Multi-Functional Gold Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery

Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology (Impact Factor: 1.96). 02/2007; 620:48-56. DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-76713-0_4
Source: PubMed


Multi-functional gold nanoparticles have been demonstrated to be highly stable and versatile scaffolds for drug delivery due to their unique size, coupled with their chemical and physical properties. The ability to tune the surface of the particle provides access to cell-specific targeting and controlled drug release. This chapter describes current developments in the area of drug delivery using gold nanoparticles as delivery vehicles for multiple therapeutic purposes.

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    • "GNPs are nanometer-sized colloidal suspensions. Multifunctional GNPs have been demonstrated to be highly stable and versatile scaffolds for drug delivery, due to their unique size coupled with their chemical and physical properties.115 The multiple receptor targeting, multimodality imaging, and multiple therapeutic entities holds the promise for a “magic gold bullet” against cancer.6 "
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer is a highly complex disease to understand, because it entails multiple cellular physiological systems. The most common cancer treatments are restricted to chemotherapy, radiation and surgery. Moreover, the early recognition and treatment of cancer remains a technological bottleneck. There is an urgent need to develop new and innovative technologies that could help to delineate tumor margins, identify residual tumor cells and micrometastases, and determine whether a tumor has been completely removed or not. Nanotechnology has witnessed significant progress in the past few decades, and its effect is widespread nowadays in every field. Nanoparticles can be modified in numerous ways to prolong circulation, enhance drug localization, increase drug efficacy, and potentially decrease chances of multidrug resistance by the use of nanotechnology. Recently, research in the field of cancer nanotechnology has made remarkable advances. The present review summarizes the application of various nanotechnology-based approaches towards the diagnostics and therapeutics of cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · International Journal of Nanomedicine
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    • "The unique characteristics of these particles, such as high surface-to-volume ratio or size-dependent optical properties, are drastically different from those of their bulk materials and hold pledge in the clinical field for therapy (Kim 2007). This has encouraged the development of new forms and modifications of AuNPs for biomedical applications, as well as the use of these nanoparticles in self-assembly of biomolecules such as DNA/RNA, oligonucleotides, PEGs, and various proteins, that are easily attached to the AuNP surface (Sperling and Parak 2010; Han et al. 2007). On the surface of an AuNP the presence of negative electronic shielding provides a Coulomb force sufficient to bind different molecules , and constitutes a suitable system to adjust the surface properties (El-Sayed 2001; Link and El- Sayed 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: The surface chemistry of gold nanoparti-cles (AuNPs) plays a critical role in the self-assembly of thiolated molecules and in retaining the biological function of the conjugated biomolecules. According to the well-established gold–thiol interaction the unde-fined ionic species on citrate-reduced gold nanoparti-cle surface can be replaced with a self-assembled monolayer of certain thiolate derivatives and other biomolecules. Understanding the effect of such deriv-atives in the functionalization of several types of biomolecules, such as PEGs, peptides or nucleic acids, has become a significant challenge. Here, an approach to attach specific biomolecules to the AuNPs (~14 nm) surface is presented together with a study of their effect in the functionalization with other specific derivatives. The effect of biofunctional spac-ers such as thiolated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains and a positive peptide, TAT, in dsRNA loading on AuNPs is reported. Based on the obtained data, we hypothesize that loading of oligonucleotides onto the AuNP surface may be controlled by ionic and weak interactions positioning the entry of the oligo through the PEG layer. We demonstrate that there is a synergistic effect of the TAT peptide and PEG chains with specific functional groups on the enhancement of dsRNA loading onto AuNPs.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Journal of Nanoparticle Research
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    • "As a result, personalized medicine could become a reality in cancer patient management. Nanoparticles (NPs), and noble metal NPs in particular, are versatile agents with a variety of biomedical applications including their use in highly sensitive diagnostic assays [12] [13], thermal ablation, and radiotherapy enhancement [14– 17], as well as drug and gene delivery [18] [19] [20] [21]. Moreover, noble metal NPs have been proposed as nontoxic carriers for dru and gene-delivery applications [22] [23] [24]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Nanotechnology has prompted new and improved materials for biomedical applications with particular emphasis in therapy and diagnostics. Special interest has been directed at providing enhanced molecular therapeutics for cancer, where conventional approaches do not effectively differentiate between cancerous and normal cells; that is, they lack specificity. This normally causes systemic toxicity and severe and adverse side effects with concomitant loss of quality of life. Because of their small size, nanoparticles can readily interact with biomolecules both at surface and inside cells, yielding better signals and target specificity for diagnostics and therapeutics. This way, a variety of nanoparticles with the possibility of diversified modification with biomolecules have been investigated for biomedical applications including their use in highly sensitive imaging assays, thermal ablation, and radiotherapy enhancement as well as drug and gene delivery and silencing. Here, we review the available noble metal nanoparticles for cancer therapy, with particular focus on those already being translated into clinical settings.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012
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