After the Smoke Has Cleared: Evaluation of the Impact of a New National Smoke-Free Law in New Zealand
Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand. Tobacco control
(Impact Factor: 5.93).
03/2008; 17(1):e2. DOI: 10.1136/tc.2007.020347
The New Zealand 2003 Smoke-free Environments Amendment Act (SEAA) extended existing restrictions on smoking in office and retail workplaces by introducing smoking bans in bars, casinos, members' clubs, restaurants and nearly all other workplaces from 10 December 2004.
To evaluate the implementation and outcomes of aspects of the SEAA relating to smoke-free indoor workplaces and public places, excluding schools and early learning centres.
Data were gathered on public and stakeholder attitudes and support for smoke-free policies; dissemination of information, enforcement activities and compliance; exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in the workplace; changes in health outcomes linked to SHS exposure; exposure to SHS in homes; smoking prevalence and smoking related behaviours; and economic impacts.
Surveys suggested growing majority support for the SEAA and its underlying principles among the public and bar managers. There was evidence of high compliance in bars and pubs, where most enforcement problems were expected. Self reported data suggested that SHS exposure in the workplace, the primary objective of the SEAA, decreased significantly from around 20% in 2003, to 8% in 2006. Air quality improved greatly in hospitality venues. Reported SHS exposure in homes also reduced significantly. There was no clear evidence of a short term effect on health or on adult smoking prevalence, although calls to the smoking cessation quitline increased despite reduced expenditure on smoking cessation advertising. Available data suggested a broadly neutral economic impact, including in the tourist and hospitality sectors.
The effects of the legislation change were favourable from a public health perspective. Areas for further investigation and possible regulation were identified such as SHS related pollution in semi-enclosed outdoor areas. The study adds to a growing body of literature documenting the positive impact of comprehensive smoke-free legislation. The scientific and public health case for introducing comprehensive smoke-free legislation that covers all indoor public places and workplaces is now overwhelming, and should be a public health priority for legislators across the world as part of the globalization of effective public health policy to control the tobacco epidemic.
Available from: Jing Hua Zhang
- "As for smoking bans in Australia and New Zealand, it is difficult to accurately assess the impact of casino smoking bans, because the bans there were also accompanied by harm minimization legislations, which aimed at mitigating problem gambling and may have arguably amplified the negative economic impacts on gaming revenues (Lal and Siahpush, 2008; Edwards et al,2008). "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Despite of public health hazards of second hand smoking (SHS), smoking bans on casinos remains controversial due to concerns about the potential economic loss. Applying an event study method, we examine the abnormal returns of casino stocks upon unexpected announcements of smoking bans from 2011 to 2015 in Macao. We find that the announcements of the bans were associated with differentiated abnormal returns of casino stocks. The stocks of the oldest casinos in Macao experienced cumulative abnormal losses of 1 to 6%, while the Las Vegas themed casinos in Macao experienced cumulative abnormal returns of 1.4% to 4.8%. Further, we find that poor facility quality and heavy dependence on the gaming revenue are associated with abnormal losses, while corporate social responsibility initiatives are associated with positive abnormal returns.
Providing a full picture of the differentiated impacts of smoking bans, this study encourages casino firms to take initiative strategies to adapt to a potential smoking ban in the long run.
Available from: Nizal Sarrafzadegan
- "One of the most important indices of its applicability was defining the priority and policies to obtain maximum effectiveness with limited resources and budget; nonetheless, individual perceptions and tastes posed difficulties in the performance of the program. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Context:Studies on the World Health Organization Frame-work Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) are scarce in Iran and the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR).Aim:This study was conducted in 2007-2008 in Iran to design a practical evaluation model of the implementation of FCTC with the potential to be adopted in the EMR. Given that, the findings of this evaluation can be useful in increasing political and public support for enforcing the implementation of legislations, testing their feasibility, and maintaining sustainability. The viewpoints of tobacco growers as part of stakeholders in this regardwould have an influential role.Settings and Design:This study was a qualitative one to investigate the tobacco growers viewpoints about thestrengths/weaknesses of FCTC implementation in Iran.Materials and Methods:In this study, we conducted semi-structured in-depth individual interviews with 5 tobacco growers. All interviews were carried out with their permissionwere recorded and were assured that their interviews will be kept confidential. All questions were related to different FCTC articles, then written transcripts were prepared and the basic concepts were extrapolated.Statistical Analysis:After transcribing the recorded interviews, we extracted first level codes and main concepts from them.Results:The findings suggested that although tobacco growers agreed with FCTC implementation, however, subjects like the necessity to support tobacco growers and obtaining insurance from the government, the necessity of the enforcement of national tobacco control law and planning to decrease access to tobacco by policy makers were the most key points that tobacco growers pointed to them.Conclusion:Our results showed that tobacco growers agreed with the implementation of FCTC but they worried about their job and the expenses of their daily life. Therefore, it seems that policy makers have to design a plan to support tobacco growers for changing tobacco with a safe cultivate.
Available from: Monika Arora
- "Our data were cross-sectional and restricted our ability to determine causal direction. However, previous longitudinal studies conducted in high income countries have demonstrated that persons employed in a smoke-free workplace are more likely to live in a smoke-free home prospectively (Cheng et al., 2011, 2013; Edwards et al., 2008; Fong et al., 2006). Future longitudinal studies should be undertaken in LMICs to rule out the possibility of reverse causation. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To assess whether being employed in a smoke-free workplace is associated with living in a smoke-free home in 15 low and middle income countries (LMICs).
Country-specific individual level analyses of cross-sectional Global Adult Tobacco Survey data (2008-2011) from 15 LMICs was conducted using multiple logistic regression. The dependent variable was living in a smoke-free home; the independent variable was being employed in a smoke-free workplace. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, residence, region, education, occupation, current smoking, current smokeless tobacco use and number of household members. Individual country results were combined in a random effects meta-analysis.
In each country, the percentage of participants employed in a smoke-free workplace who reported living in a smoke-free home was higher than those employed in a workplace not smoke-free. The adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of living in a smoke-free home among participants employed in a smoke-free workplace (vs. those employed where smoking occurred) were statistically significant in 13 of the 15 countries, ranging from 1.12 [95% CI 0.79-1.58] in Uruguay to 2.29 [1.37-3.83] in China. The pooled AOR was 1.61 [1.46-1.79].
In LMICs, employment in a smoke-free workplace is associated with living in a smoke-free home. Accelerated implementation of comprehensive smoke-free policies is likely to result in substantial population health benefits in these settings.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.