Article

The Effect of Nigellone and Thymoquinone on Inhibiting Trachea Contraction and Mucociliary Clearance

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Abstract

NIGELLA SATIVA L. has many effects including those on the gastrointestinal tract and trachea and is, therefore, used in the Mediteranean area and in India/Pakistan. Our aim was to investigate the effect of two main constituents, nigellone and thymoquinone, on trachea (antispasmodic effect) and their influence on respiratory clearance. The effects on Ba (2+)-, carbachol- and leukotriene-induced trachea contractions and the transport of the fluorescence dye rhodamin B concerning ciliary action in the tracheal area were investigated using a microdialysis technique. Nigellone and high concentrations of thymoquinone had a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the trachea when being contracted by the depolarizing effect of Ba (2+). The trachea contractions induced by leukotriene-d (4) were inhibited by nigellone and by thymoquinone. The cholinergic system (stimulation by carbachol) was hardly involved. The rate of ciliary clearance (mucociliary transport) was slightly modified by a high thymoquinone concentration (153.0 vs. 505.0 sec/12 mm distance, respectively), and was highly increased by nigellone (217.5 vs. 505.0 sec/12 mm distance). In conclusion, this study provides evidence for an antispasmodic effect and an increase in mucociliary clearance for nigellone but not for thymoquinone. Altogether the data indicate that nigellone but not thymoquinone may be useful in treatment of different respiratory diseases.

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... The antispasmodic effect of dithymoquinone and thymoquinone, present in N. sativa seed and seed oil, on the mucociliary clearance of respiratory tract was studied (52). A microdialysis technique was used to study the effects on tracheal contractions by induction with barium (II) carbachol and leukotriene d (4) (LT4). ...
... The contractions stimulated by LT4 were also reported to be inhibited by dithymoquinone and thymoquinone. It can be concluded that dithymoquinone alone exhibits antispasmodic activity and it increases the respiratory clearance, while thymoquinone does not possess such an effect, hence the use of dithymoquinone but not thymoquinone, in the treatment of various respiratory diseases can be recommended (52). ...
Article
Black cumin (Nigella sativa L., Kalonji), is a well-known medicinal food plant with a long history of ethno-medicinal uses. Its active ingredients are mainly concentrated in the essential oil of the seed. The plant has been widely used as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant and gastro-protective agent. It has been demonstrated that the therapeutic properties of N. sativa are due to the presence of thymoquinone, a major biologically active constituent of the essential oil, along with other high-value components such as linoleic acid, nigellone (dithymoquinone), nigilline, melanthin, and trans-anethole. The present review mainly focuses on the detailed phytochemical, nutritional, and therapeutic aspects of the seed and seed oil of N. sativa so as to explore their potential applications for the development of innovative functional foods, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals as well as to help establish the scientific basis for the widespread traditional medicinal uses of this multipurpose spice.
... Anti-asthmatic activity of nigellone in bronchitis and asthma was shown (Wienkotter et al., 2008) and it was proposed that such effect may be due to nigellone inhibitory effect on the release of histamine from the mast cells (Chakravarty, 1993) and 5-lipoxygenase pathway in granulocytes (El-Dakhakhny et al., 2002). According to the literature, TQ is the main component of N. sativa, and is responsible for most of plant's biological activities (Woo et al., 2012). ...
... The preventive effect of TQ (6 mg/kg, i.p. administered twice before exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP)) on airway resistance was shown in a mouse model of acute exposure to DEP (Nemmar et al., 2011). In another study, antispasmodic effect and increase in mucociliary clearance were induced by nigellone but not with TQ in a rat model (Wienkotter et al., 2008). The effects of N. sativa and its constituents in different cell lines and animal models related to respiratory diseases, are summarized in Table 3a. ...
Article
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Objective Black cumin or Nigella sativa (N. sativa) seed has been widely used traditionally as a medicinal natural product because of its therapeutic effects. In this review, the medicinal properties of N. sativa as a healing remedy for the treatment of respiratory and allergic diseases, were evaluated. Material and Methods Keywords including Nigella sativa, black seed, thymoquinone, respiratory, pulmonary, lung and allergic diseases were searched in medical and nonmedical databases (i.e. PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar). Preclinical studies and clinical trials published between 1993 and 2018 were selected. Results In experimental and clinical studies, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antihistaminic, antiallergic, antitussive and bronchodilatory properties of N. sativa different extracts, extracts fractions and constituents were demonstrated. Clinical studies also showed bronchodilatory and preventive properties of the plant in asthmatic patients. The extract of N. sativa showed a preventive effect on lung disorders caused by sulfur mustard exposure. The therapeutic effects of the plant and its constituents on various allergic disorders were also demonstrated. Conclusion Therefore, N. sativa and its constituents may be considered effective remedies for treatment of allergic and obstructive lung diseases as well as other respiratory diseases.
... Thymoquinone (= 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone), a biologically important toxic compound, and cembrene (= thunbergen) are constituents of black cumin and Pinus species, respectively [13][14][15]. Both compounds were detected in a Micromeria species for the first time. ...
... In conclusion, the identified constituents were found to have cyclic and/or unsaturated structures. These compounds can stop radical degradation or can contribute to antioxidant activity by either scavenging or converting singlet oxygen to triplet oxygen in the medium [15]. Frs 8-9 contained a phenolic, a paraquinoid, a diterpene and two hydrocarbons. ...
Article
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The aerial parts of Micromeria juliana (L.) Bentham ex Reichb. were extracted with light petroleum, acetone and methanol, successively. The antioxidant activity of different concentrations of the extracts was evaluated using different antioxidant tests, namely total antioxidant (lipid peroxidation inhibition activity), DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging, ferric reducing power, and metal chelating. Total antioxidant activity was determined using the beta-carotene-linoleic acid assay. Unexpectedly, the light petroleum extract exhibited strong lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. The extract was fractionated on a silica gel column and the antioxidant activity of the fractions was determined by the beta-carotene-linoleic assay at 25 microg/mL concentration. The fractions that exhibited more than 50% inhibition activity were analysed by GC and GC/MS; thus, the structure of fourteen compounds were elucidated. In addition, acetyl- and butyryl-cholinesterase inhibitory activities of the extracts were also determined in vitro. The light petroleum and acetone extracts were found to have mild butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.
... There was also a suggestion for antioxidative action-mediated antiinflammatory effect of NGE (El-Dakhakhny et al., 2002). Otherwise, Wienkötter et al. (2008) suggested NGE to have an antispasmodic effect in human with the contraction of trachea by the depolarizing effect of barium (Ba)(2+) and leukotriene-d4 (LD-4). In addition, it inhibited carbachol-induced stimulation of the cholinergic system with a significant increased in ciliary clearance rate through the mucociliary transport pathway (Wienkötter et al., 2008). ...
... Otherwise, Wienkötter et al. (2008) suggested NGE to have an antispasmodic effect in human with the contraction of trachea by the depolarizing effect of barium (Ba)(2+) and leukotriene-d4 (LD-4). In addition, it inhibited carbachol-induced stimulation of the cholinergic system with a significant increased in ciliary clearance rate through the mucociliary transport pathway (Wienkötter et al., 2008). A recent study is suggesting that NGE has inhibitory effect on histamine release, where it protected histamine-induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs with a decreased lung ensiphilia, elevated T-helper cell 2 (Th-2) cytokines with a raised immunoglobulin (Ig) E and G1 antibodies in mice (Aljabre, Alakloby, Randhawa, 2015). ...
Article
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It's a revision and featuring article on Nigella-derived compound, nigellone.
... Some other activities shown by TQ include neuroprotective, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, gastroprotective, antiarthritic, and antiasthmatic activities [39]. Nigellone has been reported to inhibit trachea contraction along with improved mucociliary clearance and thus is useful in the treatment of bronchitis and asthma [46]. Alpha-Hederin, a water-soluble pentacyclic triterpene of NS, exhibits anticancer activity by inducing apoptosis, anti-inflammatory, and bronchodilatory activity by raising the levels of cAMP that leads to elevated β2-adrenergic responsiveness [47,48,49]. ...
... Some other activities shown by TQ include neuroprotective, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, gastroprotective, antiarthritic, and anti-asthmatic activities [39]. Nigellone has been reported to inhibit trachea contraction along with improved mucociliary clearance and thus is useful in the treatment of bronchitis and asthma [46]. Alpha-Hederin, a watersoluble pentacyclic triterpene of NS, exhibits anticancer activity by inducing apoptosis, anti-inflammatory, and bronchodilatory activity by raising the levels of cAMP that leads to elevated β 2 -adrenergic responsiveness [47][48][49]. ...
Article
COVID-19 has had an impact on human quality of life and economics. Scientists have been identifying remedies for its prevention and treatment from all possible sources, including plants. Nigella sativa L. (NS) is an important medicinal plant of Islamic value. This review highlights the anti-COVID-19 potential, clinical trials, inventions, and patent literature related to NS and its major chemical constituents, like thymoquinone. The literature was collected from different databases, including Pubmed, Espacenet, and Patentscope. The literature supports the efficacy of NS, NS oil (NSO), and its chemical constituents against COVID-19. The clinical data imply that NS and NSO can prevent and treat COVID-19 patients with a faster recovery rate. Several inventions comprising NS and NSO have been claimed in patent applications to prevent/treat COVID-19. The patent literature cites NS as an immunomodulator, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, a source of anti-SARS-CoV-2 compounds, and a plant having protective effects on the lungs. The available facts indicate that NS, NSO, and its various compositions have all the attributes to be used as a promising remedy to prevent, manage, and treat COVID-19 among high-risk people as well as for the therapy of COVID-19 patients of all age groups as a monotherapy or a combination therapy. Many compositions of NS in combination with countless medicinal herbs and medicines are still unexplored. Accordingly, the authors foresee a bright scope in developing NS-based anti-COVID-19 composition for clinical use in the future.
... The reported studies related to BS (N. sativa) have illustrated that it has a wide range of biological activities, such as antioxidant [3], anti-inflammatory [4], antidiabetic [5], anti-asthma [6], and anti-prostate cancer effects [7], antibacterial http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2015.05.044 0927-7765/© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [8], antihelminthic [9], immunomodulative [10] and hepatoprotective [11]. ...
... In this study they showed the antioxidant effect of thymoquinone on cellular metabolism of A549 cells [14]. In addition, last studies showed that thymoquinone have dilatory effect on bronchial muscles by reducing bronchoconstrictors agents level [11,15]. According to the findings of Boskabady and his collegues in 2007, Nigella sativa and its components have prophylactic effect on human asthmatic attacks [9]. ...
Article
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ABSTRACT Previous studies showed that thymoquinone, the main constituent of Nigella sativa, has bronchodilatory effects. So for determining its effect on endothelin 1 level, this study was proposed. Forty guinea pigs of both sexes were randomly divided to control (group C), animal model of asthma (group S) and sensitized groups drinking water containing 20 M thymoquinone (group S+LTQ) and 40 M thymoquinone (group S+HTQ). The mean value of endothelin in bronchoalveolar lavage and lung tissue of sensitized group was significantly higher than in group C (p<0.001 to p<0.01). The mean value of endothelin in bronchoalveolar lavage in pre-treated group with low and high concentrations of thymoquinone were significantly lower than S group (p<0.05). The mean value of endothelin in lung tissue of S+LTQ group was significantly lower than S group (p<0.05). There was not any significant difference between two pretreated groups. It confirmed thymoquinone has reducing effect on endothelin level in both bronchoalveolar lavage and lung tissue in asthmatic guinea pigs. Key words: Thymoquinone, Nigella sativa, asthma, endothelin, guinea pig, bronchoalveolar lavage, lung tissue
... The preventive and relieving effects of N. sativa have been attributed to its prominent constituents like nigellicine, nigellidine, thymoquinone (TQ), dithymoquinone, thymol, and carvacrol (Ahmad et al., 2013).The prophylactic effect of nigellone (a carbonyl polymer of TQ) in asthma and bronchitis has been demonstrated (Wienkotter et al., 2008). This anti-asthmatic activity may be due to inhibitory effect of nigellone on histamine release from the mast cells (Chakravarty, 1993) and its antiinflammatory effect by inhibiting the synthesis of 5-lipoxygenase products in polymorphonuclear leucocytes (El-Dakhakhny, Madi, Lembert, & Ammon, 2002). ...
Article
Nigella sativa (N. sativa) is one of the most widely used medicinal plants. It has been used as food additive, preservative, and an herbal remedy for different diseases from ancient time. In traditional medicine, many astonishing effects such as treatment and prevention of many diseases related to the respiratory, gastrointestinal, immune, and nervous system had been mentioned for N. sativa. In the last three decades, numerous research has been done to substantiate such folk properties, identifying plant-derived natural substances, and understanding their mechanisms of action in the body. N. sativa improves the action of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase) and acts as a free radical scavenger. As an anti-cancer agent, its modulatory activity on molecular targets, including p53, p73, PTEN, STAT3, PPAR-g, activation of caspases, and generation of ROS had been demonstrated. As an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agent, it suppresses inflammatory mediators, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and B cell-mediated immune response while it balances Th1/Th2 ratio and potentiates T cell and natural killer cell-mediated immune response. We aimed to review literature and experimental data of scientific research about the basic and clinical evidence of N. sativa and its constituents on preventive (anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory) and relieving (bronchodilatory) effects on obstructive respiratory diseases.
... It was concluded that nigellone possesses an antispasmodic effect and an increase in mucociliary clearance but Thymoquinone do not have such effects. Therefore, it is suggested that nigellone but not Thymoquinone may be useful in treatment of different respiratory diseases [73]. ...
Article
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Nigella sativa (NS) are dark, thin, and crescent-shaped, seeded shrub belonging to the family Ranunculaceae, commonly growing on Mediterranean coasts in Saudi Arabia, northern Africa and Asia. It is a widely used medicinal plant throughout the world. It contains many active components including nigellicine, nigellimine, nigellidine and alphahederin, thymoquinone, thymohydroquinone, dithymoquinone, thymol, carvacrol. It was reported to possess numerous pharmacological effects related to several organs of the body. It is clear that most of the potent and fruitful activity resides in its volatile oil and a protein component. However, the volatile oil suffers the drawback of the bronhoconstricting effect of thymoquinone. The positive roles of Nigella sativa (NS) has been suggested to have antioxidants on brain development and learning and memory and neuroprotective effects. It has been recommended for using on regular basis in Tibb-e-Nabwi (Prophetic Medicine). It has been widely used as antihypertensive, liver tonics, diuretics, digestive, anti-diarrheal, Extensive studies on N. sativa have been carried out a wide spectrum of its pharmacological actions which may include antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulator, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, bronchodilator.
... It inhibits the activity of glucose 6-phosphatase and fructose 1.6 bisphosphatase, which is involved in gluconeogenesis. Furthermore, N. sativa increases the enzyme activity of glucose 6-phosphate, which is involved in the pentose phosphate pathway in cells [106][107] . ...
Article
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Black seed (Nigella sativa) is an annual flowering plant from Ranunculaceae family, native to southwest Asia. This plant has many food and medicinal uses. The use of its seeds and oil is common for treatment of many diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, inflammatory diseases, diabetes and digestive diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive review on the scientific reports that have been published about N. sativa. The facts and statistics presented in this review article were gathered from the journals accessible in creditable databases such as Science Direct, Medline, PubMed, Scopus, EBSCO, EMBASE, SID and IranMedex. The keywords searched in Persian and English books on medicinal plants and traditional medicine, as well as the above reputable databases were “Black seed”, ”Nigella sativa“, “therapeutic effect”, and “medicinal plant”. The results showed that N. sativa has many biological effects such as anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-microbial, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, and wound healing activities. It also has effects on reproductive, digestive, immune and central nervous systems, such as anticonvulsant and analgesic activities. In summary, it can be used as a valuable plant for production of new drugs for treatment of many diseases.
... Antioxidant and anti-arthritic Umar [13] Anti-diabetic Salama [14] Anticancer Salem [15] Anti-inflammatory and analgesic Alemi [16] anti-anxiety Perveen [17] In treatment of different respiratory diseases Wienkotter [18] Hepato-protective Yildiz [19] Nephroprotective Abul-Nasr [20] Anti-gastric ulcers (Gastro-protective) Magdy [21] Immunomodulatory Majdalawieh [22] The black seed is well known since the ancient civilizations such as ancient Egyptian and Greek to promote menstruation and increase milk production beside its use to treat headache, toothache, nasal congestion and many more [10]. It is also famous drug from the Islamic civilization and well known in the Islamic heritage, in what is called Prophetic medicine, as Muslims believe that the black seed is an effective remedy for all diseases except death, based on some Prophetic statements (Haddith) in the Islamic religion. ...
Article
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In the last decades, the antibiotics-resistance phenomenon has become a global health crisis, due to the rapid emergence of multi-drug resistant pathogens. Novel approaches in designing drugs able to overcome these resistant microbes are persistent need. With the suggestion of looking at nature for solutions, exploring medicinal plants may lead to develop new antimicrobial drugs. Seeds of Nigella sativa are mentioned and used since ancient great civilizations and until now in many regions as a part of their traditional health care systems. This mini-review highlights the potential use of this distinguished plant product as an effective antimicrobial drug.
... It has also been reported that TQ or NS extract modulate the functions of cholinergic system.[333451] On the other hand, the contribution of this neurotransmitter system in the rewarding properties of morphine, tolerance to morphine, and morphine dependence has been well documented.[52–54] ...
Article
Neuroprotective, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, and analgesic effects of Nigella sativa (NS) have been previously shown. The interaction of NS with opioid system has also been reported. In the present study, the effects of NS hydro-alcoholic extract on the acquisition and expression of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in rats were evaluated. CPP was induced by injection of morphine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) on three consecutive days in compartment A of the CPP apparatus. Injection of NS extract (200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p.) 60 min before morphine administration on the conditioning days and 60 min before the post-conditioning phase was done for the evaluation of acquisition and expression effects, respectively. Conditioning effect of NS extract was also evaluated by injection of extract (200 or 400 mg/kg, i.p.) in the conditioning phase, instead of morphine in different groups. The difference in time which the animals spent in compartment A on the day before conditioning and the days after conditioning was determined and compared between groups. The time spent by the rats in compartment A in the morphine group was greater than that in the saline group (P < 0.01). Both doses of NS extract decreased acquisition of morphine-induced CPP (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001), but had no significant effect on the expression of morphine CPP. Higher dose of the extract (400 mg) showed a significant conditioning effect which was comparable to the effect of morphine. The results of the present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of NS has conditioning effect. It also decreased acquisition, but had no significant effect on the expression of morphine CPP.
... It was concluded that nigellone possesses an antispasmodic effect and an increase in mucociliary clearance but TQ do not have such effects. Therefore, it is suggested that nigellone but not TQ may be useful in treatment of different respiratory diseases [220]. It showed relaxant effect of most fractions from Nigella sativa on tracheal chains of guinea pigs which was more potent for methanol and dichloromethane fractions [221]. ...
... The antiasthmatic effect of nigellone is due to the release of histamine from the mast cells. [89,90] It has been reported that black seed oil consumption could improve peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and decrease pulmonary index (PI) in asthmatic patients. [91] Conclusion Data on the analysis, composition and functional properties of black seed oil suggest that it deserves further consideration and investigation as a potential new multi-purpose product for industrial, nutritional, cosmetic and pharmaceutical uses. ...
Article
Nigella sativa L. is an annual herb of the Ranunculaceae family, with the seeds called black cumin seed or black seed containing 34–39% oil. Its oil has many uses in traditional medicine and food industry. Black seed oil is a significant source of essential fatty acids, tocopherols (91–246 ppm), phytosterols (1993−2182 ppm), polyphenols (245–309 ppm), essential oils and other bioactive compounds. Thymoquinone is one of the important active compounds in the essential oil part of black seed oil with many health beneficial properties. Black seed oil is getting much attention either used alone or in combination with other vegetable oils. Therefore, providing information about the black seeds originating in different parts of the world, their oil composition and the effect of different oil extraction methods can be of great value. Environmental condition, cultivated areas, maturity period and storage conditions have significant effects on its properties. Black seed oil deserves more attention as a potential multi-purpose product. This article reviews the physicochemical properties, quality, and medicinal and nutritional aspects of black seed oil.
... The beneficial effects of TQ on antioxidant enzymes, pro-inflammatory mediators/cytokines, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), AKt, chemo-drug toxicity, metastasis, angiogenesis, proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, tumor suppressors, and enhancement of chemo-drugs as well as its effect on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) system have been shown in recent years, which demonstrate the effectiveness of N. sativa in cancer and different inflammatory diseases (Woo et al., 2012). The prophylactic effect of nigellone (a carbonyl polymer of TQ) has been demonstrated in asthma and bronchitis (Wienkotter et al., 2008). The antiasthmatic effect may be due to the inhibitory effect of nigellone on the release of histamine from the mast cells (Chakravarty, 1993), and its anti-inflammatory effects are due to inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase product synthesis in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (El-Dakhakhny et al., 2002). ...
... Gilani et al. (2001) showed that the bronchodilatory effect of the crude extract of NS seeds was shown to be mediated possibly through calcium channel blockade (Gilani et al. 2001). It is suggested that nigellone but not TQ in NS may be useful in treatment of different respiratory diseases (Wienkotter et al. 2008). Nigellone, an active ingredient of NS, was found to effectively inhibit the histamine which is released from the mast cells (Gilani et al. 2004) and thus show the basis for its traditional use in asthma. ...
Article
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Recent evidence suggests that Nigella sativa (NS) has an antiasthmatic (bronchodilatory) effect in the airways of asthmatic patients. Our objective was investigation of the hypothesis that NS supplementation reduces exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in the maturing rat after high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Forty male Wistar rats (aged 3 weeks) participated in this study. The animals after 2-week adaptation were divided into three groups: Base, control HIIT, and HIIT (HIIT and NS group). HIIT group was performed on a treadmill (20 to 70 m/min, 30 min/day, 6 days/week). After 6 weeks HIIT, NS seed ethanol extract was fed by gavages to NS group 500 mg/kg for 3 weeks. Finally, animals were euthanized and their lung removed, weighted, and fixed in 10 % formalin. By routine and standard paraffin embedding, lung samples were sectioned in 5 μm and stained with H&E and studied histologically and histometrically. Massive inflammation and characteristics of lung remodeling including goblet cell hyperplasia, lymphocyte infiltration, and severe emphysema were observed in the lungs of HIIT-exposed rats. Administration of NS in the HIIT-exposed rats suppressed the inflammatory cell infiltration, goblet cell hyperplasia, and thickness tunica intima, tunica media, and tunica adventitia bronchi significantly. Administration of NS reduced the level of airway inflammation bronchi-induced asthma. The effect of NS on EIB is probably mediated by the reduce thicknesses intima, media, and adventitia and the number of goblet cells of the bronchi. Our findings suggest that NS might have useful implications in the treatment and future research into EIB.
... Our results showed that the AChE activity in the hippocampus of NSE-or TQ-treated rats was lower than 2VO rats, in a dose-dependent manner. The in vitro effect of TQ on the AChE activity (Jukic et al. 2007;Khan et al. 2012) and its interaction with the cholinergic system have been shown in vivo (el Tahir et al. 1993;Wienkotter et al. 2008). Furthermore, Khan et al. indicated that TQ may be considered as an antipsychotic agent and memory enhancer through decreasing the brain level of dopamine and AChE activity (Khan et al. 2014). ...
Article
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Nigella sativa, a plant widely used in traditional medicine, possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of N. sativa seeds (NSE) and its active constituent, thymoquinone (TQ), on learning and memory deficits, hippocampal acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity, and markers of redox status, mainly lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity following cerebral hypoperfusion in rats. Cerebral hypoperfusion was induced by permanent occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries (2VO). Male Wistar rats were administered either a vehicle (sham group: 10 ml/kg/day, ip), NSE (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day, ip), TQ (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg/day, ip), or donepezil (5 mg/kg/day, ip) for 10 days (three days before and seven days after ligation). Spatial learning and memory deficits were investigated using the Morris water maze (MWM) task. 2VO produced significant learning and memory deficits as evidenced by increased latency time to reach the hidden platform, increased swimming time, and decreased time spent in the target quadrant in the probe trial in the MWM task. There was also a significant increase in the lipid peroxidation level and AChE activity, and a significant decrease in SOD activity in the hippocampal portion of hypoperfused rats, as compared with the sham group. Treatment with NSE (400 mg/kg/day; p < 0.001) and TQ (40 mg/kg/day; p < 0.001), as well as donepezil significantly prevented learning and memory impairments and alleviated changes in the hippocampal lipid peroxide level and SOD and AChE activities in this model. In conclusion, our data suggest that N. sativa and thymoquinone have a beneficial role in cerebrovascular insufficiency states and dementia.
... It was concluded that nigellone possesses an antispasmodic effect and an increase in mucociliary clearance but TQ do not have such effects. Therefore, it is suggested that nigellone but not TQ may be useful in treatment of different respiratory diseases [97] . The relaxant effects of four cumulative concentrations of n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and aqueous fractions of N. sativa (0.8, 1.2, 1.6 and 2.0 g%) in comparison with saline as negative control and four cumulative concentrations of theophylline (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mmol/L) were examined by their relaxant effects on precontracted tracheal chains of guinea pig by 60 mmol/L KCl (group 1) and 10 microM methacholine (group 2). ...
Article
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Nigella sativa (N. sativa) (Family Ranunculaceae) is a widely used medicinal plant throughout the world. It is very popular in various traditional systems of medicine like Unani and Tibb, Ayurveda and Siddha. Seeds and oil have a long history of folklore usage in various systems of medicines and food. The seeds of N. sativa have been widely used in the treatment of different diseases and ailments. In Islamic literature, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of healing medicine. It has been recommended for using on regular basis in Tibb-e-Nabwi (Prophetic Medicine). It has been widely used as antihypertensive, liver tonics, diuretics, digestive, anti-diarrheal, appetite stimulant, analgesics, anti-bacterial and in skin disorders. Extensive studies on N. sativa have been carried out by various researchers and a wide spectrum of its pharmacological actions have been explored which may include antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulator, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, bronchodilator, hepato-protective, renal protective, gastro-protective, antioxidant properties, etc. Due to its miraculous power of healing, N. sativa has got the place among the top ranked evidence based herbal medicines. This is also revealed that most of the therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone which is major bioactive component of the essential oil. The present review is an effort to provide a detailed survey of the literature on scientific researches of pharmacognostical characteristics, chemical composition and pharmacological activities of the seeds of this plant.
... The antiasthmatic effect of nigellone is due to the release of histamine from the mast cells. [89,90] It has been reported that black seed oil consumption could improve peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and decrease pulmonary index (PI) in asthmatic patients. [91] Conclusion Data on the analysis, composition and functional properties of black seed oil suggest that it deserves further consideration and investigation as a potential new multi-purpose product for industrial, nutritional, cosmetic and pharmaceutical uses. ...
Conference Paper
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Nigella sativa L. is an annual herb in the Ranunculaceae family which has seeds called black cumin or black seed containing 28-31% oil. Black seed oil is a significant source of essential fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, polyphenols and other bioactive compounds. Black cumin popularity is due to its beneficial actions. Its oil has many uses in traditional, medicine and food industry. The black cumin oil seed black seeds have many features such as anticancer, antidiabetic, antiradical and immunomodulator, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive and antioxidative properties. Moreover, black seed oil can be used alone or mixed with other vegetable oils in food preparations or formulations. Black seed oil could deserve more attention as a potential multi-purpose product. Therefore, the aim of the present article is to review the nutritional aspects of black seed oil.
... Extensive clinical and animal researches that have been executed lately have shown that extracts of Nigella sativa (black seed or black cumin) (Family Ranunculaceae), have numerous medicinal and therapeutic properties which may include spasmolytic, a bronchodilator, immunomodulator, antidiabetic, antihistaminic, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, and antioxidant effects [12,13,14,15]. Clinical studies evaluating the impact of Nigella sativa on chronic bronchial asthma [16,17,18] showed a marked amelioration in clinical signs and lung function tests. ...
Article
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This study sought to examine whether supplementation of Black Seed Oil (BSO) can improve pulmonary function tests (PFTs), inflammation, and oxidant-antioxidant markers in COPD patients. The study involved 100 patients of mild to moderate COPD divided randomly into 2 groups who were appointed to receive standard medication only (control group) or with additional Black Seed Oil (BSO group). They were assessed initially and after 3 months, 44 patients responded in control group and 47 patients in BSO group. BSO group evidenced a significant decreasing in oxidant and inflammatory markers; thiobarbituric acid reactive-substances (TBARS), protein carbonyl (PC) content, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a significant increase in antioxidants; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), vitamin C, and E, and a significant improvement in PFTs versus control group and baseline levels. Supplementation of Black Seed Oil may be an effective adjunct therapy to improve pulmonary functions, inflammation, and oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in COPD patients.
... This airway relaxant effect of TQ also explains the traditional use of its parent medicinal plants like black cumin, savory and wild bergamot in hyperactive states of respiratory system like cough and asthma. Some previous studies [26,31] have shown a tracheal relaxant effect of TQ. Without specifying, these studies had indicated presence of an additional mechanism. ...
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Thymoquinone (TQ) is a bioactive component found in many medicinal herbs. In this study, we report the smooth and cardiac muscle relaxant activities of this compound. TQ concentration dependently suppressed spontaneously contracting rabbit jejunum while also relaxed high K(+)-(80 mM) induced contractions in jejunum and guinea-pig ileum, indicating activity at voltage-operated Ca(++) channels (VOCC). Further, TQ displaced Ca(++) concentration-response curves, obtained in a Ca(++)-free environment, to the right, showing blockade of VOCC. Similar activity was observed with verapamil, a standard VOCC blocker. TQ also exhibited nonadrenergic relaxation of agonist-induced contractions in guinea-pig trachea. When tested in fluo-4-loaded mouse lung slices, TQ inhibited ACh-induced airway narrowing and Ca(++) signalling in airway smooth muscle cells. In endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded rat aorta, TQ inhibited high K(+)-induced contractions at significantly lower concentrations than phenylephrine-(PE-) (1 microM) induced contractions. Relaxation of PE-induced contractions was resistant to blockade by L-NAME and atropine. In guinea-pig atria, TQ showed noncholinergic relaxation of atrial force and rate of contractions. These data suggest smooth and cardiac muscle relaxant activity of TQ possibly mediated, in part, via blockade of VOCC. The results also justify the use of TQ containing plants in related health disorders like colic, diarrhoea, cough, and asthma.
... The inhibitory effect of TQ on airway resistance was shown in mice after acute exposure to diesel exhaust particles (6 mg/kg, i.p. twice before exposure), (Nemmar et al., 2011). Antispasmodic and increase in mucociliary clearance effects were shown for nigellone but not TQ in the rat (Wienkötter et al., 2008). A potent relaxant effect of carvacrol, the other constituents of N. sativa was also demonstrated on guinea pig TSM (Boskabady & Jandaghi, 2003). ...
Article
Nigella sativa (N. sativa) seed had been used traditionally due to several pharmacological effects. The updated experimental and clinical effects of N. sativa and its constituents on respiratory, allergic and immunologic disorders are provided in this comprehensive review article. Various databases including PubMed, Science Direct and Scopus were used. The preventive effects of N. sativa on pulmonary diseases were mainly due to its constituents such as thymoquinone, thymol, carvacrol and alpha‐hederin. Extracts and constituents of N. sativa showed the relaxant effect, with possible mechanisms indicating its bronchodilatory effect in obstructive pulmonary diseases. In experimental animal models of different respiratory diseases, the preventive effect of various extracts and constituents of N. sativa was demonstrated by mechanisms such as antioxidant, immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory effects. Bronchodilatory and preventive effects of the plant and its components on asthma, COPD and lung disorders due to exposure to noxious agents as well as on allergic and immunologic disorders were also shown in the clinical studies. Various extracts and constituents of N. sativa showed pharmacological and therapeutic effects on respiratory, allergic and immunologic disorders indicating possible remedy effect of that the plant and its effective substances in treating respiratory, allergic and immunologic diseases.
... Transport of the fluorescence dye ,rhodamine B, concerning ciliary action in the tracheal area was observed using a microdialysis technique. It was concluded that Nigellone possesses bronchodilatory effect and exhibits an increase in mucociliary clearance but TQ does not have such effects hence Nigellone may be used in the treatment of respiratory diseases [45]. ...
Article
COVID-19 has rampaged across continents and has caused a devastating impact on life, economy, mobility, and health. Vaccines are still under clinical trials however there is no immediate solution or drug at hand for effective treatment. During this time, finding an unorthodox solution has become the need of the hour. Nigella sativa, commonly known as the black seed has been widely used as a traditional medicine in the past to fight illnesses. Chief compounds of N. Sativa seed, especially thymiquinone, α‐hederin, and nigellidine, could be developed into promising herbal drugs to combat COVID‐19 due to their therapeutic benefits. Extensive studies on N. Sativa have demonstrated its wide spectrum pharmacological properties which include immunomodulatory, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, bronchodilatory, hepato-protective, reno-protective, gastro-protective, and antioxidant properties that can serve as a potent inhibitor for SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, N. Sativa has also exhibited antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and antibacterial properties which would help COVID-19 patients with comorbidities. The objective of this review is aimed at establishing a link between the pharmacological benefits of N. Sativa and its potential to serve as a cure for COVID-19.
... Design of herbal studies in the URTI setting needs to take into account the various herbal constituents and activities in order to choose the most appropriate route of administration. For example, Nigella sativa, a wellknown herbal remedy in Islamic medicine, possesses an antispasmodic effect and can increase mucociliary clearance; thus, a systemic rather than local activity may be expected [20]. A third option for treating sore throat and other URTI symptoms is with a herbal tea preparation that may act both locally and systemically. ...
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This study is a prospective randomized double-blind controlled trial whose aim was to investigate the clinical effects of aromatic essential oils in patients with upper respiratory tract infections. The trial was conducted in six primary care clinics in northern Israel. A spray containing aromatic essential oils of five plants (Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Mentha piperita, Origanum syriacum, and Rosmarinus officinalis) as applied 5 times a day for 3 days and compared with a placebo spray. The main outcome measure was patient assessment of the change in severity of the most debilitating symptom (sore throat, hoarseness or cough). Sixty patients participated in the study (26 in the study group and 34 in the control group). Intention-to-treat analysis showed that 20 minutes following the spray use, participants in the study group reported a greater improvement in symptom severity compared to participants in the placebo group (P = .019). There was no difference in symptom severity between the two groups after 3 days of treatment (P = .042). In conclusion, spray application of five aromatic plants reported in this study brings about significant and immediate improvement in symptoms of upper respiratory ailment. This effect is not significant after 3 days of treatment.
... N. sativa contains many bioactive components, alkaloids such as isoquinoline alkaloids (nigellicimine and nigellicimine-N-oxide), pyrazole, α-hederin. The main constituents of black seeds oil are TQ and nigellone which possess medicinal properties (Wienkötter et al., 2008). The major amino acids found in black seeds are aspartate, glutamate, and arginine, while the minor amino acids reported are cysteine and methionine. ...
... Gilani et al. (2001) showed that the bronchodilatory effect of the crude extract of NS seeds was shown to be mediated possibly through calcium channel blockade (Gilani et al. 2001). It is suggested that nigellone but not TQ in NS may be useful in treatment of different respiratory diseases (Wienkotter et al. 2008). Nigellone, an active ingredient of NS, was found to effectively inhibit the histamine which is released from the mast cells (Gilani et al. 2004) and thus show the basis for its traditional use in asthma. ...
Article
The significant association between diet and human health broaden the consumer concept to look at food not only for its basic nutrition but also for allied health benefits. Nevertheless, a large segment of population is still reluctant to buy functional foods due to ambiguities related to their health claims. This review highlighted the role of functional foods against various physiological threats like cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, oxidative stress, cancer insurgence, and immune dysfunction. Recent developments in dietary supplements are also the limelight of the manuscript. The discussion also encapsulated the role and responsibilities of regulatory agencies like Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Codex Alimentarius Commission and the International Alliance of Dietary Food Supplement Association (IADSA) in harmonizing the legislations regarding the risk assessment and health claims of functional foods.
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Introduction Special Aspects Associated with Lung Microdialysis Compared to Microdialysis in Other Tissues Insertion of Microdialysis Probes into Lung Tissue Insertion of Microdialysis Probes into the Bronchial System Types of Probes Endogenous Compounds Exogenous Drugs Animal Data Clinical Data Comparison of Pharmacokinetic Data in Lung Obtained by Microdialysis and Other Techniques Predictability of Lung Concentrations by Measurements in Other Tissues References
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To evaluate the effect of Nigella sativa (NS) extract on memory performance and its possible mechanisms in scopolamine (Sco)-induced spatial memory impairment model using Morris water maze test. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. The control group received saline instead of both NS extract and Sco. The Sco group was treated by saline for two weeks, and was injected by Sco (2 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) 30 min before each trail in Morris water maze test. Sco+NS 200 and Sco+NS 400 groups were daily treated by 200 or 400 mg/kg of NS (intraperitoneally) for two weeks, respectively, and were finally injected by Sco 30 min before Morris water maze test. The brains of animals were removed to determine the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and oxidative stress criteria in cortical tissues. Time latency and path length in the Sco group were significantly higher than in the control group (P<0.01), while the Sco+NS 400 group showed a significantly shorter traveled path length and time latency compared with the Sco group (P<0.01). AChE activity in the cortical tissues of the Sco group was significantly higher than the control group (P<0.01), while AChE activity in the Sco+NS 200 and Sco+NS 400 groups was lower than the Sco group (P<0.01). Following Sco administration, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were increased (P<0.01) in comparison with the control group, while cortical total thiol content decreased (P<0.01). Pretreatment with extracts caused a significant elevation in cortical total thiol content (P<0.01) and reduction in cortical MDA concentration (P<0.01) compared with the Sco group. Hydro-alcoholic extract of NS prevents Sco-induced spatial memory deficits and decreases the AChE activity as well as oxidative stress of brain tissues in rats. Our results support the traditional belief about the beneficial effects of NS in nervous system. Moreover, further investigations are needed for better understanding of this protective effect.
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The antitussive activity of thymoquinone, a constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, was evaluated using the nebulized solution of citric acid 20 % in guinea pigs. Thymoquinone and codeine were injected intraperitoneally. Thymoquinone (20 and 40 mg/kg) and codeine (5 mg/kg), a prototype antitussive agent, reduced the number of cough in animals. The antitussive effect of these agents was antagonized by pretreatment with naloxone (2 mg/kg), an opioid receptor antagonist. These results suggest that thymoquinone has antitussive activity probably through opioid receptors. INTRODUCTION The seeds of Nigella sativa Linn.
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Nigella sativa L. is a therapeutic natural herb that cures several serious ailments, so can be considered a Golden remedy. It has been used for centuries and has a long history in different cultures. This review article has surveyed nearly all the relevant literature on Nigella sativa L. from 1960-2020, offering a broad range of data including the origin, taxonomy, botany, history of traditional uses in different regions then passing through their phytochemistry, pharmacology, and consumed natural pharmaceutical preparations till recent findings and their possible use in COVID-19 therapy. The main aim of this review is to focus on the importance of Nigella sativa L. as a medicinal herb used widely in therapy and to correlate its phytochemical constituents with their pharmacological effects. The biological importance was attributed to Thymoquinone in the first-place present in the volatile oil of the seeds and other classes such as sterols, triterpenes, tannins, flavonoids, and cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, saponins, coumarins, volatile bases, glucosinolates, and anthraquinones. Moreover, several studies confirmed its benefits in Alzheimer’s disease, as a potent antioxidant, cytotoxic, antiallergic, antimicrobial, etc. In addition to other studies which documented the use of this plant mainly the seeds and the extracted essential oil, in the production of cosmeceutical preparations, and its role as a nutritive spice in the food industry due to its very low toxicity, besides their use as fodder for farm animals. Keywords: Black cumin, essential oil, immuno-stimulant, Nigella sativa L., Ranunculaceae, Thymoquinone.
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Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint seeds (NG) as well as Nigella sativa L. seeds (NS) have been employed as folk remedies for centuries. However, little work has been done on their quality control. In order to assess the quality and guarantee therapeutic effects, the chemical constituents of the two herbs were extensively characterized by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS), and a simple, practical, and reliable HPLC fingerprinting method was established and applied to determination of 20 batches of samples. With their chromatographic fingerprints, the two species were successfully differentiated by pattern recognition methods, namely, principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Results from this study show that the proposed analytical methods can be applied to the quality control of the seeds and have high potential to ensure their safety and efficacy.
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Microdialysis in internal organs and tumors is recognized as a valuable tool in drug development because it provides the concentrations of unbound compounds in interstitial tissue fluid over time. Microdialysis has been used in internal organs and tumors to measure local pharmacokinetic profiles of various drugs, but also to study metabolites and organ-specific pathophysiological pathways. Measuring pharmacokinetics and quantifying pharmacodynamic effects at the target site instead of plasma helps proving or dismissing therapeutic concepts during early stages of drug development. Finally, microdialysis has been evaluated as a tool for direct local delivery of drugs to organs and tumors. Because insertion of microdialysis probes into internal organs is relatively invasive, in humans essentially the need for clinically required operations offers the possibility of performing microdialysis studies in internal organs. This chapter provides an overview of relevant microdialysis applications in various internal organs and tumors of humans and animals, discussing their benefits and limitations.
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Nigella sativa Linn. (Family-Ranunculaceae) is a widely used medicinal plant throughout India and popular in various Indigenous System of Medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Tibb. The seeds are used as astringent, bitter, stimulant, diuretic, emmenagogue and anthelmintic. They are also useful in jaundice, intermittent fever, dyspepsia, paralysis, piles and skin diseases. The present review is therefore, an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature on pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of the plant.
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Natural products with antispasmodic activity have been used in traditional medicine to alleviate different illnesses since the remote past. We searched the literature and compiled the antispasmodic activity of 248 natural compounds isolated from terrestrial plants. In this review, we summarized all the natural products reported with antispasmodic activity until the end of 2017. We also provided chemical information about their extraction as well as the model used to test their activities. Results showed that members of the Lamiaceae and Asteraceae families had the highest number of isolated compounds with antispasmodic activity. Moreover, monoterpenoids, flavonoids, triterpenes, and alkaloids were the chemical groups with the highest number of antispasmodic compounds. Lastly, a structural comparison of natural versus synthetic compounds was discussed.
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Lung as vital organ is exposed to many injurious agents that can cause inflammation and oxidative stress, which are potential causes in the pathogenesis of lung diseases. Nigella sativa, usually introduced as black seed, has been considered for treatment of various diseases and is one the most widely investigated herbs. Thymoquinone (TQ) is the major component of the volatile oil of black seed (54%) which has been indicated to anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-neoplastic properties. There is interesting to study on TQ effect as a therapeutic agent for various diseases in both in vivo and in vitro conditions. In this comprehensive review, we summarized the recent studies related to the effectiveness of TQ on lung disorders such as inflammatory lung diseases, lung fibrosis, asthma and lung cancer. It is concluded that TQ with anti-inflammatory, anti- oxidant, anti-asthmatic and anti- tumor activity can provide therapeutic effects against lung disorders. However, more investigation is needed to produce TQ as a pharmaceutical preparation for human studies.
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There are several conventional oilseeds which are used to obtain edible oil such as soybean oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, etc. However, few are nonconventional sources that play a crucial role in human health. Nigella sativa is one of the nonconventional oilseeds, which contains more than 30% (98.5% is fixed oil, 1.5% essential oil) oil. Fixed oil of nigella seed contains linoleic acid (48–62%) followed by oleic acid (19–25%) and limited amount of saturated fatty acids (arachidonic and eicosenoic acid), while the essential oil (volatile oil) contains a number of bioactive constitutes including thymoquinone (38.23%), p-cymene (28.61%), longifolene (5.4%), and 4-isopropyl-9-methoxy-1-methyl-1-cyclohexane (5.8%). Apart from oil, Nigella sativa seed also contains high levels of protein (up to 26%), dietary fiber, and micronutrients. A wide variation also exists in the nutritional value including minerals and vitamins of Nigella seeds owing to variation in growing conditions, region, climate, etc. Bioactive constituents of Nigella seeds exhibit strong health benefits including antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antifungal activities. The present chapter covers the nutritional value, bioactive compounds, health benefits, and food uses of Nigella sativa.
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Rinitis alergi terjadi 40% pada populasi dunia, di Indonesia cenderung meningkat setiap tahunnya. Paparan allergen yang menstimulus gejala rinitis dapat menganggu proses bersihan hidung dan meningkatkan waktu Transpor Mukosilliar (TMS). Semprot hidung NaCl 0,9% merupakan salah satu terapi suportif rinitis alergi. Minyak Biji Jintan Hitam diketahui sebagai antihistamin dan antiinflamasi yang dapat memperbaiki gejala rinitis alergi danTMS hidung. Mengetahui perbandingan terapitopikal NaCl 0,9% dengan Minyak Biji Jintan Hitam terhadap waktu TMS hidung penderita rinitis alergi. Penelitian ini merupakan clinical trial dengan melibatkan 10 subyek penelitian. Subyek dipilih dengan menggunakan kuesioner SFAR. Subyek yang terpilih dibagi menjadi 2 kelompok yang diterapi dengan topikal NaCl 0,9% dan Minyak Biji Jintan Hitam selama 14 hari. Sebelum dan sesudah terapi dilakukan pemeriksaan waktu TMS dengan tessakarin. Data perbedaan waktu TMS hidung sebelum dan sesudah terapi dianalisis dengan Paired T-Test. Data perbandingan waktu TMS hidung antara kelompok NaCl 0,9% dan Minyak Biji Jintan Hitam dianalisis dengan Independent T-Test. Waktu TMS hidung sebelum dan sesudah terapi pada kelompok NaCl 0,9% dan Minyak Biji Jintan Hitam masing - masing memiliki p>0,05. Perbandingan penurunan waktu TMS pada kedua terapi menunjukkan perbedaan yang tidak bermakna (p=0,831). Terdapat perbedaan yang tidak bermakna pada waktu TMS hidung terapi topikal NaCl 0,9% dan minyak biji jintan hitam pada penderita rinitis alergi.
Chapter
Pulmonary diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, pneumonia, pleurisy, sarcoidosis, and pulmonary embolism cause severe respiratory difficulties and can even be fatal without proper treatment. Although several chemical drugs are available for the treatment of pulmonary diseases, these drugs cause severe side effects and are not completely efficient. Herbal medicine is a suitable alternative with lesser side effects and can be used for the treatment of pulmonary diseases. Several herbal plants such as Allium sativum, Crataegus rhipidophylla, Moringa oleifera, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Terminalia arjuna, Withania somnifera can be used for the treatment of pulmonary diseases. Apple polyphenol, ligustrazine, salidroside, Resveratrol, quercetin are some examples of phytochemicals which exhibit characteristics with the potential to modulate the symptoms of pulmonary diseases. These herbal plants and phytochemicals undergo various mechanisms such as decreasing proliferation of epithelial cells, reducing oxidative stress, anti-inflammation, inhibiting proliferation of tumor cells, vasodilation, reducing bronchial constrictions, etc., to reduce the progression of pulmonary diseases. The different types of medicinal plants and phytochemicals which can be used to treat pulmonary diseases along with their mechanisms will be discussed in detail in this chapter.
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Currently, the whole world is facing a life-threatening novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Natural products are well-known for their potential role against viral disease, and some anti-viral agents have been developed to combat these diseases. Herein, the authors investigated the possible effects of this Holy plant Nigella sativaL. (NS), against coronavirus, using evidence-based and mechanistic approaches to conclude the immune-boosting and alleviation of respiratory systemeffects of NS. The pharmacological studies established a prominent role in treating various respiratory, immune systems, cardiovascular, skin, and gastrointestinal disorders. Literature supported the significant anti-viral role and showed an inhibitory role for NS against MHV-A59 CoV (mouse-hepatitis virus–A59) infected Hela, i.e., HeLaCEACAM1a (HeLa-epithelial carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1a) cell. NS is a safe herbal product or dietary supplement and could be an effective and affordable community adjuvant treatment for coronavirus in the current scenario.
Article
In previous studies, the relaxant, anticholinergic (functional antagonism) and antihistaminic, effects of Nigella sativa have been demonstrated on guinea pig tracheal chains. In the present study, the prophylactic effect of thymoquinone (one of the constituents of Nigella sativa) on tracheal responsiveness and white blood cell (WBC) count in lung lavage of sensitized guinea pigs was examined. Four groups of sensitized guinea pigs to ovalbumin (OA) were given drinking water alone (group S), drinking water containing low or high concentrations of thymoquinone (S + LTQ and S + HTQ groups) or inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP 250 microg) twice a day (positive control group) (n = 7, for all groups). Tracheal responses of control and four groups of sensitized animals to methacholine at an effective concentration causing 50 % of maximum response (EC(50) M) were measured. Tracheal responses to 0.1 % OA, relative to contraction induced by 10 microM methacholine were also examined. Total WBC and its differential count in lung lavage were also measured. The tracheal responsiveness to methacholine, OA and WBC of S guinea pigs was significantly higher than those of controls (p < 0.001 for all cases). Tracheal responsiveness in S + LTQ, S + HTQ, and FP groups to both methacholine (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001) and OA (p < 0.001 for all cases) was significantly decreased compared to that of the S group. Total WBC was also decreased in all experimental groups compared to that of the S group (p < 0.001 for all groups). There was an increase in eosinophils and a decrease in neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes in the S animals compared to the controls (p < 0.001 for all cases). Treatment with both concentrations of thymoquinone and FP variably improved differential WBC count changes compared to the S animals (nonsignificant to p < 0.001). The improvement in tracheal responsiveness, total WBC, eosinophils and lymphocytes changes in the S animals treated with both concentrations of TQ were significantly greater than those of FP (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). These results showed a preventive effect of thymoquinone, one constituent of N. sativa, on tracheal responsiveness and inflammatory cells of lung lavage of sensitized guinea pigs which was comparable or even greater than that of the inhaled steroid.
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The aqueous extract of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) was investigated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in animal models. The extract has an anti-inflammatory effect demonstrated by its inhibitory effects on Carrageenan induced paw edema. It also produced significant increase in the hot plate reaction time in mice indicating analgesic effect. However, N. sativa crude suspension had no effect on yeast induced pyrexia. This study therefore, supports its use in folk medicine both as analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent and calls for further investigations to elucidate its mechanism of action.
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Dithymoquinone, thymohydroquinone, thymol and thymoquinone, compounds derived from N. sativa seeds, were investigated for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activities using cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and -2 (COX-2) assays. Our results show that all substances tested possess significant inhibitory activity against at least one COX form at concentrations comparable to the active one of indomethacin. Thymol was the most active against COX-1 with an IC (50) value of 0.2 microM while thymohydroquinone and thymoquinone exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on COX-2 with IC (50) values of 0.1 and 0.3 microM, respectively. Moreover, dithymoquinone and thymoquinone showed a limited COX-2-specific inhibition. We conclude that dithymoquinone, thymohydroquinone, thymol and thymoquinone can participate in the general anti-inflammatory activity of N. sativa and suggest that these agents should be further studied for possible use as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Article
Samples of the expressed fixed oil from different sources of Nigella sativa seeds were examined by thin-layer and gas chromatography for content of fixed oils and thymoquinone, and these substances were tested as possible inhibitors of eicosanoid generation and membrane lipid peroxidation. The crude fixed oil and pure thymoquinone both inhibited the cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase pathways of arachidonate metabolism in rat peritoneal leukocytes stimulated with calcium ionophore A23187, as shown by dose-dependent inhibition of thromboxane B2 and leukotriene B4, respectively. Thymoquinone was very potent, with approximate IC50 values against 5-lipoxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase of < 1 microgram/ml and 3.5 micrograms/ml, respectively. Both substances also inhibited non-enzymatic peroxidation in ox brain phospholipid liposomes, but thymoquinone was about ten times more potent. However, the inhibition of eicosanoid generation and lipid peroxidation by the fixed oil of N. sativa is greater than is expected from its content of thymoquinone (ca. 0.2% w/v), and it is possible that other components such as the unusual C20:2 unsaturated fatty acids may contribute also to its anti-eicosanoid and antioxidant activity. These pharmacological properties of the oil support the traditional use of N. sativa and its derived products as a treatment for rheumatism and related inflammatory diseases.
1. The effect of the volatile oil (VO) of the black seed (Nigella sativa) on the respiratory system of the urethane-anaesthetized guinea-pig was investigated and compared with those of its constituent thymoquinone (TQ). 2. Intravenous administration of VO in the dose range (4-32 microliters kg-1) induced dose-dependent increases in the respiratory rate and the intratracheal pressure. 3. The effects of VO were significantly antagonized by treatment of the animals with mepyramine, atropine and reserpine. They were not antagonized by indomethacin, diethyl carbamazine or hydrocortisone. 4. Intravenous administration of TQ in the dose range (1.6-6.4 mg kg-1) induced significant increases in the intratracheal pressure without any effect in the respiratory rate. 5. The results suggested that VO-induced respiratory effects were mediated via release of histamine with direct involvement of histaminergic mechanisms and indirect activation of muscarinic cholinergic mechanisms. 6. Removal of TQ from VO may provide a potential centrally acting respiratory stimulant.
Article
The present work was done to investigate the possible effects of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) on gastric secretion and ethanol-induced ulcer in rats. Thirty two adult male rats were used in this study (four groups) and several parameters were determined to assess any degree of protection. It was found that the administration of NSO in rats produced a significant increase in mucin content and glutathione level and a significant decrease in mucosal histamine content. Ethanol administration produced a 100% ulcer induction with an ulcer score of 12.62+/-1.35 (mean+/-S.E., n=8). It caused a significant reduction in free acidity and glutathione level while it produced a significant increase in mucosal histamine content. When animals were pretreated with NSO before induction of ulcer, there was a significant increase in glutathione level, mucin content and free acidity and a significant decrease in gastric mucosal histamine content with a protection ratio of 53.56% as compared to the ethanol group. It can be concluded that NSO imparted a protective action against ethanol induced ulcer in rats.
Article
A plant mixture containing extracts of Nigella sativa possesses blood glucose lowering effects, but the direct antidiabetic effect of Nigella sativa is not yet established. Therefore, the effect of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) on blood glucose concentrations was studied in streptozotocin diabetic rats. In addition, the effect of NSO, nigellone and thymoquinone were studied on insulin secretion of isolated rat pancreatic islets in the presence of 3, 5.6 or 11.1 mM glucose. NSO significantly lowered blood glucose concentrations in diabetic rats after 2, 4 and 6 weeks. The blood lowering effect of NSO was, however, not paralleled by a stimulation of insulin release in the presence of NSO, nigellone or thymoquinone. The data indicate that the hypoglycemic effect of NSO may be mediated by extrapancreatic actions rather than by stimulated insulin release.
Article
We report a novel method to measure mucociliary transport (MCT) in both the upper and lower airways of normal and CF mice. The in vivo microdialysis technique involves placing a small quantity of dye on the airway surface and a microdialysis probe a defined distance from the site of dye deposition. The dye is transported toward the probe by ciliary transport and, upon reaching the microdialysis probe, diffuses across the dialysis membrane and is collected in the dialysate leaving the probe. The rate of MCT is calculated from the length of time from dye deposition to recovery. The rate of tracheal MCT in normal mice was 2.2 +/- 0.45 (SE) mm/min (n = 6), a value similar to that in reports using other techniques. MCT in CF mice was not different (2.3 +/- 0.29, n = 6), consistent with previous observations suggesting that tracheal ion transport properties are not different between CF and normal mice. The rate of MCT in the nasal cavity of normal mice was slower than in the trachea (1.3 +/- 0.26, n = 4). MCT in the CF mouse nasal cavity (1.4 +/- 0.31, n = 8), a region in which the CF mouse exhibits bioelectric properties similar to the human CF patient, was, again, not different from the normal mouse, perhaps reflecting copious gland secretion offsetting Na(+) and liquid hyperabsorption. In conclusion, we have developed a versatile, simple in vivo method to measure MCT in both upper and lower airways of mice and larger animals.
Article
Unlabelled: Thyme is a broncholytic und secretomotoric agent. Thus, our aim was to investigate the influence of a thyme extract on beta (2)-receptors in competition binding experiments and relaxation experiments on rat uteri and trachea. Furthermore, the influence of the extract on respiratory clearance was of interest. Binding experiments were performed using purified rat lung membranes with the beta(2)-receptor ligand [(125)I]-CYP {[(125)I]-(+/-)-Iodocyanopindolol}. The transport of the fluorescence dye rhodamin 123 concerning ciliary action in the tracheal area of a mouse was investigated using a microdialysis technique. The thyme extract reduces only slightly [(125)I]-CYP binding and amplifies the displacement of [(125)I]-CYP by propranolol (non-specific beta-receptor antagonist): the displacement curve in the concentration range representing beta (2)-receptors (nM) is shifted to the left. Thyme extract had relaxing effects on organs possessing beta (2)-receptors (uterus and trachea). The propranolol-induced antagonism to isoprenaline is reverted concentration-dependently by the extract. A duplication of the rate of ciliary clearance by the extract was observed. In conclusion: 1) There is evidence for an influence of a thyme extract on beta (2)-receptors by both binding studies and biological effects: As can be derived from the shift of the propranolol displacement curve (nM), ingredients of the thyme extract slightly interact with beta (2)-receptors in rat lung tissue. This effect is indirect since no full range competition curve was reached. 2) An at least indirect interaction with beta (2)-receptors in rat uteri and trachea is revealed by a decreased antagonism of propranolol on the relaxing effect of isoprenaline by the plant extract. 3) An additional mechanism is presumed because at high extract concentrations isoprenaline-induced relaxation is complete, whereas the displacement of propranolol at beta (2)-receptors is only weak. 4) Thyme extract has an indirect (modulatory) effect on the beta (2)-receptor system. 5) Mucociliary clearance is improved in vivo. Its mechanism has still to be elucidated.