Operative Treatment of Intraarticular Calcaneal Fractures in the Pediatric Population
Harvard Combined Orthopaedic Surgery Residency Program, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics
(Impact Factor: 1.47).
01/2008; 27(8):856-62. DOI: 10.1097/BPO.0b013e3181558ba2
Calcaneal fractures in children are rare injuries, and those with displaced intraarticular fracture patterns are found even less frequently. Recent data in the adult literature have suggested operative treatment of displaced intraarticular calcaneal fractures leads to a more favorable outcome. Most pediatric calcaneal fractures are due to low-energy trauma and are therefore minimally displaced and extraarticular. However, some children are exposed to high-energy trauma, leading to severe intraarticular injuries. Operatively treated calcaneal fractures in children have been poorly described in the literature. The purpose of this study was to analyze the outcomes of surgically treated displaced intraarticular calcaneal fractures in children.
All children with closed displaced intraarticular calcaneal fractures treated with open reduction internal fixation at 1 institution were reviewed at an average of 67 months postoperatively. Preoperative and postoperative radiographs and preoperative computed tomographic scans were used to classify fractures. Functional outcome was assessed by the use of the subjective portions of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) hindfoot score.
Fourteen fractures in 13 patients who met the inclusion criteria were treated with open reduction internal fixation. We found 7 tongue-type and 7 joint depression-type fractures based on the Essex-Lopresti classification. Based on the Sanders classification, we found 9 type II (2-part) fractures and 5 type III (3-part) fractures. The average preoperative and postoperative Bohler angles were 11.8 and 28.4 degrees (P < 0.0001), respectively. The average subjective AOFAS hindfoot score was 64 of a possible 68 points. Of 14 fractures, 13 were fixed with a buttressing plate laterally. One patient was fixed with a single 3.5-mm cortical screw and had the lowest AOFAS hindfoot score. Four minor complications in 3 patients were encountered.
We found that most children with displaced intraarticular calcaneal fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation at 1 institution had a good clinical outcome with few complications.
Available from: Radwane Faroug
- "Calcaneal fractures in children are usually managed conservatively by immobilisation using a cast or splint, with open reduction and internal fixation reserved for avulsion fractures of the Achilles tendon with displacement of the posterior fracture fragment, or intra-articular fractures . Good postoperative functional outcome after open reduction and internal fixation of paediatric calcaneal fractures has been documented in several case series [5, 6]; however, the low numbers of patients included in these series limits the value of these recommendations. Surgical management of calcaneal fractures in adults is common but has been associated with high rates of complications. "
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ABSTRACT: Paediatric calcaneal fractures are rare injuries usually managed conservatively or with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Closed reduction was previously thought to be impossible, and very few cases are reported in the literature. We report a new technique for closed reduction using Ilizarov half-rings. We report successful closed reduction and screwless fixation of an extra-articular calcaneal fracture dislocation in a 7-year-old boy. Reduction was achieved using two Ilizarov half-ring frames arranged perpendicular to each other, enabling simultaneous application of longitudinal and rotational traction. Anatomical reduction was achieved with restored angles of Bohler and Gissane. Two K-wires were the definitive fixation. Bony union with good functional outcome and minimal pain was achieved at eight-weeks follow up. ORIF of calcaneal fractures provides good functional outcome but is associated with high rates of malunion and postoperative pain. Preservation of the unique soft tissue envelope surrounding the calcaneus reduces the risk of infection. Closed reduction prevents distortion of these tissues and may lead to faster healing and mobilisation. Closed reduction and screwless fixation of paediatric calcaneal fractures is an achievable management option. Our technique has preserved the soft tissue envelope surrounding the calcaneus, has avoided retained metalwork related complications, and has resulted in a good functional outcome.
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ABSTRACT: There are three facets over upper side of talocalcaneal joint: anterior talar facet, middle and posterior. Three types of calcaneus that have distinct talar facets were defined as types A, B and C.
A total of 221 calcanei (98 right, 123 left), with unknown gender, were dried and evaluated.
In our study type B calcaneus (58%) was defined as the most common type, and type A calcaneus (39.3%) as the second most common type. By using facet joint differences and bone measurement, we tried to define calcaneus bone.
In many diseases of foot, such as the talocalcaneal artritis and coalition, intraarticular fractures and congenital dysmorphology, flatfood, valgus deformities, the size and shape of the bones, the relationships of the talus and calcaneus with each other and other bones of the foot must be considered for the internal and external fixation and surgical procedures. Type B calcaneus was defined as the most comman type in Turkish race and these results correlate with the ones which were performed on bones of American, Indian and African people, and it was uncorrelated with the results of the researches performed in Europe.
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ABSTRACT: Fractures in children require a specific treatment depending on age. While obstetric fractures usually heal well even in case of significant dislocations and conservative therapy, the proportion of operative interventions among all pediatric fractures is increasing with age. Though the vast majority of fractures in childhood are still treated non-operatively, a trend towards early operative interventions and cast-free mobilization has been noticeable in the recent years. The methods of operative stabilization differ between the respective age groups: While K-wire osteosynthesis and a minimal invasive approach using elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) are common in the group of school aged children, the use of external fixation and plate osteosynthesis has been accepted for the treatment of fractures in adolescents. Bioresorbable implants do not yet play a decisive role in the management of pediatric fractures. This review is focusing on the current indications and concepts for stabilization of frequent pediatric fractures.
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