Nephrotic syndrome and acute renal failure in non-Hodgkin lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma
Institute of Hematology, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. Medical Oncology
(Impact Factor: 2.63).
02/2008; 25(4):458-61. DOI: 10.1007/s12032-008-9048-0
Two patients with lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, and monoclonal proteins of IgM in one, and IgG and lambda light chains in the second patient, nephrotic syndrome and acute renal failure are reported. A 58-year-old man previously treated for pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia, developed 3 years later nephrotic syndrome as a complication of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma and high-paraprotein IgM kappa type. Immunofluorescent analysis of kidney biopsy showed extensive IgM and light kappa chain deposits, which caused membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Treatment with cyclophosphamide was ineffective and patient died 2 months later. The second patient is a 42-year-old female diagnosed with lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma and paraprotein IgG lambda type. The course of the disease was fulminant with developing nephrotic syndrome and fatal acute renal failure. Immunofluorescent and light microscopic studies of kidney biopsy showed signs of immunotactoid glomerulonephritis with deposits of IgG and C3. Hemodyalises and cytostatic therapy were without response and she died after 45 days.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "Thus, the finding of the glomerulonephritis was ‘incidental’ in the context of a renal biopsy performed for acute renal failure. Moreover, proliferative GN reported in the context of monoclonal lymphoproliferations is often associated with nephrotic syndrome
[1,8,9], which was not true for our case, so that the MPGN pattern of injury was even less expected. Secondly, from the morphological point of view our case was reminiscent of CG-GN with monoclonal type I CG
[10,11], which would go very well in line with the glomerular proliferation and the purpuric skin manifestation. "
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Lymphoproliferative disorders causing paraproteinemia can be associated with various kidney injuries including the deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulins (Ig). A known glomerular manifestation of Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia is characterized by prominent intracapillary hyaline thrombi and lack of conspicuous glomerular proliferation. The present case was special in 2 aspects: 1. the diagnosis of glomerulonephritis was unexpected before renal biopsy, 2. the prominent glomerular proliferation paired with large intracapillary hyaline thrombi is uncommon in Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia-associated glomerulonephritis.
A 73-year-old Caucasian woman with a long-standing history of rheumatoid arthritis and Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia was admitted for acute renal failure (ARF), which initially was presumed to be the consequence of extrarenal causes. Proteinuria and hematuria were only mild. In renal core biopsy, a membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) and prominent intracapillary hyaline monoclonal IgM thrombi were found in addition to acute tubular necrosis. Of note, the patient’s history was positive for purpuric skin changes, suspicious for cryoglobulinemia. However, serological tests for cryoglobulins were repeatedly negative. The ARF resolved before the start of immunomodulatory therapy for Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia.
The presence of MPGN with prominent hyaline thrombi in the context of Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia is uncommon and can be oligosymptomatic. We discuss this case in the context of previous literature and classifications suggested for monoclonal Ig-related renal pathologies.
Available from: ndt.oxfordjournals.org
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ABSTRACT: Fanconi syndrome (FS) is a generalized transport defect in the proximal renal tubule leading to renal losses of phosphate, calcium, uric acid, bicarbonates as well as glucose, amino acids and other organic compounds. It is caused by inherited or acquired disorders including low mass or high mass multiple myeloma.
To report the first case series of patients with lymphoma and FS.
Patients with lymphoma and FS were identified in the nephrology department of two teaching hospitals in Paris, France and Ghent, Belgium. FS was defined by the presence of at least three out of the four following criteria: hypophosphataemia, metabolic acidosis, normoglycaemic glucosuria and hypokalaemia. Patients files were reviewed and relevant data were collected.
Eight patients with lymphoma and FS were identified. In six patients, the lymphoma was of the acute T cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL) type, related to human T cell lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV1) infection. In all patients, FS was severe requiring supplementation. A kidney biopsy performed in a patient with post-transplantation primary renal lymphoma disclosed intense proximal tubule infiltration by lymphomatous cells. In one patient with ATLL, FS features regressed following the successful treatment of lymphoma.
Patients with lymphoma require careful monitoring for features of FS; lymphoma should also be added to the spectrum of disorders associated to FS. Prospective studies are needed to ascertain the implication of HTLV1 in the genesis of FS.
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ABSTRACT: We report the case of a 55-year-old male with renal failure as the initial manifestation of interstitial and focal infiltration of the kidneys by a small B-cell lymphoma. Since three years, this patient had a history of CLL with plasmocytic differentiation and was left untreated owing to stade A Binet classification. After chemotherapy, the lymphocytosis and the adenopathies disappear and the renal function improve. Infiltration of the kidneys by non-Hodgkin small B-cell lymphoma, including chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), is usually asymptomatic, fortuitously discovered at the time of an X-ray examination or at autopsy. Association with renal failure is extremely rare. We review the reported cases of renal failure associated with lymphomatous infiltration (13 cases of CLL and five cases of lymphoplasmocytic lymphoma kappa or lambda IgM), with the following conclusions: in most cases, renal insufficiency appears in a few months and significantly disappears after chemotherapy; the renal infiltrate is usually focal in lymphoplasmocytic lymphoma and rather massive and diffuse in CLL; the neoplastic feature of a small B-cell lymphoïd infiltrate may be difficult to determine: a poorly limited, monomorphous, CD20+ CD5+ lymphoid infiltrate is lymphomatous. In case of plasmocytic differentiation, it must be looked for kappa or lambda monotypy; the type of the lymphomatous infiltrate according to the WHO 2008 classification may be difficult to determine in a small sampling of renal tissue: the renal infiltrate must be compared, if possible, with a lymph node infiltrate. Owing to its bad prognosis, mantle cell lymphoma must be distinguished from other small B-cell lymphoma like CLL/small lymphocytic lymphoma, marginal zone lymphoma and lymphoplasmocytic lymphoma.
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