored co-rumination via cellphone; that is, the use of cellphone functions to excessively communicate about problems or negative feelings. Face-to-face co-rumination and co-rumination via cellphone were examined as potential moderators of the association between perceived interpersonal stress and psychosocial well-being (i.e., positive mental health and social burnout) in a sample of 142 college students. Face-to-face co-rumination was not a moderator. However, co-rumination via cellphone was a significant moderator such that higher levels of perceived interpersonal stress were associated with lower levels of well-being only among college students who reported higher levels of co-rumination via cellphone. Co-rumination via cellphone should be further investigated to elucidate its developmental trajectory and mental health correlates. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
Given the adverse mental health consequences of the COVID‐19 pandemic, it is important to examine whether faith communities continue to provide social and emotional support to members during the pandemic. This study focuses on a particular mechanism through which congregations may help members’ mental health––talking to fellow congregants about private problems. Data for this study come from online surveys conducted between October and December 2020 in 12 congregations (Christian, Jewish, and Hindu) in Washington, DC, Maryland, Virginia, and Texas (N = 1609). Using two measures of mental health (overall assessment of mental health and an indicator of COVID‐19‐related mental health worsening), we find that greater levels of problem sharing are associated with better overall mental health and with lower chances of COVID‐19‐related mental health worsening. The beneficial effect of sharing problems is especially pronounced when the frequency is very high and remains statistically significant net of passive social support and other controls. However, we find that levels of problem sharing in congregations are relatively low on average. Our study thus highlights that the practice of problem sharing should be counted as a mental health resource in congregations and raises the need to better understand its underutilization.
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Aspects of couples' romantic relationships are some of the most powerful psychosocial forces shaping mental and physical health, but even high‐quality relationships are not universally beneficial for patients. Dyadic health theories have largely focused on chronic illness management that occurs after the couple understands the disease and prognosis, rather than focusing on couples' interdependence in the days and weeks following a sudden and disruptive medical event (e.g., an acute coronary syndrome or a stroke). To address this gap, I propose dyadic disruption theory to guide research on couples' reactions to acute medical events and their consequences for individual and dyadic mental health, physical health, and behavior. I propose that dyadic processes of social support, shared reality, and corumination can precipitate harmful patient and partner dynamics when couples are distressed early post event and offer three propositions that inform testable hypotheses. Finally, I discuss implications for early dyadic intervention and future directions for research.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to adopt an approach/avoidance coping framework to examine the relationships of job search co-rumination (i.e. engaging in repeated and excessive conversations with a friend about job search problems) and job search talk avoidance (i.e. persistently seeking to escape conversations about the job search) on job search intensity and job search procrastination. Design/methodology/approach The authors surveyed 196 new labor market entrants (i.e. graduating students) at two points in time during their last semester in college. Findings The authors found that job search co-rumination is positively related to job search intensity, while job search talk avoidance is positively related to job search procrastination. Interestingly, though, the expected negative relationships between job search co-rumination and job search procrastination and between job search talk avoidance and job search intensity were not significant. Practical implications This study has implications for both job seekers and career counselors. For job seekers, understanding how their communication patterns influence their behaviors (and ultimately their success) can help them to see the benefits of a balanced approach to sharing about their job search. Furthermore, career centers could organize either job search mentoring or peer group programs to help job seekers navigate the intricacies of the job search process. Originality/value This study contributes to understanding whether and how talking (or not) with others (i.e. friends and relatives) about one’s job search influences one’s job search behaviors, such as intensity and procrastination.
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A rich literature exists reinforcing the notion that both perceived and received social support has stress ameliorating and protective benefits both psychologically and physiologically. However, recent literature suggests that excessive dyadic negative problem talk about an issue, a phenomenon labeled co-rumination, may reverse much of the beneficial effects of social support. Healthy young adults participated in a laboratory research study exploring the associations between co-rumination and immune system inflammatory response. Partial correlations indicated a positive association between co-rumination and C-reactive protein and a negative association between co-rumination and interleukin-6 after controlling for stress, anxiety, and temperature. Discussion focuses on the means by which co-rumination may lead to negative health outcomes.
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Friend support is often assumed to exert direct environmental influences on psychological distress, yet the role of both genetic and environmental influences on this association has not been examined. This study investigates whether both genetic and environmental factors explain the link between friend support and psychological distress in adults. The sample was drawn from the Midlife Development in the United States study and included 947 pairs of monozygotic, same-sex dizygotic (DZ), and opposite-sex DZ twins. Results showed that genetic influences explain the association between friend support and psychological distress, suggesting that heritable contributions to friend support also shape psychological distress. Interventions focused on psychological distress should consider how individuals' heritable characteristics influence their friend support and psychological distress.
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The efficacy of cognitive behavioral treatments (CBT) for anxiety disorders has been supported by multiple randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses. The present review examined meta-analyses that have been published in last 15 years to summarize the current state of the evidence regarding CBT treatment for panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. In particular this review explored: (1) general CBT efficacy, (2) number of sessions, (3) comparison with pharmacological treatments, (4) comparison between cognitive and behavioral techniques, (5) comparison with third wave cognitive behavioral therapies. Overall, CBT demonstrates both efficacy in randomized controlled trials and effectiveness in naturalistic settings in the treatment of anxiety disorders. However, some methodological limitations showed a decrease in this efficacy and highlighted the need for further development of CBT treatments that are specific for each disorder.
Chapter
Bullying in the American workplace is not a new phenomenon. Much of the research has focused on specific factors of workplace hostility such as sexual harassment (Dougherty & Smythe, 2004), ethnicity, gender, and age discrimination (e.g., Schneider, Hitlan, & Radhakrishnan, 2000). However, the effects of destructive interpersonal relationships in the workplace on an individual’s health and well-being have frequently been ignored or understated. In this chapter, we present a developmental approach to bullying but focus primarily on workplace bullying among adults and the negative consequences that this type of victimization has on physical and mental health correlates. We begin by presenting a biopsychosocial model that explores how being bullied affects mental and physical health. We then examine the construct of bullying, review existing research on bullying in schools (e.g., during childhood and adolescence), and draw parallels between research on workplace bullying and school bullying to bolster the importance of studying bullying across multiple age groups and situations. Next, we explore potential factors that may influence the link between being bullied in the workplace and mental and physical health. Finally, we consider the implications of research on workplace bullying.
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Most research suggests that communal coping, where a group of people own and act upon a shared stressor or uncertainty together, enhances mental health and fosters coping efficacy. The majority of this research, however, has been conducted in the United States in contexts where stress and uncertainty are relatively short-lived and with samples that are economically secure and moderately to highly educated. The purpose of this study was to understand how socio-emotional conditions, such as exposure to trauma and interparental conflict, influence the functionality of communal coping for adolescents in Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon, where chronic uncertainty is normative. One hundred eighty-five Palestinian adolescents (M age = 15.75) residing in two refugee camps in Beirut, Lebanon completed a cross-sectional survey. The results showed that communal coping with immediate family members was only beneficial for adolescents’ mental health and hopelessness when their parents had moderate to little conflict and not high levels of conflict. Similarly, when adolescents had experienced trauma, engaging in high levels of communal coping accentuated, as opposed to buffered, the harmful effects of uncertainty on mental health.
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The marked sex difference in depression has been explained in part by the sex difference in rumination. However, we know little about why females are more likely than males to ruminate. One explanation is that greater feminine gender role identification may be associated with a greater tendency to ruminate. In Part 1 of this study, we examined gender role as a mediator of the sex difference in trait rumination for domain-specific stressors among 136 older adolescents (ages 14 to 20; 40% male). Although females were more likely than males to ruminate about all types of stressors, we found that femininity accounted for the sex difference in trait rumination about interpersonal, Coefficient = .09, 95% CI (.01, .21), R2 = .16, but not achievement stressors Coefficient = .02, 95% CI (-.04, .14), R2 = .10. In Part 2 of the study, we prospectively followed 107 of the initial 136 participants to track state rumination about specific interpersonal and achievement stressors. Using a weekly diary design, participants reported their stressors and rumination about those stressors each week for 8 consecutive weeks. Despite no significant differences in state rumination by sex prospectively, data supported the cross-sectional findings. Femininity continued to form a significant path between biological sex and state rumination for interpersonal (Coefficient = .10, 95% CI= .01, .27, R2 = .18), but not achievement stressors (Coefficient = .08, 95% CI = -.06, .32, R2 = .02) over the 8-week period. Results suggest that the feminine gender role plays an important role in understanding rumination, and may be a better predictor of who ruminates than is biological sex.
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People constantly share information with others, whether that information is about themselves, others, or the world at large. This review offers a framework for considering how these sharing behaviors produce two types of consequences - intrapersonal outcomes (which affect the sharer internally) and interpersonal outcomes (which affect the sharer's relationships) - and how these consequences depend on whether the content shared is positive or negative in valence. In doing so, the article presents a synthesis of prior research relevant to this organizing framework, and concludes by highlighting opportunities for further investigation.
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This research addresses a new construct, co-rumination. Co-rumination refers to extensively discussing and revisiting problems, speculating about problems, and focusing on negative feelings. Friendship research indicates that self-disclosure leads to close relationships; however, coping research indicates that dwelling on negative topics leads to emotional difficulties. Co-rumination is a single construct that integrates both perspectives and is proposed to be related both to positive friendship adjustment and problematic emotional adjustment. Third-, fifth-, seventh-, and ninth-grade participants (N = 608) responded to questionnaires, including a new measure of co-rumination. Co-rumination was related to high-quality, close friendships and aspects of depression and anxiety. Girls reported co-ruminating more than did boys, which helped to account for girls' more positive friendship adjustment and greater internalizing symptoms. Other analyses addressed whether co-rumination and the related constructs of self-disclosure and rumination had different relations with friendship and emotional adjustment.
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Animal research suggests that cortisol facilitates memory only during emotional arousal. Thus, we predicted that during mild emotion and stress elicitation, endogenous cortisol elevations would predict memory facilitation only in individuals who report high stress-related negative affect. Thirty-one men viewed neutral and emotional stimuli and then were subjected to a public speaking stress task. Area under the curve for overall cortisol output during the speech was computed. Negative affect (NA) using the PANAS state version [Watson, D., Clark, L.A., Tellegen, A., 1988. Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. J. Personality Social Psychol. 54, 1063-1070.] was measured at baseline and immediately after the speech stressor. Cortisol output during the speech and change in NA interactively predicted free recall performance assessed 2 days later. This interaction was due to the finding that higher cortisol output was related to memory facilitation only in subjects who reported high stress-related negative affect (i.e. only in those individuals whose NA increased compared to baseline). This relation was especially prominent for recall of unpleasant pictures. Subjects who reported low stress-related negative affect, no relation was found between cortisol output during the speech and memory performance. Thus, the relation between cortisol and memory appears to depend on an increase in negative affect related to stress.
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The tendency to experience negative emotions in the face of stress may lead to repeated overactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In a sample of 556 women, this study used the Experience Sampling Method to assess different daily stressors, current mood, and salivary cortisol, 10 times daily for 5 days. Multilevel analyses estimated the contributions of stressors and mood states as predictors of salivary cortisol secretion. Results showed that minor stressors were associated with decreased positive affect and increased negative affect, agitation, and cortisol. Of the mood states, only negative affect was independently associated with cortisol. Negative affect also mediated effects of daily stressors on cortisol. Although further research is needed to clarify: (i) the causal pathways between daily stress, mood, and cortisol and (ii) the importance of daily stress reactivity as a prospective risk factor, these findings confirm that minor daily stressors can influence emotional and biological processes involved in subjective well-being.
An observational assessment of co-rumination in the friendships of girls and boys
  • A J Rose
  • R A Schwartz
  • W Carlson
Rose, A.J., Schwartz, R.A., Carlson, W., 2005, April. An observational assessment of co-rumination in the friendships of girls and boys. In: Coie, J.D., Putallaz, M. (Eds.), The costs and benefits of interpersonal processes underlying girls' friendships. Symposium conducted at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development.