Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis: A 25-Year Experience

Department of Academic Surgery, Wythenshawe Hospital, University Hospital of South Manchester NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom.
Journal of the American College of Surgeons (Impact Factor: 5.12). 03/2008; 206(2):269-73. DOI: 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2007.07.041
Source: PubMed


Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare, benign, chronic inflammatory condition of the breast that can mimic inflammatory breast cancer and periductal mastitis (PDM). Eighteen patients with a histopathologic diagnosis of IGM, seen over a period of 25 years, were retrospectively reviewed and compared with 133 patients with PDM and 100 normal patients.
The unit's pathology database and clinic letters for this time period were used to identify patients who had presented with IGM. A retrospective review of the notes was used to extract reproductive factors, cigarette smoking habits, and ethnicities that were recorded at presentation. These were compared with data from a similar group of patients with PDM and a control group.
All IGM patients were women. Median age was 36 years (range 18 to 67 years) compared with 52 years (range 20 to 77 years) for PDM patients (p < 0.001). Seventeen percent of IGM patients were smokers at the time of presentation, as compared with 60% of PDM patients (p < 0.001). Although parity was similar for all groups, 10 IGM patients (56%) had given birth in the last 5 years, compared with 6 (5%) PDM patients (p < 0.001) and 20 (20%) in the control group (p=0.0194). Two IGM patients had recurrences after pregnancy. The course of IGM varied from 11 to 105 weeks and was not affected by any treatment modalities.
IGM patients are younger, have given birth more recently, and are less likely to be Caucasian as compared with PDM patients. IGM is not related to smoking and can recur. Treatment should be supportive.

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Available from: Bilal Alkhaffaf, Jan 04, 2014
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    • "The largest series we identified involved 54 patients with CM [11]. The only exception is one small retrospective case-control study of 18 cases of GM [14]. Therefore, a major gap seems to exist in the literature regarding epidemiological study of chronic mastitis. "
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic mastitis is a prolonged inflammatory breast disease, and little is known about its etiology. We identified 85 cases and 112 controls from 5 hospitals in Morocco and Egypt. Cases were women with chronic mastitis (including periductal, lobular, granulomatous, lymphocytic, and duct ectasia with mastitis). Controls had benign breast disease, including fibroadenoma, benign phyllodes, and adenosis. Both groups were identified from histopathologically diagnosed patients from 2008 to 2011, frequency-matched on age. Patient interviews elicited demographic, reproductive, breastfeeding, and clinical histories. Cases had higher parity than controls (OR = 1.75, 1.62-1.90) and more reported history of contraception use (OR = 2.73, 2.07-3.61). Cases were less likely to report wearing a bra (OR = 0.56, 0.47-0.67) and less often used both breasts for breastfeeding (OR = 4.40, 3.39-5.72). Chronic mastitis cases were significantly less likely to be employed outside home (OR = 0.71, 0.60-0.84) and more likely to report mice in their households (OR = 1.63, 1.36-1.97). This is the largest case-control study reported to date on risk factors for chronic mastitis. Our study highlights distinct reproductive risk factors for the disease. Future studies should further explore these factors and the possible immunological and susceptibility predisposing conditions.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013
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    • "It has been reported that GLM is a self-limiting condition and can be expected to disappear on its own within 6-12 months with close surveillance [16,17]. In this study, seven of eight patients improved during their observation. "
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    ABSTRACT: To present the author's experience with various treatment methods of granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM) and to determine effective treatment methods of GLM. Fifty patients who were diagnosed with GLM were classified into five groups based on the initial treatment methods they underwent, which included observation (n = 8), antibiotics (n = 3), steroid (n = 13), drainage (n = 14), and surgical excision (n = 12). The treatment processes in each group were examined and their clinical characteristics, treatment processes, and results were analyzed respectively. Success rates with each initial treatment were observation, 87.5%; antibiotics, 33.3%; steroids, 30.8%; drainage, 28.6%; and surgical excision, 91.7%. In most cases of observation, the lesions were small and the symptoms were mild. A total of 23 patients underwent surgical excision during treatment. Surgical excision showed particularly fast recovery, high success rate (90.3%) and low recurrence rate (8.7%). The clinical course of GLM is complex and the outcome of each treatment type are variable. Surgery may play an important role when a lesion is determined to be mass-forming or appears localized as an abscess pocket during breast examination or imaging study.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Journal of the Korean Surgical Society
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    • "Review articles aim to clarify the diagnosis and management [2,5,7,9] and most authors debate the suitability of either conservative or surgical treatment [1]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare, benign, inflammatory chronic condition of unclear etiology. This case is reported because it illustrates how idiopathic granulomatous mastitis can mimic other diseases, making it difficult to associate the presenting symptoms and the correct diagnosis; This disease is a challenge for clinicians to diagnose, manage and avoid iatrogenic complications, and requires consultation with experts in several specialties. Case presentation The patient was 30 years old, South-American, eleven weeks pregnant, and with an apparent infectious mastitis. She presented with progressive worsening of her breast symptoms and multiple negative laboratory tests. She suffered different side effects from several prescribed treatments and endured a prolonged recovery. The article emphasizes the need for ruling out common pathologies to arrive at the correct diagnosis such as bacterial and fungal infections; granulomatous conditions like tuberculosis and sarcoidosis; and inflammatory breast carcinoma. It also describes frequently used pharmacological and supplementary forms of treatment for patients with this condition. Conclusion Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare unusual condition of unknown etiology. Pathological confirmation is required for its diagnosis and optimal management is still unclear. The presentation and management of this case is intended to advance its awareness to physicians from different specialties.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · BMC Research Notes
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