ArticleLiterature Review

Ethnopharmacology of Lippia alba

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Abstract

Introduction: Chemical, ethnopharmacological and pharmacological research on Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown and the evidence that exists for its various usages have been looked for, focusing on high quality studies. Ethnopharmacological investigation: The species is mainly used against digestive and respiratory ailments, and as a sedative and antihypertensive remedy. Chemical constituents: Seven chemotypes exist for the essential oil, the non-volatile compounds are iridioids, phenylethanoids, flavone glycosides and biflavonoids. Biological activities and ethnopharmacological appraisal: Some positive, although partial, results have been obtained on sedative and anxiolytic activities. Real effects in other traditional uses can mainly be explained by anti-infectious and analgesic properties, at the moment. Conclusion: Well conducted biological studies are still needed for several indications of this species. Its use as a sedative deserves a clinical investigation. The chemical variability of the species seems important both in the essential oil and in non-volatile compounds, so future research on the pharmacological properties of these extracts should provide more chemical data which will increase their validity.

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... Likely effective but no evidence on safety of bark D24 Broad antimicrobial (incl. a number of enteropathogens): several in vitro studies have demonstrated significant activity of aqueous and organic extracts, as comprehensively reviewed (Hennebelle et al., 2008). Analgesic and antiinflammatory: a few studies showed significant effects of essential oil and organic extracts in different rodent models, as comprehensively reviewed (Hennebelle et al., 2008). ...
... a number of enteropathogens): several in vitro studies have demonstrated significant activity of aqueous and organic extracts, as comprehensively reviewed (Hennebelle et al., 2008). Analgesic and antiinflammatory: a few studies showed significant effects of essential oil and organic extracts in different rodent models, as comprehensively reviewed (Hennebelle et al., 2008). In a longitudinal, prospective, phase 2, non-controlled cohort study with 21 women the hydroethanolic leaf extract (chemotype geranial-carvenone) was shown effective in controlling symptoms and the impact of migraine. ...
... Not acutely toxic at therapeutic doses, as reviewed (Hennebelle et al., 2008). ...
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The quality of health care in Mesoamerica is influenced by its rich cultural diversity and characterized by social inequalities. Especially indigenous and rural communities confront diverse barriers to accessing formal health services, leading to often conflicting plurimedical systems. Fostering integrative medicine is a fundamental pillar for achieving universal health coverage (UHC) for marginalized populations. Recent developments toward health sovereignty in the region are concerned with assessing the role of traditional medicines, and particularly herbal medicines, to foster accessible and culturally pertinent healthcare provision models. In Mesoamerica, as in most regions of the world, a wealth of information on traditional and complementary medicine has been recorded. Yet these data are often scattered, making it difficult for policy makers to regulate and integrate traditionally used botanical products into primary health care. This critical review is based on a quantitative analysis of 28 survey papers focusing on the traditional use of botanical drugs in Mesoamerica used for the compilation of the “Mesoamerican Medicinal Plant Database” (MAMPDB), which includes a total of 12,537 use-records for 2188 plant taxa. Our approach presents a fundamental step toward UHC by presenting a pharmacological and toxicological review of the cross-culturally salient plant taxa and associated botanical drugs used in traditional medicine in Mesoamerica. Especially for native herbal drugs, data about safety and effectiveness are limited. Commonly used cross-culturally salient botanical drugs, which are considered safe but for which data on effectiveness is lacking constitute ideal candidates for treatment outcome studies.
... A planta L. alba é amplamente utilizada em toda a América do Sul e Central para diferentes finalidades (Hennebelle et al., 2008). Cresce espontaneamente em solos arenosos próximos a margens de rios, lagos e lagoas, mas pode também ser cultivada em outros locais (Moldenke, 1965;Oliveira et al., 2006). ...
... É popularmente conhecida como erva-cidreira, falsa-melissa, cidreira-dearbusto, cidreira-brava (Matos et al., 1996;Martins et al., 2000). Caracteriza-se por ser um arbusto, podendo atingir até 1,7 m de altura (Hennebelle et al., 2008). Diversos são os estudos que relatam o uso de L. alba e suas diversas propriedades analgésicas e sedativas (Rodrigues e Guedes, 2006;Toscano-Gonzalez, 2006;Franco e Barros, 2006). ...
... Esta variação se deve a vários fatores ambientais, como clima, solo, regiões geográficas, duração do dia e da noite, órgão de onde foi extraído o óleo (caules, flores, folhas e raízes), fase de desenvolvimento da planta na época da colheita, condição de secagem, tempo de armazenamento, entre outros fatores (Kamada et al., 1999;Castro et al., 2004;Luz et al., 2009;Couic-Marinier e Lobstein, 2013 Como mencionado, a composição do óleo essencial de L. alba é muito variável. Recentemente foi estabelecido um sistema de classificação com base nas análises publicadas em sete quimiotipos, tendo como base a composição e possíveis vias biossintéticas comuns entre diferentes óleos (Hennebelle et al., 2008). Óleos essenciais do quimiotipo II (citral e limoneno) e III (Carvona e limoneno) apresentaram atividades sedativas em ratos e seus principais compostos (citral e limoneno) potencializaram o tempo de sono induzido, quando administrados via intraperitoneal (Vale et al., 1999(Vale et al., , 2002. ...
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Existem anestésicos efetivos para peixes, mas é importante buscar alternativas de substâncias de fácil aquisição e baixo custo aos piscicultores e que não ofereçam riscos à saúde aos animais e manipuladores. Por se tratar de um produto de origem natural, ainda por possuir efeitos positivos a anestesia de peixes, vários estudos são conduzidos para investigar os efeitos de extratos vegetais, como óleos essenciais em diferentes procedimentos de manejo na aquicultura, obtendo‐se resultados promissores. Estudos sobre a viabilidade econômica do plantio, extração e comercialização do óleo essencial devem ser realizados, bem como testes e avaliações em diferentes organismos aquáticos. Essa revisão trata das propriedades anestésicas dos óleos essenciais de Lippia alba e L. sidoides em aquicultura.
... Sida cordifolia 12 Antimicrobial (Pereira Nunes et al., 2006), anti-inflammatory, analgesic (Franzotti et al., 2000) Humoral medicine blood cleansing Maytenus ilicifolia 24 Anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiulcerogenic (Jorge et al., 2004); contains triterpenes, flavonoids, tannins Aristolochia triangularis 12 Cytotoxic; contains alkaloids, essential oils, lignans, terpenoids, aristolochic acids (Lopes et al., 1990;Pereira et al., 2018) Jacaranda micrantha 12 Several activities reported for genus Jacaranda, but studies for the species are not available ( Gachet and Schühly, 2009) refreshing remedy Allophylus edulis 28 Anti-inflammatory (viridiflorol -sesquiterpenoid) (Trevizan et al., 2016); anti-hepatotoxic C-glycosylflavones (Hoffmann-Bohm et al., 1992), quebrachitol (Díaz et al., 2008) Parietaria debilis 12 Unknown pharmacological properties and chemical composition Psychological nervous tension Citrus sinensis 10 Anxiolytic effect of the aroma and essential oil (limonene) in human (Goes et al., 2012) and in Wistar rats (Faturi et al., 2010) Cymbopogon citratus 10 Anxiolytic due to essential oil, phenolic and flavonoids in zebrafish (Hacke et al., 2020), effect on arteries (Carbajal et al., 1989;Simões et al., 2020) Heteropterys glabra 10 Potential anxiolytic/sedative agent (animal model) (Galietta et al., 2005) Respiratory cough Cecropia pachystachya 19 Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, cytotoxic effects (Aragão et al., 2013), hypoglycemic ( Aragão et al., 2010) Lippia alba 14 Anti-infectious, analgesic, sedative; seven chemotypes exist for the essential oil (Hennebelle et al., 2008) flu ...
... Lippia alba 10 Anti-infectious, analgesic, sedative; seven chemotypes are known for the essential oil ( Hennebelle et al., 2008) Skin skin infections Acanthospermum australe 10 Antifungal (Portillo et al., 2001); antiviral (Rocha Martins et al., 2011), sesquiterpene lactones in the aerial parts (Bohlmann et al., 1984) wounds ...
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Ethnopharmacological relevance: Information on the use of medicinal plants in the daily life by Paraguayan people is scarce in mainstream scientific literature. The study on the Paraguayan diaspora in the Provincia de Misiones, Argentina, gives an insight into Guaraní traditions, colonial legacy and current search for new medicinal plants to address new health challenges. Aim of the study: To document the use of medicinal plants by Paraguayan mestizo migrants who moved into a new country, yet within the same ecological region. The present and past uses of medicinal plants were compared to understand the continuity and change in the Paraguayan herbal pharmacopoeia. Materials and methods: Fieldwork based on ethnographic and ethnobotanical techniques was carried out in the Provincia de Misiones, Argentina, in 2014, 2015, and 2019. Eighty-five Paraguayan migrants and their descendants from eastern Paraguay took part in the study. The list of recorded plants was compared with the information in historical sources from Paraguay, to examine the continuity and changes in Paraguayan herbal medicine, and with the present-day ethnobotanical studies from Paraguay. Ethnopharmacological and phytochemical studies on the medicinal plants with the highest consensus of uses were reviewed. . Results: Altogether, 204 medicinal plant species were recorded. The most frequently mentioned species represented a combination of plants native to the New and Old World. Nearly 40% of the present-day Paraguayan pharmacopoeia shows continuity from colonial and post-colonial periods. Plants were used for 19 medical categories, of which digestive, circulatory and those belonging to humoral medicine were the most prevalent. The ongoing search of plants to treat new health problems is illustrated by reports of 40 species used for hypertension, 26 for diabetes and 18 to lower cholesterol. There is still little evidence for the effectiveness of these plants in the pharmacological literature. Paraguayan migrants were able to continue their traditional plant medicine in Misiones, Argentina, in a substantial way. Conclusion: This study was carried out in a geographic area with a long-standing tradition of Guaraní medicine. Paraguayan migrants in Misiones integrate pre-Hispanic Guaraní names and uses of plants and old humoral concepts with current adaptation of plants to meet new health challenges. Several of the uses described in early colonial times are still practiced, giving a solid background for in-depth studies of the local pharmacopoeia.
... Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E.Br (Verbenaceae) is an aromatic shrub well known in the Americas due to its medicinal properties (Henebelle et al. 2008). The species, chiefly employed as a sedative in Brazilian traditional medicine, shows highly variable chromosome composition, several karyotype formulas among individuals, and in some cases even within individuals (mixoploidy) (Sousa et al. 2009;Pierre et al. 2011;Reis et al. 2014). ...
... The species, chiefly employed as a sedative in Brazilian traditional medicine, shows highly variable chromosome composition, several karyotype formulas among individuals, and in some cases even within individuals (mixoploidy) (Sousa et al. 2009;Pierre et al. 2011;Reis et al. 2014). Phenotypic plasticity has also been described, especially regarding secondary metabolite production, with several chemotypes described (Torres and Lopez 2007;Henebelle et al. 2008;Viccini et al. 2014;Julião et al. 2020). Lippia alba is described as a young autopolyploid complex with diploids (2n = 30), aneuploid (2n = 38), triploids (2n = 45), tetraploids (2n = 60), and hexaploid (2n = 90) Viccini et al. 2014;Lopes et al. 2020;Julião et al. 2020). ...
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Lippia alba is a phenotypically variable tropical shrub thought to comprise a young autopolyploid complex. Chromosome numbers in L. alba include 2n = 30, 38, 45, 60, and 90. High levels of chemical and phenotypic variation associated with economic and medicinal importance were reported. However, the genetic background including chromosome composition remains under-explored. Furthermore, the occurrence of at least four ploidal levels in L. alba and the lack of data for polyploid plants in tropical areas also merit further study of L. alba. Here we assessed the chromosome composition using two new satellite repeats (CL98 and CL66) applied as FISH probes to mitotic chromosomes, and we proposed to calculate the degree of homozygosis for CL66 satDNA (named as index h) and to associate it to meiotic instability. The CL98 mapping showed few variations in both number of signals and position. However, the levels of structural homozygosity for a satellite repeat CL66 were very variable. The numbers of CL66-bearing-chromosomes were under-represented in tetraploids relative to diploids implying that CL66 arrays have been lost in tetraploid lineages as a result of increased meiotic instability. High percentage of irregularities was observed in meiotic cells, especially in polyploids. L. alba complex comprised a mixture of homomorphic and heteromorphic chromosomes. Overall, the polyploid complex presents features typical of both young and older stable polyploids. It seems that L. alba genome is still in the process of stabilization.
... Dentro de esta perspectiva, Lippia alba es una planta aromática perteneciente a la familia Verbenaceae, conocida comúnmente como "Cidrón", "hierba luisa" (Venezuela), "erva-cidreira" (Brasil), "prontoalivio" (Colombia), juanilama en Costa Rica, salvia morada en la Argentina, entre otros. Su aceite esencial está compuesto principalmente por dos tipos de compuestos químicos, los terpenoides y los fenilpropanoides (Hennebelle et al. 2008;Hennebelle et al. 2006). Los aceites esenciales de este género muestran un amplio espectro de actividades biológicas contra bacterias, hongos, parásitos, virus e insectos (Escobar et al. 2010;Meneses et al. 2009;Mesa-Arango et al. 2009;Olivero et al. 2009). ...
... La especie L. Alba, de la familia Verbenaceae, resulta de gran interés por la diversidad química de los metabolitos secundarios volátiles, presentes en sus aceites esenciales, y la variedad de usos botánicos y etnofarmacológicos (Hennebelle et al. 2008). La composición química de los aceites esenciales obtenidos de L. alba depende de factores geobotánicos, de las condiciones de cultivo, la edad y la parte de la planta empleada para la extracción y del proceso de extracción utilizado (Castro et al. 2002). ...
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Colletotrichum gloeosporioides es un hongo postcosecha que causa grandes pérdidas en la comercialización del fruto de guayaba. El control de esta enfermedad, que comienza en la plantación, ha sido con productos químicos que han generado resistencia del hongo y contaminación al ambiente. Sin embargo, los aceites esenciales son una alternativa natural que ha resultado efectiva en el control microbiano por lo cual se estudió la composición química del aceite esencial de Lippia alba y su efecto en el control in vitro de C. gloeosporioides. Se encontraron 21 componentes químicos, de los cuales los mayoritarios fueron carvona (36,6%) y limoneno (29,2%), así mismo se determinó que a partir de la concentración del aceite de 0,75 mg/ml la inhibición del crecimiento micelial fue del 100%, y a concentración de 0,25 y 0,50mg/ ml fue de 74,29% y 60% respectivamente; con un porcentaje de germinación para las mismas dosis de 9,4% y 6,4%. Este resultado evidencia que el aceite esencial de L. alba representa una alternativa viable para el control de este patógeno en postcosecha. Palabras clave: Hongos postcosecha; C. gloeosporioides; C. alba; Verbenaceae; metabolitos secundarios.
... L. alba is a herb extensively used in traditional medicine. Chemical analysis of L. alba leaves essential oils suggest a diversity of chemotypes, such as carvone, citral and linalool in the oils [21,22], as well as, myrcene, tagetone, citral/germacrened, limonene/carvone, β-caryophyllene and eucalyptol/limonene, camphor and eucalyptol [3,23,24]. In addition, L. alba presents relevant pharmacological hole related to its phytochemicals and may be applied in the treatment of liver diseases and intestinal disorders, or be used as an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic and analgesic [25]. ...
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Lippia alba is a herb widely distributed in Latin America used in the traditional medicine. Considering that medicinal plants present anticancer action, the aim of the work was to verify the in vitro antioxidant, cytotoxic, anti-cytotoxic and anticancer effects of L. alba extract, correlating the results with phytochemical content. Phytochemicals were evaluated by spectrophotometry; antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, ABTS and Fe 2+ chelating activity. In vitro cytotoxicity and anti-cytotoxicity were evaluated in human lymphocytes and anticancer action was evaluated in sarcoma-180 cells. L. alba extract presents good antioxidant, antiproliferative and anti-cytotoxic effects. Total flavonoid content was correlated to the antiproliferative effect; total tannin content was correlated to ABTS antioxidant activity and to health cells maintenance. Tannins were also correlated to the prevention of cisplatin-induced damage. Our finds support the use of L. alba as a source of natural antioxidants and as a potent anticancer and anti-cytotoxic agent, reinforcing the use of natural products for health promotion.
... N.E.Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson (Verbenaceae family) is a highly branched aromatic shrub with height up to 2 m (Hennebelle et al., 2008). Popularly known as bushy matgrass, bushy Lippia or lemon balm in English language countries, in Brazil it is variously called erva cidreira, falsa melissa and salvia. ...
Article
This study reports the biotechnological importance of seven Lippia albaspecimens collected in different places in Brazil, and evaluation of some activities as larvicidal against Aedesspp., antifungal against dermatophytes; cytotoxicity against SNB-19 (astrocytoma), HCT-116 (human colon) and PC-3 (human prostate) cancer cell lines, and inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE).The essential oils, whose extraction yield was about 1.24 w/w ± 0.9%, showed differences in their chemical composition and considered as chemotypes. The essential oils containing neral and geranial as main constituents showed better action against HCT-116 cell lines (IC50 value was 9.22 μg/mL), larvicidal activity against arbovirus vectors (LC50 value against A. aegyptiwas 1.59 μg/mL) and inhibition of AChE (halo inhibition zone was 1 cm). The essential oils containing mainly monoterpenoids showed better antifungal action with MIC values range from 0.15 to 1.25 mg/mL. This chemical and biological characterization may be useful for biotechnological applications.
... L. alba is a herb extensively used in traditional medicine. Chemical analysis of L. alba leaves essential oils suggest a diversity of chemotypes, such as carvone, citral and linalool in the oils [21,22], as well as, myrcene, tagetone, citral/germacrened, limonene/carvone, β-caryophyllene and eucalyptol/limonene, camphor and eucalyptol [3,23,24]. In addition, L. alba presents relevant pharmacological hole related to its phytochemicals and may be applied in the treatment of liver diseases and intestinal disorders, or be used as an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic and analgesic [25]. ...
... The medicinal applications for flu and colds are classified as recommended by Farmacopea Vegetal Caribeña and it is considered non-toxic (Germosén-Robineau, 2005). Hennebelle et al. (2008) reported that the main medicinal usages of this plant are against digestive, respiratory, and cardiovascular diseases and as a sedative. ...
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Introduction: Lippia is a Verbenaceous genus of flowering plants, which has about 200 species, distributed throughout the southern USA, Mexico, and Central America to South America. Objective: To study and compare the chemical compositions of the essential oils of L. alba growing in Mexico and Costa Rica. Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus. The chemical composition of the oils was analyzed by capillary GC-FID and GC-MS using the retention indices on a DB-5 type capillary column in addition to mass spectral fragmentation patterns. Results: A total of 65 compounds were identified in the essential oil samples from both countries, accounting for 96,5-98,1% of the total amount of the oils. The main constituents of the Mexican sample were 1,8-cineole (22,3%), myrcenone (11,2%), myrcene (10,9%), (E)-ocimenone (10,7%), (Z)-ocimenone (7,5%), and sabinene (6,8%), while for essential oil from Costa Rica the major compounds were myrcenone (30,4%), 1,8-cineole (21,4%), myrcene (11,0%), hedycaryol (4,4%), and sabinene (4,3%). Samples from both countries can be classified as belonging to chemotype “tagetenone”. Lippia alba (strong form) from Costa Rica produces essential oil that differs from all other essential oils of L. alba studied to date because it contained the sesquiterpenoids hedycaryol and the isomeric alcohols α-eudesmol, β-eudesmol, and γ-eudesmol. Conclusion: L. alba (strong form) from Costa Rica can be classified as a new subtype of the chemotype “tagetenone” (chemotype II).
... For instance, the major compounds of Aloysia triphylla (Britton, 1925;n. lemon verbena) include α-citral, limonene, and β-citral (Sgarbossa et al., 2019); and of Lippia alba ((Miller) Brown, 1925; c.n. lemon balm), citral, linalool, β-caryophyllene, carvone, and tagetenone (Hennebelle et al., 2008). While Cymbopogon citratus ((DC) Stapf, 1906; c.n. lemongrass) is rich in citral, geraniol, and linalool (Hacke et al., 2020), Santalum sp. ...
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Decapod crustaceans (crabs, hermit crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimps, prawns) are sentient beings, not only responding to noxious stimuli but also being capable of feeling pain, discomfort, and distress. General anaesthesia aims at producing analgesia, immobilization, and unconsciousness, while sedation reduces consciousness, stress, and anxiety, though without analgesia. Anaesthesia is recommended to ensure animal welfare and suppress nociception, pain, and suffering in painful and distressing practice that impairs decapods’ welfare. These include long term restrain, surgical procedures, pain control, examination, diagnostic, sampling, treatment, transportation, and euthanasia. The necessary anaesthetic depth, from sedation to surgical anaesthesia, depends on the procedure type. Anaesthetic bath and injection are commonly used, besides inhalation, local anaesthesia, and intracardiac injection. Agents used for the anaesthetic bath include eugenol, isoeugenol, lidocaine, halothane, and essential oils of lemon balm, lemongrass, lemon verbena, and sandalwood. While alphaxalone, eugenol, ketamine-xylazine, lidocaine, morphine, procaine, tiletamine-zolazepam, and xylazine can be used as injectable agents administered on the arthrodial membrane or intramuscular injection. Halothane can be used on inhalation anaesthesia. Local anaesthetics include lidocaine and benzocaine. Notwithstanding, many others are detrimental or ineffective to decapods, thus discouraged. They include but not limited to hypothermia, carbon dioxide, chlorpromazine, chloroform, ethanol, ether, magnesium salts, tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222), mint and lavender essential oils, passionflower extract, and valerian. Decapods’ welfare, protection, and veterinary attention should not be neglected, but they must receive ethical treatment, including the best of our knowledge and available tools to ensure they are free of pain and discomfort whenever we deal with them.
... L. alba was found to have antiviral and analgesic activity, which might explain the traditional uses indicated for this plant as influenza [86]. ...
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The use of medicinal plants is an important source of therapeutic resources in rural communities and the wide versatility of some species may attract interest for prospecting studies. The aim of this study was to record and analyze local knowledge and the use of medicinal plants in the rural community of Malícia, municipality of Araçagi, Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil, applying quantitative methods to calculate the Relative Importance (RI) and the Informant Consensus Factor (ICF). Semistructured interviews were conducted with 46 heads of households. The interviews addressed questions about the used parts of the plants, therapeutic indications, and form of use. Therapeutic indications were classified into categories of body systems. The Relative Importance Index (RI) was calculated to verify the species versatility, and the Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) was calculated to verify the consensus of use among informants regarding the body systems. A total of 111 plant species were recorded, inside 101 genera and 47 families. Fabaceae (16 spp.), Lamiaceae, and Myrtaceae (each one with 7 spp.) were the most representative families. Mentha arvensis, Aloe vera, and Myracrodruon urundeuva had the highest RI. A high consensus of use was observed among the informants for neoplasms, nervous system diseases, and infectious and parasitic diseases. Leaves were the part most cited for medicinal use. Regarding the method of preparation, the decoction and the oral administration route stood out. Neoplasms and respiratory system diseases had the highest ICF values. The results indicate a diversified knowledge of the local pharmacopeia and the need for in-depth studies to corroborate the effectiveness of medicinal plants and to understand the dynamics of local knowledge.
... M. arvensis is seen in the treatment of abdominal pain (diarrhea), gastric and intestinal problems, stomach acidity, earache and respiratory problems, menstrual pain and anxiety (Khan et al. 2021;Magalhães et al. 2019;Rehman et al. 2017). L. alba is used in the treatment of digestive and respiratory diseases, hypertension, headache, skin diseases, injuries, insomnia, colic, heart and liver diseases, lack of appetite, diarrhea, tonic, dizziness, worms (Hennebelle et al. 2008;Magalhães et al. 2019;Medeiros et al. 2013). S. australis is used for allergy, chickenpox, mumps, measles, diabetes, ear and sore throat, fever, injuries, and cardiovascular disease (Magalhães et al. 2019;Medeiros et al. 2013). ...
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The use of medicinal plants is an old practice in a society that has been transmitted to this day, with local experts recognized in many communities and being encouraged through public policies. In Brazil, Community Health Agents (CHWs) can be important for the dissemination of this practice, due to their work with the Health System and the community. This study aimed to compare the knowledge of medicinal plants between CHWs and local experts in the community of Timbó, the municipality of Jacaraú (Paraíba, northeastern Brazil). Semi-structured interviews were conducted addressing local names of plants, their indications, parts used, and preparation methods. The data on the species local importance were analyzed through the use value (UV) and relative importance (RI) methods. Local experts cited more species than CHWs. There was great local importance of some species both among local specialists and among CHWs. However, some species were highlighted exclusively among local specialists. Decoction and infusion stood out among the preparation methods and leaf, flower, and seed were the most prominent parts used. The diseases treated with plants are mainly related to the respiratory and digestive systems. Our findings show a correspondence between the CHWs' knowledge and local experts' knowledge, which leads us to believe that experts and CHWs may be sharing the same local knowledge in the study community.
... Consequently, EO nano-formulations, can reveal, for example, antimicrobial, antifungal and antiviral activity or be useful as a carrier for controlled release [35]. Due to their antiinflammatory, anti-mutagenic, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and other bioactivity, they have been specially employed for therapeutic applications [36][37][38]. Because of these assets and their aromatic nature, EOs are also utilized in everyday life in soaps, perfumes and toiletries. ...
Article
Nanoscience is a nano-scale analysis of materials constrained in at least one direction to 100 nm that introduces new perspectives in various areas of science such as genomics, therapeutics, bio-medicine and tissue engineering. For such applications physical, biological and chemical approaches could be used to fabricate nano-materials of diverse configurations. Green fabrication, which encompasses the use of organic materials including some plants and plant-essential oils (PEOs), has exploded in popularity as a durable, efficient, convenient and eco-sustainable protocol for the fabrication of numerous nanostructures. PEOs comprise a variety of secondary metabolites, including volatile compounds that attribute to fragrance and certain phytochemicals with ethno-medicinal implications, specifically in regard to the use of aroma-therapy to treat various ailments. Interestingly, it was recently discovered that such secondary constituents may be used as adsorbents, reductors and capping agents of metal precursor, facilitating the generation of nanomaterials. Such fabrication is often conducted at room temperature and is environment conscious since no noxious derivatives are produced. The nanomaterials obtained this way possess peculiar, wide applications that can be optimized in specialized disciplines for numerous implementations. This review reveals how essential oil from plants can beused for the sustainable fabrication and implementation of metal nanostructures based on gold and silver. Essential-oil (EO) based nanoparticles revealed good anti-microbial, photocatalytic, anti-oxidant and insecticidal assessments so they can be used in numerous deployments.
... Brown (Verbenaceae), a popular herb in Brazil known as 'lemon balm', is mainly used as seasoning, drinks, infusions, and food. [7] Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd (Lamiaceae) is one of the most frequently used medicinal plants in traditional Chinese medicine. ...
Article
Despite the current treatments against Chagas Disease (CD), this vector-borne parasitic disease remains a serious public health concern. In this study, we have explored the in vitro and/or in vivo trypanocidal and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils (EOs) obtained from Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants (Amaranthaceae) (DA-EO), Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae) (LA-EO), and Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd (Lamiaceae) (TR-EO) grown in Brazil Southeast. DA-EO was the most active against the trypomastigote and amastigote forms in vitro; the IC50 values were 8.7 and 12.2 μg mL-1 , respectively. The EOs displayed moderate toxicity against LLCMK2 cells, but the DA-EO showed high selectivity index (SI) for trypomastigote (SI=33.2) and amastigote (SI=11.7) forms. Treatment with 20 mg/kg DA-EO, LA-EO, or TR-EO for 20 days by intraperitoneal administration reduced parasitemia by 6.36 %, 4.74 %, and 32.68 % on day 7 and by 12.04 %, 27.96 %, and 65.5 % on day 9. These results indicated that DA-EO, LA-EO, and TR-EO have promising trypanocidal potential in vitro, whereas TR-EO has also potential trypanocidal effects in vivo.
... Traditionally, medicinal and aromatic plants of the Lippia genus have shown several properties, such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, sedative, antifungal, antihypertensive, larvicide, repellent, and antimicrobial activities. ese plants have been used in the treatment of skin, gastrointestinal, and liver diseases [9][10][11][12]. e occasional development of microorganism resistance to commercially available drugs has encouraged studies on the antimicrobial potential of essential oils, which search for compounds that can prevent and treat diseases [13,14]. ...
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Species of the genus Lippia are rich in essential oils and have shown antibacterial properties, which may be related to oils’ chemical composition. The present work aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Lippia origanoides Kunth against two bacteria strains: Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Leaf essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus, and their chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and flame ionization detection (GC/FID). We identified 28 compounds, representing 98.87% of the total concentration of the essential oil. The compounds identified at the highest concentrations were 1,8-cineole (35.04%), carvacrol (11.32%), p-cymene (8.53%), α-pinene (7.17%), and γ-terpinene (7.16%). The leaf essential oil of L. origanoides showed antibacterial action on biological isolates of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. For Escherichia coli, the oil presented bactericidal action at concentrations of 5–20 μL/mL. Regarding Staphylococcus aureus, the bactericidal effect was noted at 20 μL/mL and the bacteriostatic action was noted around 2.5–10 μL/mL. Given the results obtained, L. origanoides essential oil showed promising biological potential against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria, thus encouraging further studies on substances isolated from this species to contribute to the development of new antimicrobial drugs.
... The essential oil of Lippia alba (EOLA) comes from an aromatic shrub belonging to the Verbenaceae family. It is a tropical plant species found throughout South and Central America and Africa and with different chemotypes (Hennebelle et al. 2008). The use of increasing concentrations of EOLA linalool chemotype proportionally decreased the induction time to anesthesia in the seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Cunha et al. 2011), the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Hohlenwerger et al. 2016), and the silver catfish Rhamdia quelen (Cunha et al. 2010;Toni et al. 2014). ...
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This study assessed the potential of eugenol and the essential oil of Lippia alba (EOLA) in providing suitable anesthetic induction and recovery times, and their consequent effects on the blood and respiratory physiology, as well as the gill architecture of an Amazonian freshwater stingray, Potamotrygon wallacei , at the onset of the anesthetic event and after 48 h of recovery. Juveniles of P. wallacei (n = 12) were exposed to increasing concentrations of eugenol (75, 100, 125 and 150 µL L − 1 ) and EOLA (150, 175, 200 and 225 µL L − 1 ) in an immersion bath. Anesthetic induction was found to be faster with the use of eugenol compared to EOLA. On the other hand, the stingrays anesthetized with eugenol displayed a longer recovery time than those exposed to EOLA. The highest concentrations of eugenol caused moderate to severe histological changes in the gills. No significant changes were found for hematocrit and plasma metabolites in the stingrays anesthetized with all concentrations of both eugenol and EOLA just after the onset of anesthetic action, when compared to those recovered after 48 hours. Investigations regarding the potential use of these natural anesthetics are unprecedented for freshwater stingray species and 200 µL L − 1 EOLA is recommended as the most suitable anesthetic for use in juveniles of P. wallacei .
... Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown is an aromatic, tropical, vigorous and rustic shrub, which has been broadly cultivated in Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, Uruguay, Paraguay and Mexico (6). Common names for this plant vary in different regions and include Salvia Morada (Argentina), Melissa, Juanilama (Costa Rica), Oaxaca lemon verbana, Erva Cidreira (Brazil), Bushy Lippia, Bushy matgrass and Prontoalivio (Colombia). ...
Article
Lippia alba, commonly known as Bushy Matgrassis a well-known traditional herb. Besides being used as a food supplement, for seasoning and as a drink, this plant species possess several pharmacological properties, allowing its use in folk medicines to treat various diseases, especially those related to digestive and respiratory conditions. These properties are mainly attributed to the presence of compounds such as myrcene, linalool, β-ocimene, α-guaiene, germacrene, carvone, limonene, eucalyptol, camphor, caryophyllene, neral, geranial and piperitone in the essential oils of L. alba. Variation in essential oil components and the high phenotypical plasticity of L. alba provide a strong evidence of an exciting high number of chemotypes in this aromatic herb. In the current review, we report the botanical, geographical and ecological features of L. alba. In addition, chemical composition of essential oil is addressed followed by in vitro and high efficiency micropropagation protocols. Finally, the therapeutic potential of L. alba against important non-communicable diseases is discussed.
... Lippia alba (Mill.) flowering plant which essential oil presents several pharmacological properties such as sedative, analgesic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial assets [164]. In a work published by Tofino-Rivera et al. [148], the essential oil from L. alba was used as an antibacterial agent against S. mutans ATCC 35668 biofilms, and it was shown that, at a concentration of 0.100 µg·mL −1 , this natural product was able to reduce the number of viable cells present in the biofilm by 95.8%. ...
Article
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Oral microbial biofilms, directly related to oral diseases, particularly caries and periodontitis, exhibit virulence factors that include acidification of the oral microenvironment and the formation of biofilm enriched with exopolysaccharides, characteristics and common mechanisms that, ultimately, justify the increase in antibiotics resistance. In this line, the search for natural products, mainly obtained through plants, and derived compounds with bioactive potential, endorse unique biological properties in the prevention of colonization, adhesion, and growth of oral bacteria. The present review aims to provide a critical and comprehensive view of the in vitro antibiofilm activity of various medicinal plants, revealing numerous species with antimicrobial properties, among which, twenty-four with biofilm inhibition/reduction percentages greater than 95%. In particular, the essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf and Lippia alba (Mill.) seem to be the most promising in fighting microbial biofilm in Streptococcus mutans, given their high capacity to reduce biofilm at low concentrations.
... N.E.Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson (Verbenaceae family) is a highly branched aromatic shrub with height up to 2 m (Hennebelle et al., 2008). Popularly known as bushy matgrass, bushy Lippia or lemon balm in English language countries, in Brazil it is variously called erva cidreira, falsa melissa and salvia. ...
... N.E.Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson (Verbenaceae family) is a highly branched aromatic shrub with height up to 2 m (Hennebelle et al., 2008). Popularly known as bushy matgrass, bushy Lippia or lemon balm in English language countries, in Brazil it is variously called erva cidreira, falsa melissa and salvia. ...
... N.E.Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson (Verbenaceae family) is a highly branched aromatic shrub with height up to 2 m (Hennebelle et al., 2008). Popularly known as bushy matgrass, bushy Lippia or lemon balm in English language countries, in Brazil it is variously called erva cidreira, falsa melissa and salvia. ...
... Lippia origanoides H.B.Ka. es una planta aromática perteneciente a la familia Verbenaceae, conocida comúnmente como "Orégano criollo" y se distribuye en forma silvestre en América Central, el norte de América del Sur y de las Antillas (Pascual et al., 2001;Hennebelle et al., 2008). En Colombia, esta planta se encuentra en altitudes entre 500 y 800 msnm en los departamentos de Guajira, Magdalena, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Norte de Santander, Santander y Nariño (Albesiano et al., 2003;Ruiz et al., 2007;Stashenko et al., 2008). ...
Article
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The Lippia origanoides plant has been widely studied due to the antimicrobial and antifungal effect of its extracts and essential oils, which have been tested against a large number of pathogenic microorganisms. However, there is little literature that records the diversity of endophytic bacteria associated with this plant species. The objective of the work was to evaluate in vitro the plant growth promotion capacity of endophytic Lippia origanoides bacteria in the municipality of Sincelejo-Sucre, Colombia. In this study, endophytic bacteria were isolated in R2A agar culture medium from different tissues, population density (CFU / g of tissue) was evaluated by surface counting and the promotion of plant growth qualitatively in specific selective media. Significant differences were observed for the population density of endophytic bacteria regarding tissue type, with higher values in the root (2.0 x 1010 / g root), followed by the stem (1.3 x 1010 / g stem) and leaves (9.2 x 109 / g sheet). A total of 20 endophytic bacteria were obtained, which two showed phosphate solubilizing capacity, biological nitrogen fixation, production of siderophores and ACC deaminase. The TLO5 and RLO4 morphotypes were molecularly identified as Bacillus cereus, showing good results in promoting plant growth.
... As informações sobre a floração e frutificação são fundamentais para a coleta de frutos e sementes para a propagação e posteriores trabalhos experimentais visando a identificação de fatores responsáveis pela ocorrência de fenofases (SANTOS et al., 2009 (Zoghbi et al., 1998). Segundo Hennebelle et al., (2008) (Jannuzzi et al., 2010;Tavares et al., 2005;Hennebelle et al., 2006). Pandeló et al., (2012) foi ainda mais longe e afirmou que a produção de óleo essencial está relacionada à expressão de três supostos genes de síntese de terpeno, clonados do quimiotipo L. albalinalol. ...
Article
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Objetivo: Realizar revisão bibliográfica em base dados acerca de componentes majoritários de óleos essenciais, partes usadas e fenofases de Lippia alba, publicados em artigos com o registro de depósito de exsicata em herbário (voucher) para correta comprovação da identidade botânica. Método: Prospectou-se nas bases de dados Scielo, Scopus, PubMed, e Web of Science, no período 2010 a 2020 os componentes majoritários de óleos essenciais, partes usadas e fenofases da Lippia alba utilizando o operador booleano e palavras-chaves da seguinte forma: “essential oils AND Lippia alba AND Yield”, filtrou-se as substâncias majoritárias de cada pesquisa identificadas e/ou isoladas (> 10%). Resultados: Foram identificados 56 artigos na pesquisa, destes, apenas 16 artigos citando o voucher. Pelo que foi analisado, menos de 30% dos artigos adotaram procedimento padrão de identificação botânica, as substâncias que se destacaram foram: linalol, carvona, neral, carvocrol, geranial e limoneno. Conclusão: A maioria dos trabalhos analisados desconsiderou os procedimentos padrões de identificação botânica, o que compromete em certa medida as informações acerca dos teores de óleos essenciais de Lippia alba. A fenofase não foi um aspecto relevante encontrado nos trabalhos, na medida em que as folhas foram as partes amplamente utilizadas para a obtenção dos componentes majoritários de óleos essenciais.
... L. alba is an aromatic native plant belonging to the Verbenaceae family, which is widely used in South and Central America for many purposes (Lorenzi and Matos, 2008). The plant is most commonly named in Brazil as cidreira (Hennebelle et al., 2008), but is known locally in the study area as salviado-rio-grande, erva-cidreira-brasileira and falsa-melissa. In relation to ethnobotanical investigations, works from different parts of the world include studies detailing L. alba as an antitussive, a decongestive, to treat sore throat and headaches (Scarpa, 2004), an analgesic (Toscano- Gonzalez, 2006) and an antimalarial (Vigneron et al., 2005). ...
... N.E.Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson) (Verbenaceae family) is an aromatic and herbaceous species, with wide geographical distribution and ethnomedicinal use, mainly in South and Central America (Hennebelle et al., 2008). Due to the phenotypic plasticity in the chemical composition, there are varieties with characteristic chemical compositions, called chemotypes (Gomes et al., 2019). ...
Article
Lippia alba is a species widely used in folk medicine for various health treatments. Essential oil from L. alba and its major compound β-caryophyllene were examined for its antiviral activity against Zika virus (ZIKV) in vitro and in silico. In addition, the larvicidal activity on the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae of the third instar was investigated. Anti-zika activity of these products was determined at different stages of ZIKV infection and replication cycle. Selectivity Index value (SI) was determined as the ratio of cytotoxic concentration 50 (CC50) to inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) for each compound. Molecular docking assay was carried to identify the interaction between β-caryophyllene and ZIKV enzymes (NS1, NS2B-NS3 and NS5). Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), whose extraction yield was 3.31 %. L. alba essential oil showed lower cytotoxicity on the vero cells, with CC50 = 1789.9, when compared with the β-caryophyllene (CC50 = 390.8). Essential oil exhibited a greater antiviral effect in the assays of virucidal activity (IC50 = 32.2 μg/mL) and post-treatment (IC50 = 54.1 μg/mL), with SI values of 55.6 and 33.1, respectively. β-caryophyllene inhibits the replication of ZIKV replication in the early stages of the viral cycle (IC50 = 74.4 μg/mL), whose SI was 5.2. Of all the investigated samples, only β-caryophyllene exhibited a larvicidal effect on the A. albopictus larvae (LC50 = 73.4 ± 1.68 μg/mL). Molecular docking confimed the antiviral activity of β-caryophyllene showing interactions with amino acid residues from the target sites of NS2B-NS3 and in greater numbers with NS5.
... 403 They have been specifically used for biomedical applications due to anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties, and other biological activities. [404][405][406] Due to their aromatic nature, EOs are extensively used to produce soaps, perfumes, and toiletries. ...
Article
A huge variety of plants are harvested worldwide and their different constituents can be converted into a broad range of bionanomaterials. In parallel, much research effort in materials science and engineering is focused on the formation of nanoparticles and nanostructured materials originating from agricultural residues. Cellulose (40–50%), hemicellulose (20–40%), and lignin (20–30%) represent major plant ingredients and many techniques have been described that separate the main plant components for the synthesis of nanocelluloses, nano-hemicelluloses, and nanolignins with divergent and controllable properties. The minor components, such as essential oils, could also be used to produce non-toxic metal and metal oxide nanoparticles with high bioavailability, biocompatibility, and/or bioactivity. This review describes the chemical structure, the physical and chemical properties of plant cell constituents, different techniques for the synthesis of nanocelluloses, nanohemicelluloses, and nanolignins from various lignocellulose sources and agricultural residues, and the extraction of volatile oils from plants as well as their use in metal and metal oxide nanoparticle production and emulsion preparation. Furthermore, details about the formation of activated carbon nanomaterials by thermal treatment of lignocellulose materials, a few examples of mineral extraction from agriculture waste for nanoparticle fabrication, and the emerging applications of plant-based nanomaterials in different fields, such as biotechnology and medicine, environment protection, environmental remediation, or energy production and storage, are also included. This review also briefly discusses the recent developments and challenges of obtaining nanomaterials from plant residues, and the issues surrounding toxicity and regulation.
... Lippia alba (Mill.) NE Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson is an important medicinal herb widely distributed in Latin America (Hennebelle et al., 2008). It has a shrub growth habit and could reach up to 1.5 m with thin branches. ...
Article
Lippia alba (Mill.) NE Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson is an important medicinal herb widely distributed in Latin America. However, the success of this crop depends on several biotic and abiotic environmental factors, being water availability the most limiting one. Therefore, the present paper aimed to investigate the responses of one tetraploid (tet) and two diploids (dip1 and dip2) genotypes of L. alba to drought stress by using irrigation suspension under 0 (control) or 15 (stressful factor) days. The physiological parameters water content, gas exchange , chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic pigments contents, and the qualitative profile of volatile organic compounds were evaluated by uni-and multivariate statistical analyses. Drought stress negatively affected the physiological processes in all L. alba specimens equally, regardless of the genotype. It was observed that photosynthesis was impaired due to stomatal limitation, which was triggered by low water availability. In contrast, the qualitative profile of volatile organic compounds was strongly determined by genotype without drought stress influence. Furthermore, gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence were the most sensitive parameters to evaluate drought stress in L. alba. More specifically stomatal conductance is recommended to be evaluated in L. alba breeding programs focused on drought stress tolerance, given that its high contribution to photosynthesis regulation.
... The wells with DMSO without cells were used as blank. Cytotoxic Concentration 50% (CC 50 ) was defined as the concentration of the compound that reduces the viability of the cell line by 50% [80,81]. Finally, the Selectivity Index (SI) was calculated as the division of IC 50 over MIC 50 [66]. ...
Article
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The emergence of multidrug resistant microorganisms represents a global challenge due to the lack of new effective antimicrobial agents. In this sense, essential oils (EOs) are an alternative to be considered because of their anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, and antibiofilm biological activities. Therefore, multiple efforts have been made to consider the potential use of EOs in the treatment of infections which are caused by resistant microorganisms. In this study, 15 EOs of both Colombian and introduced aromatic plants were evaluated against pathogenic strains of E. coli O157:H7 and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in planktonic and sessile states in order to identify relevant and promising alternatives for the treatment of microbial infections. Forty different compounds were identified in the 15 EO with nine of them constituted mainly by oxygenated monoterpenes (OM). EOs from Lippia origanoides, chemotypes thymol, and carvacrol, displayed the highest antibacterial activity against E. coli O157:H7 (MIC50 = 0.9 and 0.3 mg/mL, respectively) and MRSA (MIC50 = 1.2 and 0.6 mg/mL, respectively). These compounds from EOs had also the highest antibiofilm activity (inhibition percentage > 70.3%). Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), changes in the size and morphology of both bacteria were observed when they were exposed to sub-inhibitory concentrations of L. origanoides EO carvacrol chemotype. EOs from L. origanoides, thymol, and carvacrol chemotypes represented a viable alternative for the treatment of microbial infections; however, the Selectivity Index (SI ≤ 3) indicated that it was necessary to study alternatives to reduce its in vitro cytotoxicity.
... N.E. Brown is native to the Americas, widely distributed across the Southern United States and Northern Argentina (Hennebelle et al. 2008). Recently, Souza et al. (2017) demonstrated that the EO of L. alba from two chemotypes, citral (EO-C) and linalool (EO-L), are good anesthetics for silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, but anesthesia with EO-C caused some renal disturbances because the plasma levels of urea and creatinine were higher. ...
Conference Paper
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This second edition of ADAPTA Short Notes (ASN) presents 37 studies covering new data referent to the second phase of INCT-ADAPTA (CNPq process number - 465540/2014-7; FAPEAM process number - 062.1187/2017; CAPES process number - 88887.136340/2017-00, Finance Code 001): Adaptations of Amazon Aquatic Biota. The quality and success of the first edition gave us inspira tion to follow with this project; calling for new data to compose a second volume of ASN. Consonant with the first volume, the present one includes four sections, which are related to the main topics approached at the second phase of ADAPTA, as follows: Section 1 – Biological Adaptation of Aquatic Biology brings eight notes approaching the new motivating question of ADAPTA; i.e., multiple physiological manners for Amazonian fish species, crabfish, and shrimps under different important challenges such as environmental, natural, and experimental ones, preparing the readers for the second section. Section 2 – Aquatic Biodiversity and tools for its conservation is composed by eight notes that describe the main responses from Amazonian fishes population structure and genome organization scale, up to the scale of a single species ecology and developmental sta- ges of the caddisflies. This section also brings a new methodology that measure DNA traces in water samples collected at Rio Negro and Solimões Rivers, revealing all kinds of organisms in the rivers. Then, section 3 raises a relevant current subject. Section 3 – Climate changes and Adaptation to Environmental Challenges brings 11 notes concerning studies about biological responses of aquatic organisms to environmental challenges such as climate changes, hypoxia, xenobiotic, polyamines and exogenous dopamine, as well as, to an anti-parasite broadly used in fish culture stations. Furthermore, it describes climate modeling for flies (Simulidae), which will be differently distributed along the climate changes variation. Section 4 – Advances in Aquaculture: Sustainable use of Biodiversity brings 10 notes approaching and disserting about the improvement of the technics applied in fish raising station. The contribution to the fish chain production is clear in this section. Indeed, the use of prebiotics food opens a new trial to a new modern way on animal production, allowing a food security and minimizing the use of antibiotics, meaning better water quality. Finally, it is our pleasure to state that this edition of ASN is limited, but there is no restriction for citation. We gathered a high level editorial board from the different scientific areas that gave us support in keeping the same excellence as national and international young journals. We hope the researchers will enjoy reading the different notes of this second edition of ADAPTA Short Notes. Vera Maria Fonseca de Almeida e Val Editor-in-Chief Derek Felipe de Campos Luciana Mara Fé Gonçalves Executive editors
... and S. sclerotiorum in this work were 1.4 and 0.4 μL·mL -1 , respectively. Lippia alba is a medicinal plant that has high sedative (HOHLENWERGER et al., 2016), antidepressant, digestive, antihemorrhoidal and antiasthmatic potential (HENNEBELLE et al., 2008). In addition to its uses in traditional medicine, this oil has been reported with insecticidal power against Tribolium castaneum in wheat grains (RINGUELET et al., 2014), acaricide against Rhipicephalus microplus (PEIXOTO et al., 2015), nematicide (GONÇALVES et al., 2016), and fungicide (AQUINO et al., 2014). ...
Article
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: The use of highly toxic pesticides to control soil pathogens, such as Fusarium spp. and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has generated concern, due to the irreversible impacts caused on the environment, in addition to selecting resistant isolates. In this way, essential oils appear as an efficient alternative in control of diseases. Facing the problem of soil pathogens control and high antimicrobial fungicide that essential oils present, this work aimed to evaluate the in vitro fungicidal potential of essential oils in control of Fusarium spp. and S. sclerotiorum. A completely randomized design, factorial scheme 2×4×8 was used, with two isolates (Fusarium spp. and S. sclerotiorum), four essential oils (Aloysia citriodora, Cymbopogon winterianus, Lippia alba and Ocimum americanum), eight essential oil concentrations (0.0; 0.2; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8; 1.0; 1.2 and 1.4 μL·mL-1), and ten replicates. The essential oils inhibited mycelial growth of the fungi in different concentrations, being their potential justified by the presence of antifungal chemical compounds. Essential oils of A. citriodora, C. winterianus, L. alba and O. americanum present high fungicidal potential, being viable alternatives for formulation of commercial products, boosting the pesticides industry.
... N.E. Brown is native to the Americas, widely distributed across the Southern United States and Northern Argentina (Hennebelle et al. 2008). Recently, Souza et al. (2017) demonstrated that the EO of L. alba from two chemotypes, citral (EO-C) and linalool (EO-L), are good anesthetics for silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, but anesthesia with EO-C caused some renal disturbances because the plasma levels of urea and creatinine were higher. ...
... Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson var. alba and L. turbinata Griseb., which are cultivated for culinary or medicinal purposes (Andersen et al., 2006;Hennebelle et al., 2008;Conde et al., 2011;Leal et al., 2018). These species grow commonly all-around south America, mainly Argentina and Brazil. ...
Article
Lippia integrifolia, commonly known as “incayuyo”, is a traditional aromatic and medicinal plant that grows wild in northwestern Argentina. Aqueous extracts of this species exert beneficial effects against affections of the gastrointestinal tract, mainly gastric inflammations. Across the wide distribution of L. integrifolia, there is a high variability in the essential oil composition and four chemotypes have been characterized based on the dominant terpenoids in their essential oil composition: trans-nerolidol, lippiafolienone, spathulenol/byciclogermacrene and trans-davanone. In the present work, the morphology, anatomy, chemical constituents and biochemical properties of the aqueous extract of different chemotypes of L. integrifolia were evaluated comparatively. The chemotype whose essential oil is dominated by trans-nerolidol showed significantly higher density of trichomes on the leaves and higher yield in aqueous extractions. Only quantitative variations of dominant metabolites in the aqueous extracts were found among the different chemotypes; those compounds were characterized as 6-methoxyluteolin-O-hexoside, 6-methoxyscutellarein-hexoside, B ring-dimethoxylated flavone-hexoside I, II and lippidulcine-A. In spite of the higher phenolic and flavonoid content, trans-nerolidol chemotype sample presented similar antioxidant properties compared with the other chemotypes. Additionally, the histochemistry of leaves of the trans-nerolidol chemotype was analyzed. The trans-nerolidol chemotype, which grows naturally in the province of La Rioja (Puerto Alegre), presents the best qualities for the medicinal use of the species, due to its higher yield in aqueous extractions and higher phenolic and flavonoid content.
Article
Antibiotics are chemical compounds that are used to eradicate some pathogenic microorganisms, however, according to WHO reports, some microorganisms of clinical importance; which has limited the options of treatment have developed resistance to antibiotics by the health professionals to the patients. Therefore, it has been necessary to seek alternative therapies such as the use of essential oils of aromatic plants as a biosolution to conventional treatments with very good results. The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the Lippia alba plant, which is widely distributed in Latin America, have presented promising results due to the great variety of volatile compounds such as citral, carvone, myrcenene, among the most abundant and about 30 other compounds; The variation in the concentration of the compounds depends on several phenotypic and genotypic as well as environmental factors. Different investigations have demonstrated how the extraction of the oil from the leaves and their use both in vivo and in vitro have shown bactericidal, bacteriostatic, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antitumor activity, as a sedative for the transport of animals, as an animal growth promoter, among others. This documentary review shows some investigations with the essential oil of and the results obtained in them.
Article
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the essential oils of Lippia alba chemotypes carvone and citral on H. contortus. Chemical characterization was performed by means of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The anthelmintic effects of the essential oils were assessed through the egg hatch test (EHT) and the adult worm motility test (AWMT) using a multidrug-resistant H. contortus Kokstad isolate. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) of eggs and adults of H. contortus and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of adults were performed after treatment with oils for qualitative observations of their effects. The carvone chemotype of L. alba (LaCV) presented 70% carvone, and the citral chemotype of L. alba (LaCT) presented 29.4% geranial and 20.4% neral, respectively. In the EHT, the EC50 values of LaCV and LaCT were 0.2 and 0.3 mg/mL, respectively. In AWMT, after 12 h of exposure to 2 mg/mL LaCV and 2 mg/mL LaCT, 100% of adult nematodes were immobile. CLSM showed changes in larval motility inside the egg caused by LaCV, while LaCT promoted changes in larval formation. In adults exposed to both chemotypes, alterations in the anterior portion of the oesophagus were observed. In SEM, morphological changes were observed in the buccal capsule and in the medial portion of H. contortus adults. It is concluded that the two essential oils of L. alba, the chemotypes carvone and citral, caused morphological changes and inhibited the hatching of eggs and the motility of adult H. contortus nematodes.
Article
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Lippia alba is popularly known as lemon balm, with its essential oil (EO) cited for displaying antimicrobial, sedative, and vasorelaxant effects. Yet, its action on isolated human vessels has not been described in the literature. Thus, we evaluated the vasorelaxant effect of essential oil of L. alba (EOLa) on human umbilical arteries (HUA) isolated in organ baths. HUA rings were isolated, subjected to contractions induced by potassium chloride (KCl), serotonin (5-HT), or histamine (HIST) to record the isometric tension, and then treated with EOLa (30–1000 µg/mL). The EOLa showed a more prominent inhibitory effect on the pharmacomechanical coupling contraction via HIST with an EC50 value of 277.1 ± 8.5 µg/mL and maximum relaxant effect at 600 µg/mL. The addition of tetraethylammonium (TEA) or 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) in HUA preparations did not inhibit EOLa total relaxant effect at 1000 µg/mL. In the presence of gliblenclamide (GLI), the oil relaxed the HUA rings by 90.8% at maximum concentration. The EOLa was also investigated for its effects on voltage-operated calcium channels (VOCCs), where the HUA preincubation with this oil at 1000 μg/mL inhibited BaCl2 (0.1–30 mM)-induced contractions. This study demonstrates for the first time that EOla has a vasorelaxant effect on HUA and its particular blockade of VOCCs.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E.Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson is traditionally used in Brazil as an adjunct in the relief of mild anxiety, as an antispasmodic, and as an antidyspeptic. This medicinal species was included in the Phytotherapeutic Form of the Brazilian Pharmacopeia 2nd edition (2021) and has already been described as the most used medicinal plant in a study with patients from an Anticoagulation Clinic in Brazil. Meanwhile, no studies were found that support the safety of the use of L. alba in patients using anticoagulants, a drug with several safety limitations. Aim of the study: Provide scientific evidence to ensure the safety of the concomitant use of L. alba and warfarin and support the management of these patients by evaluating its in vitro anticoagulant effect and chemical composition. And, as a timely complementation, evaluate the potential of this medicinal species in the development of new antithrombotics. Methods: The chemical profile of L. alba derivatives was analyzed by chromatographic methods such as Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), qualitative UPLC using Diode-Array Detection, and Thin Layer Chromatography. The anticoagulant activity was evaluated by the innovative Thrombin Generation Assay by Calibrated Automated Thrombogram method and using traditional coagulometric tests: prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and plasma fibrinogen measurement. Results: Extracts and fractions prolonged the coagulation time in all the tests and reduced thrombin formation in thrombin generation assay. Coagulation times with the addition of ethanloic extract (2.26 mg/mL) was 17.78s, 46.43s and 14.25s respectively in prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogren plasma measurement. In thrombin generation test, this same extract showed ETP as 323 nM/min compared to control (815 nM/min) with high tissue factor and 582 nM/min compared to control (1147 nM/min) using low tissue factor. Presence of flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, and triterpenes were confirmed by chromatographic methods and 13 compounds were identified by UPLC-ESI-MS. Based on these results and on the scientific literature, it is possible to propose that phenylpropanoids and flavonoids are related to the anticoagulant activity observed. Conclusion: The results demonstrate the in vitro anticoagulant activity of L. alba, probably due to the activation of intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. It is concluded, then, that there is a potential for interaction, which needs to be further studied, between L. alba and warfarin. Also, this medicinal species shows a great potential for use in the development of new antithrombotics.
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Lippia alba, an introduced species of Lippia has widely been used in traditional and folk medicine. Being incompatible with self-pollination, these plants rely on pollinators, particularly bees, for reproduction. In this study, floral association of the bee pollinators/visitors belonging to four families of Apoidea with L. alba has been examined.
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Dengue fever is a flu-like ailment propagated by female mosquitos of the Aedes aegypti species. It is also known as dandaka jwara in Ayurveda. It is most common in the world's subtropical and tropical climate zones. Vomiting, severe headache, nausea, rashes, joint pain, pain behind the eyes, muscle pain, and swollen glands are all common dengue symptoms. If not handled promptly, these symptoms can lead to more severe issues such as exhaustion, blood in the vomit, continuous vomiting, bleeding gums, restlessness, severe abdominal pain, and rapid bleeding. Because there is no specific medication for dengue fever, the disease is treated by eliminating and managing the symptoms. Fortunately, there are a variety of ayurvedic remedies (like Carica papaya L., Cissampelos pareira L., etc.) that can help to tackle the same by strengthening the immune system and controlling hyperthermia. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of dengue virus infections, clinical symptoms, diagnosis, mitigation, and treatments, focusing on ayurvedic and herbal remedies.
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Introduction Lippia alba, popularly known as “cidreira” (lemon balm) is used to treat gastrointestinal disorders, anxiety, and insomnia. However, this species is known for its phenotypic plasticity and genome variation, resulting in variation of the chemical composition that can alter the pharmacological effect. This species was identified as one of the most consumed by patients undergoing warfarin treatment and there are no studies on its safety in concomitant use with anticoagulants. Methods Ethanolic extract from 18 different accessions of L. alba was studied for its anticoagulant activity using a thrombin generation test and for its chemical composition using ultra-efficient liquid chromatography-diode array detector. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and Principal Component Analysis were performed to analyze the relationship between anticoagulant activity and chemical composition of L. alba accessions. Results In the phytochemical analysis it was possible to identify the presence of flavonoids and phenylpropanoids in all L. alba accessions. Sixteen of them (89 %) were able to reduce thrombin formation compared to the control, but there was a large difference in anticoagulant activity between the accessions. Discussion/conclusion In general, the most active accessions are diploids while tetraploids were less active. All triploid accessions have compound 1, which is rarely found in diploids and tetraploids. Chemometric analyses demonstrate similarity of chemical composition within accessions of the same ploidy (2x, 3x, 4x) and indicate that the anticoagulant activity is due to the synergism between flavonoids and phenylpropanoids. Therefore, it is important that this plant species be used with caution in patients using oral anticoagulants.
Article
Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Br. ex P. Wilson is found in the Brazilian northeastern semiarid region, and its leaves are rich in essential oils that are relevant in the pharmaceutic and cosmetic industries for their proven antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. This study evaluated the influence of elicitors on the in vitro development and production of secondary compounds in Lippia alba. Cuttings from this species were inoculated in Murashige and Skoog (1962) semi-solid medium supplemented with methyl jasmonate (100, 200, and 300 µM L⁻¹), chitosan, and yeast extract (200, 400, and 600 mg L⁻¹) for 5 and 10 days. Elicitation for 10 days was shown to affect the growth and development of the plants, and the addition of 400 or 600 mg L⁻¹ of chitosan and 400 mg L⁻¹ of yeast extract for 5 days to the medium promoted an increase in plant height and leaf biomass. Furthermore, elicitation promoted the synthesis of 5-methylene-2-norbornene, ethyl pent-4-enoate, p-cymene and limonene in the essential oil of plants. Therefore, for in vitro elicitation of L. alba, we indicate the application of 400 or 600 mg L⁻¹ of chitosan to the culture medium for 5 days.
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Iridoids are monoterpenoids classed with a cyclopentanopyran framework and are detected in various plants and certain special animals. In plants, it exists as glycosides, generally bound to glucose. Around six hundred iridoid glycosides are available in fifty-seven families of plants. Iridoids are abundant in dicotyledonous plants belonging to the Diervillaceae, Loganiaceae, Apocynaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Lamiaceae, and Rubiaceae families. Analytical techniques like chromatography, NMR, UPLC, etc., are used for the identification, separation, and estimation of either herbal extracts or formulations of iridoids. Advanced analytical techniques are very useful for precise and accurate quantification of active ingredients that are responsible for therapeutic effects, and they can be achieved by a developed and validated robust analytical method. Iridoids have shown diverse pharmacological properties. Some of the important activities are immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and cardio-protective effects. The other important activities are antimicrobial, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, anticancer, choleretic, antispasmodic, and purgative activities attributed to iridoids. There were not many efforts made in the past to gather and review the literature on various aspects of iridoids. This review article has collected a myriad of literature on old and advanced analytical techniques, including method development and validation of methods for quantitative and qualitative analysis of iridoids. The review also emphasizes the role of iridoids in the prevention of various ailments.
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Water is a limiting factor in agricultural production. In the cultivation of aromatic plants, abiotic factors, such as water deficit, influence the yield and composition of essential oils. Lippia alba, linalool chemotype, is an aromatic species originally from South America in domestication, and it can be used in the cosmetics industry to develop natural products, such as flavorings, fragrances, and perfumes. So far, the effect of water deficit on the agronomic characteristics and the species' essential oil composition has not been evaluated. In this work, total aerial dry matter production, total leaf dry matter production, essential oil production, and chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of selected clones of L. alba were evaluated under four different irrigation depths, using an organic production system during four cutting cycles of 90 days. Nineteen compounds were detected in the essential oil of L. alba. The irrigation treatments altered the relative proportions of the compounds linalool, geranial, β-elemene, and germacrene D. The highest total biomass production of the aerial part was obtained with the 125% of the reference evapotranspiration (ET0) at 180 (second cut) and 270 (third cut) days after formation pruning. The irrigation depths of 100% and mainly the 125% ET0 at 180 days (second cut) favored the total dry matter production of leaves in Lippia alba, chemotype linalool, and the essential oil production. In general, a moderate water deficit generated an adjustment in the use of water resources with increased the essential oil production, in particular the linalool compound.
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Natural products used to treat cancer, or as leads for the development of preventive and co-adjuvant treatment strategies, are still a current approach. We studied the effect of essential oils from the medicinal plant Lippia alba on tumor cell lines and observed that geraniol-rich citral chemotype was the most effective, especially for breast and gastric carcinoma. Two main components of these essential oils, geraniol and limonene, were tested on gastric cancer cells, evidencing that geraniol was significantly more effective inducing cytotoxicity. The activity of geraniol on AGS cells was partially due to growth inhibition and we observed that some metastatic gastric cancer cells were also sensitive to this compound. The effect of geraniol on growth inhibition was not recovered by the addition of mevalonolactone, suggesting independence of isoprenylation. A partial inhibitory effect of geraniol was also observed on AGS migration, making it potentially effective to control invasive tumor behavior.
Article
Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae), popularly known as “lemon balm” or “bushy matgrass”, is widely used in folk medicine due to its anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, analgesic, and digestive properties. It was described as an autopolyploid complex with five cytotypes (2n = 30, 38, 45, 60 and 90). To enhance our understanding of the biological variation of the species, we investigated, comparatively, the proteomic profile of all ploidal levels (diploid, aneuploid, triploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid). Leaf proteins were extracted with subsequent separation by two-dimensional electrophoresis, spot analysis, and protein identification by mass spectrometry. By comparing the proteomic profile of diploid accession to the profile of the other ploidal levels we identified differential expression between the analysed spots. We identified 34 proteins with differential expression between the ploidal levels in comparison with the diploid. The identified proteins seem to play relevant roles in the primary metabolism of L. alba suggesting that a specific set of proteins was selected during the polyploidization process, being the triploid the most different one. Given that protein composition can substantially affect the desired therapeutic effect, we posit that further combination of proteomic and metabolomic studies may help to unravel genetic variations and phenotypic profiles in L. alba.
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Lippia alba is an aromatic shrub known to produce a diversity of essential oils, which can be classified into chemotypes. This study reports on the insecticidal activity of essential oil from L. alba leaves collected at Caatinga and its major compound against termite Nasutitermes corniger and maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. The chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of 19 compounds, with 1,8-cineole being the most common (70.01%). When ingested, the oil promoted the mortality of N. corniger (LC50: 18.25 and 8.4 nL/g for workers and soldiers, respectively). The compound 1,8-cineole was also termiticidal for workers (LC50: 13.7 nL/g). The oil inhibited the activity of N. corniger exoglucanase, xylanase, and proteases. Toxicity by ingestion to S. zeamais was detected for the oil (LC50: 0.297 μL/g) but not for 1,8-cineole; however, both the oil and 1,8-cineole showed anti-nutritional effects. Fumigant effects of the oil and 1,8-cineole against S. zeamais (LC50 of 78.0 and 13.64 μL/L in air, respectively) were detected. This is the first record of a chemotype VI oil from L. alba collected at Caatinga and the first report of the insecticidal activity of a chemotype VI oil. Our study demonstrates that essential oil from L. alba and 1,8 cineole have the potential for the development of natural insecticides.
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Novel peppermint oil (PO)-loaded composite microcapsules (CM) with hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC)/chitosan/silica shells were effectively fabricated by PO Pickering emulsion, which were stabilized with chitosan-decorated silica nanoparticles (CSN). The surface modification of chitosan could improve the hydrophobicity of silica nanoparticles and favor their adsorption at the oil-water interface of PO Pickering emulsions. The microcapsule composite shells were formed dependent on the electrostatic adsorption of HPMC and CSN, and further subjected to spray-drying. The peppermint oil-loaded composite microcapsules with 100% HPMC as wall material ([email protected]%HPMC) seemed to be optimum formulation based on the prolonged release, acceptable entrapment efficiency (89.1%) and drug loading (25.5%). The [email protected]%HPMC could remarkably prolong the stability of PO. Moreover, the [email protected]%HPMC had a long-term antimicrobial activity (85.4%) against S. aureus and E. coli even after storage for 60 days. Therefore, the Pickering emulsions based microcapsules seemed to be a promising strategy for antibacterial application for PO.
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The development of an immediate-release solid formulation which contains natural products is a challenge considering several variables. These include the physical properties of the drug, the complex composition of the herbal extracts, and its ability to be released in the body. The present study describes the development and characterization of an immediate-release tablet formulation of a hydroethanolic extract of Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Br. dried leaves which possess potential gastroprotective properties and sedative effects. L. alba is a Brazilian herb known as “cidreira,” and the ethnopharmacological use of the leaf infusion has been reported in many South and Central America countries. However, no study has considered phytotherapeutics containing extracts of this herb. To achieve this goal, 14 solid formulations were produced using direct compression, wet granulation, or dry granulation. These were characterized by physical tests, such as average weight, friability, hardness, and disintegration tests. The tablet formulation produced by the dry granulation of 100 mg of the L. alba extract exhibited better physical properties, and it was characterized using acteoside (verbascoside) as a chemical marker, presenting 6.9% w/w of acteoside content per tablet, corresponding to 41.3 mg of this constituent per unit. This formulation dissolves rapidly in simulated gastric fluid without enzymes, achieving amounts >80% after 20 min. Thus, an immediate-release tablet formulation with L. alba extract was successfully prepared.
Chapter
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) represent one of the most important public health problems, and worldwide, hundreds of millions of people are affected by NDs, displaying strong evidence to these diseases is one of the most significant challenges to public health. Neurological disorders include several common diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system such as Alzheimer's disease and other dementia, epilepsy, headache disorders, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and others. The discovery of substances capable of preventing or treating neurological disorders has been the goal of researchers for several years. New therapies and new molecules should be explored. In this context, natural compounds represent an important source for the development of new drugs. For example, between 1981 and 2014, from a total of 12 new approved molecules for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, only one was a synthetic drug, being the others biological, derived or inspired in a natural product. In the same line, > 50% of all new antidepressant molecules were synthetic/mimetic of a natural product. Anticholinesterases like physostigmine and neostigmine, opioids alkaloids, galantamine, are some examples of drugs utilized from derived plants for the treatment of neurological disorders, highlighting the relevance of studying and searching for new natural products for the treatment of neurological disorders. This chapter aimed to summarize the most important compounds originated from natural sources that were targets of clinical studies, associated with neurological and psychiatric disorders, obtaining a total of 13 articles, in the last 10 years. Also, we characterized these compounds structurally. Considering the vast diversity of plants, few herbal medicines or botanical drugs were approved for human use, in the last centuries, only few innovative therapeutic products have been developed, especially in the field of neurological diseases.
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Lippia is a genus of flowering plants belonging to the Verbenaceae family. It contains about 220 species with diverse ethno-pharmacological applications. Myriad of biologically active phytoconstituents abound in Lippia. The essential oil chemotypes found in Lippia species included myrcenone rich-type, carvone rich-type, piperitenone rich-type, ipsenone rich-type, linalool rich-type, citral rich-type, carvacrol rich-type, thymol rich-type and lippiol rich-type. Other constituents apart from essential oils isolated and chemically characterized were highlighted. β-caryophyllene and iridoid glycosides were notable as chemotaxonomic marker compounds which were common to many of Lippia species.
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The essential oil of Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Br. collected in Ilheus was extracted by hydrodistillation for one hour using a Clevenger apparatus. The average yield was 0.16%. Twenty four compounds were identified by GC and GC-MS analysis. Citral was the main components of the oil (70.6-79.0%). Linalool (1.7-2.2%), geraniol (0.8-2.9%), nerol (0.5-2.5%) and β-myrcene (0.3-2.6%) were identified in low percentage. Lippia alba gave a higher yield of oil during spring.
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Leaves of Lippia alba were submitted to six different drying treatments, using air at ambient temperature and heated up to 80 °C. The essential oil was extracted by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-MS. For the dried leaves, the oil content was reduced by 12 to 17% whencompared with the fresh plant (0.66%). The major oil component was citral, representing 76% for the fresh plant, and varying from 82 to 84% for the dried material. These results showed that L. alba can be submitted to a drying process of up to 80 ºC without degradation and/or loss of the major, [LC1] active component.
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Ferramentas para quantificar dados etnobotânicos estão sendo usadas como complementares aos levantamentos sobre a utilização de plantas por populações. Neste trabalho são utilizadas técnicas para avaliar a concordância das citações de uso e a importância das espécies e famílias para as 51 pessoas entrevistadas no bairro Ponta Grossa, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. Para tal, foram utilizados os cálculos de Valor de Uso (UV) e a porcentagem corrigida de Concordância quanto aos Usos Principais (CUPc) para as 142 espécies mencionadas no levantamento. As espécies Aloe arborescens Mill., Citrus × aurantium L., Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC., Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Eugenia uniflora L., Cunila microcephala Benth., Citrus limon (L.) Osveck, Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf, Psidium guajava L., Artemisia absinthium L., Ocimum basilicum L., Plantago tomentosa Lam., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Persea americana Mill., Aloysia citrodora Palau, Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl., Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) J.F. Macbr., Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nyman ex A.W. Hill, Ocimum selloi Benth. e Tanacetum vulgare L., nesta ordem de Valor de Uso, foram consideradas como as mais importantes para a população estudada. As famílias mais importantes foram Asphodelaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Rutaceae e Lythraceae. Para o cálculo da porcentagem a corrigida de Concordância quanto aos Usos Principais (CUPc) foram consideradas como espécies principais as que apresentaram valores acima de 24%: Eugenia uniflora, Achyrocline satureioides, Psidium guajava, Cunila microcephala, Plectranthus barbatus, Citrus × aurantium, Citrus limon, Cymbopogon citratus, Punica granatum L., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski, Aloysia citrodora, Foeniculum vulgare, Plectranthus neochilus Schltr., Artemisia absinthium, Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Br., Mikania laevigata Sch. Bip ex Baker, Aloe arborescens e Petroselinum crispum.
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Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae) is commonly used in the Brazilian folk medicine to the treatment of gastric illnesses, diarrhea, fever, asthma, and as a tranquilizer. This work evaluated the antimicrobial activity of ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous extracts from the roots of the L. alba using plates-holes diffusion assay and the phytochemical profile. The results obtained showed that the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts presented antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538P), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) and Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC 10031). Terpenoids, phenylpropanoids and sugars were detected in the phytochemical analysis.Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae) é geralmente usada na medicina popular brasileira para o tratamento de doenças gástricas, febre, asma e como tranqüilizante. Este trabalho avaliou a atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos acetato de etila, metanol e aquoso das raízes de L. alba usando métodos de difusão em poços e o perfil fitoquímico. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que os extratos acetato de etila e metanol apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana contra Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538P), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) e Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC 10031). Terpenóides, fenilpropanóides e açúcares foram detectados na análise fitoquímica.
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Folk knowledge about medicinal plants within rural communities in Atlantic Forest, Itacaré, Bahia State, Brazil). This study's goal was to caryy out an ethnobotanica l survey focusing on the knowledge and use of medicinal plants within two rural communities (Marambaia and Camboinha), which are situated in an Environmental Protection Area in Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil. These communities use medicinal plants as an important therapeutic activity, which permits the rural inhabitants to be self- sufficient regarding health care. Data were collected through interviews with 26 families (24% of the total). The medicinal plants collected (98 species) were catalogued, identified and deposited at the Herbarium Rio Clarense (HRCB). They belong to 40 families so that Lamiaceae was the most cited. The majority of these species (78%) are cultivated, usually in backyards by local inhabitants. The leaf is the most common part of the plant used in medicinal preparations. The species with the greatest number of citations were Chenopodium ambrosioides L. and Lippia alba (Mill) N.E. Br. These species are also associated with the highest number of therapeutic uses. Use agreement and diversity index from this survey were compared to other surveys conducted in Brazilian Tropical Forests.
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The life history and host specificity of Falconia intermedia in Australia were investigated. Adults and nymphs feed on the intercellular tissue on the underside of Lantana camara leaves. Eggs are deposited singly or in small clusters alongside veins and, on average, hatch in 12 days. Development to adult takes about 15 days and there are 5 instars. Females live for approximately 30 days and lay an average of 1.5 eggs/day. Oviposition occurred on all five L. camara phenotypes tested but subsequent development was significantly poorer on the pink-flowering phenotype. Forty-six plant species were tested to determine host specificity. The only species upon which adults fed and oviposited were L. camara and another introduced weed, Lippia alba. Both plant species supported populations of F. intermedia over several generations. F. intermedia did not display any predatory behaviour towards eggs, nymphs or larvae of either Aconophora compressa or Ectaga garcia, two other introduced biocontrol agents of L. camara. F. intermedia was approved for release in Australia in 2000.
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Essential oils of six types of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown, an aromatic shrub used in folk medicine in northeastern Brazil under the name “cidreira” were analyzed by GC/MS. The results showed neral (27.18–30.40%) and geranial (35.63–40.95%) as the main chemical constituent in three samples, while carvone (42.30–54.69%) was the main constituent in three other samples. These differences allowed for the classification of two chemotypes.
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This work presents behavioral effects of three chemotypes of essential oils (EO) from Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae) on elevated plus maze, open field and rota rod tests and also on rectal temperature in mice. The results showed that all three EO increased significantly not only the number and percentage of entries, but also the time and percentage of time of permanence in the open arms. Greater effects were presented by EO II (50 mg/kg, i.p.) as related to controls for all parameters studied. In the open field test, while EO I (200 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased only the number of rearing as compared to controls, EO II and III (100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p., respectively) decreased both the number of rearing and grooming as compared to controls. None of them altered the number of crossings. In the rota rod test, only EO II (200 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased the time of permanence on the bar related to controls. All three EO decreased the rectal temperature at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p. EO I contains citral, beta-myrcene and limonene as the main constituents, while citral and limonene are present in EO II, and carvone and limonene in EO III. Citral and beta-myrcene seem to be the main active components of EO I and II. However, carvone and limonene are also active and probably responsible for the effects observed with EO III.
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The distribution of iridoid glucosides in plants from the genus Lippia (Verbenaceae) is described. In the present work, three known iridoids (theviridoside, mussaenoside and gardoside) were isolated from the roots of L. alba and were confirmed by NMR (1H and 13C) spectroscopic data. This information was combined with previous work on seven other Lippia species (obtained through a literature review) to give a thorough account of the iridoid glucosides currently found in this genus.
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Extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts. Of these, 10 plant extracts showed varied levels of antibacterial activity. Piper regnellii presented a good activity against Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, a moderate activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a weak activity against Escherichia coli. Punica granatum showed good activity on S. aureus and was inactive against the other standard strains. Eugenia uniflora presented moderate activity on both S. aureus and E. coli. Psidium guajava,Tanacetum vulgare, Arctium lappa, Mikania glomerata, Sambucus canadensis, Plantago major and Erythrina speciosa presented some degree of antibacterial activity. Spilanthes acmella, Lippia alba, and Achillea millefolium were considered inactive. Five of the plant extracts presented compounds with Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautogram. Of these, three plants belong to the Asteraceae family. This may mean that the same compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activity in these plants. Anticandidal activity was detected in nine plant extracts (P. guajava, E. uniflora, P. granatum, A. lappa, T. vulgare, M. glomerata, L. alba, P. regnellii, and P. major). The results might explain the ethnobotanical use of the studied species for the treatment of various infectious diseases.
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Fifteen Argentine medicinal plants were tested for their antiviral activity in vitro against herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and 2), bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 (BVDV-1), influenza virus type A (Inf A) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Antiviral activity was evaluated by a reduction in cytopathic effect, plaque-forming units and p24 HIV-1 antigen. The Selective Index of the active extract (SI(extract) = CC50(extract)/EC50(extract)) of Coronopus didymus (SI(extract) = 110.7), Juglans australis (SI(extract) = 8.1) and Lippia alba (SI(extract) = 19.2) against BVDV-1, HSV-1 and influenza A virus, respectively, justify a further analysis. None of the seven plants assayed against HIV-1 displayed any antiviral activity. The results of this study justify the continuing isolation and characterization of the antiviral components present.
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Essential oils and ethanolic extracts from the leaves and/or roots of 35 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened for anti-Candida albicans activity. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system. Essential oils from 13 plants showed anti-Candida activity, including Aloysia triphylla, Anthemis nobilis, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cyperus articulatus, Cyperus rotundus, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Mikania glomerata, Mentha piperita, Mentha sp., Stachys byzantina, and Solidago chilensis. The ethanol extract was not effective at any of the concentrations tested. Chemical analyses showed the presence of compounds with known antimicrobial activity, including 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, and menthol.
Article
The aim of this work was to find out the popular knowledge about the use of plants for health purposes, to compare this popular knowledge with present knowledge in the field of Pharmacology, and exchange this information with the local community. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with all 75 local families, together with plant sampling, identification, and incorporation into the "Alexandre Leal Costa" Herbarium (ALCB) located at Federal University of Bahia. It has been established that 60% of all family members show some sort of disease. Hypertension is represented by 39.3% of the community, throat problems represented by 13.1%, diabetes by 11.5% and heart diseases by 8.2% this community . Notwithstanding, 62.7% of all affected individuals do not regularly use any kind of conventional medicine due to their low income. On the other hand, local plants are largely used. From the 65 plants mentioned in the interviews, 28 were identified and their use compared with the available literature. The most utilized species were: Lippia alba, Pothomorphe umbellata, Alpinia speciosa, Plantago major and Bidens pilosa. However, 5 other species utilized by the local population, Acalypha ambiodonta, Croton lobatus, Gomphrena desertorum, Bauhinia monandra and Pilea microphylla, do not seem to posses any medicinal property. This fact reinforces the need of investment in the field of phytotherapy research. A comparison is made between the number of the plants used by local communities and the amount of literature available regarding the therapeutic properties of such plants.
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Crude extracts of Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown (Verbenaceae) roots, stem and leaves, were tested against cells lines of the pulmonary mucoepidermoid human carcinoma (NCI-H292) and cells lines derived from an epidermoid carcinoma of the human larynx (HEp-2). Ethanolic extract of the leaves showed more citotoxicity against HEp-2 cells with CI50 = 8.17 μg/mL. In the case of NCI-H292 cells the chloroformic extract of the root was the most citotoxic, with CI50 = 4.64 μg/mL. The constituents with higher antineoplasic action are present mostly in the root and leaves of the studied species.
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The phytochemical investigation of polar extracts of Lippia alba led to the isolation of a new acetylated flavonoid, apigenin-7-O-[(3-O-acetyl)β-D- glucopyranuronyl(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranuronide, and of seventeen known compounds: seven iridoids (theveside, geniposidic acid, shanzhiside methyl ester, caryoptoside, 8-epi-loganin, mussaenoside and geniposide), six phenylpropanoids (cistanoside F, forsythoside B, calceolarioside E, acteoside, isoacteoside and 2-acetylacteoside) and four flavonoids (apigenin-7-O- glucuronide, luteolin-7-O-glucuronide, apigenin-7-O-diglucuronide and luteolin-7-O-diglucuronide).
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With the aid of capillary gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and infrared spectroscopy, the volatile components of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Br. essential oil, were studied, achieving the identification of 43 compounds, 20 of them reported for the first time. A high contents of carvone (carvona) was found, and this suggests the presence of a new chemotype. The antibacterial activity of the essential oil on a bacteria integrated by 9 bacterial species, was valuated by determining the inhibitory minimal concentrations, and with the use of the method of double dilution series in a liquid medium. The oil presented antibacterial activity, generally being higher on gram-positive germs, with values of the inhibitory minimal concentrations between 0,3 and 0,63 mg/L.
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RESUMO: O presente estudo foi realizado na comunidade quilombola de Olho D'água dos Pires, localizada na microrregião do Baixo Parnaíba Piauiense, no município de Esperantina, Piauí. Foram realizadas excursões de campo, no período de abril/2003 a fevereiro/2004, onde se aplicou questionários com todos os grupos familiares pertencentes à comunidade, os quais indicaram os informantes-chave com reconhecido saber, que acompanharam e indicaram as etnoespécies de uso medicinal a serem coletadas. Após esta etapa, as espécies foram identificadas em laboratório e calculado o valor de uso (VU) para cada espécie. O material foi incorporado ao acervo do Herbário Graziela Barroso (TEPB/UFPI). Observou-se que dos 33 grupos familiares entrevistados, cinco pessoas com faixa etária acima de 60 anos, uma com 55 anos e três pessoas entre 21-30 anos possuem pleno saber de uso e propriedade das plantas para fins medicinais. Foram identificadas 82 espécies, pertencentes a 69 gêneros e 41 famílias botânicas. Na comunidade menciona-se o uso das plantas medicinais principalmente para o tratamento de doenças respiratórias e infecções intestinais, na forma de chás, misturados em garrafadas e o restante como lambedores, sucos, banhos, macerações, dentre outros. As partes mais utilizadas no preparo dos medicamentos são às folhas e cascas. A espécie que merece destaque em relação à freqüência e coerência de citações é a janaguba (Hymatantus sucuuba (Spruce ex Müll. Arg.) Woodson), sendo esta citada em 100% dos questionários aplicados para cura de gripe, inflamação na garganta, tosse, como depurativo do sangue e inflamações gerais. Palavras-chave: categorias de uso, etnobotânica, plantas medicinais, Piauí, quilombo.
Article
The antinociceptive and antiedematogenic effects of essential oils (EO, types I and II) from the leaves of two chemotypes of Lippia alba were studied with mice using the hot plate test, acetic acid-induced writhing, and the formalin test, and with rats using paw edema induced by carrageenan or dextran. The results showed dose-dependent inhibition of writhing with doses of 0.5 and 1 mg/kg, i.p., and 1 and 2 mg/kg, p.o., with chemotypes I and II, respectively. A similar but less intense effect was detected in the formalin test, where the two chemotypes (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.) predominantly inhibited the 2nd phase of the response, and only the effect of the EO I was reversed by the opioid antagonist, naloxone. Latency time to the thermic stimulus as detected by the hot plate test was increased with I but not with II, at doses higher than 10 mg/kg, p.o. A significant antiedematogenic effect was seen at 2 h with 10 and 50 mg/kg, p.o., of I, in paw edema induced by carr ageenan or dextran. However, in the same dose range, II was more effective against dextran-induced edema, but no effect was seen with the carrageenan model. The essential oils of the two types of L. alba are chemically distinct, with I containing a high content of citral and II a high content of carvone with no citral, which could explain the observed differences in their pharmacological actions.
Article
Dichloromethane and ethanol extracts of 12 plants with a history of use in traditional medicine, were tested for antiviral activity against herpes simplex type I. The most potent inhibition was shown by ethanol extracts of Eugenia jambos, Cistus populifolius, Lippia alba, Chiranthodendron pentadactylon and Tuberaria lignosa. These extracts, and others that had no effect, were chosen for more extensive studies against poliovirus type 1 and vesicular stomatitis virus. It was found that the ethanol extracts of Eugenia jambos, Chiranthodendron pentadactylon and Santolina oblongifolia inhibited the replication of VSV, but none of the extracts investigated had any effect on poliovirus replication. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Use and diversity of medicinal plants at the "Quilombo Olho D'água dos Pires", Esperantina, Piaui State, Brazil. The present study was carried out at the community "Quilombola de Olho D'água dos Pires", located in the micro-region of the lower Parnaiba, in the town of Esperantina, Piaui, Brazil. Field excursion was carried out, between the period from April/ 2003 to February/2004; questionnaires were applied to all family groups belonging to the community, the ones which indicated the key-informants with recognizable knowledge, who followed and indicated the ethnospecies of medicinal use to be collected. After this phase, the species were identified in a laboratory and their use value (VU) was calculated for each species. The material was incorporated to the "Herbário Graziela Barroso" (TEPB/UFPI). It was observed that out the 33 family groups interviewed, only 5 people above 60 years of age, one 55 years old and tree people between 21 and 30 years of age had full knowledge of the use and properties of the plants for medicinal purposes. 82 species were identified, belonging to 69 genders and 41 botanic families. It is mentioned in the community the use of medicinal plants mainly for the treatment of respiratory diseases and intestinal infections, drunk as tea mixed with "garrafada" (kind of different tree barks syrup) and the rest as lollypops, juices, baths, and macerations, among others. The most utilized parts in the preparation of the medicines are the leaves and barks. The species that deserves special attention in relation to the frequency and coherent citations is "janaguba" (Hymatantus sucuuba (Spruce ex Müll. Arg) Woodson), being this cited in 100% of the questionnaires applied for the cure of influenza, sore throat, cough, as blood depurative and inflammations in general.
Article
The essential oils from Lippia alba and L. graveolens, growing wild in Guatemala, were obtained by hydrodistillation. The oil contents were 0.22% (L. alba) and 0.26% (L. graveolens) (v/w), on a dry weight basis. The oil compositions were analysed by GC and GC–MS. Essential oil from L. alba was characterized by a high amount of limonene (43.6%) and piperitone (30.6%). The essential oil of L. graveolens consisted mainly of thymol (31.6%) and sesquiterpenes. Caryophyllene (4.6%) and caryophyllene oxide (4.8%) were the main components of the sesquiterpenoidic fraction. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Antioxidant activities of essential oils from anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), ylang-ylang (Cananga odorata Hook.), verbena (Lippia alba Mill.) and salvia negra (Lepechinia schiedeana (Schlecht) Vatke, syn. Stachys schiedeana Schlecht) were determined using the free radical α-α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) and the preformed radical monocation 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS·+). Some of the oils under investigation had antioxidant capacities in a range comparable to that of α-tocopherol, BHA, ascorbic acid and Trolox, which were used as reference antioxidants. The all-liquid chromatographic technique of multilayer coil countercurrent chromatography (MLCCC) was applied to the fractionation of oregano essential oil. For oregano, a high antioxidant activity was observed, which is mainly due to the presence of thymol and carvacrol in the essential oil. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.