Article

Calculating the optimum temperature for serving hot beverages

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Abstract

Hot beverages such as tea, hot chocolate, and coffee are frequently served at temperatures between 160 degrees F (71.1 degrees C) and 185 degrees F (85 degrees C). Brief exposures to liquids in this temperature range can cause significant scald burns. However, hot beverages must be served at a temperature that is high enough to provide a satisfactory sensation to the consumer. This paper presents an analysis to quantify hot beverage temperatures that balance limiting the potential scald burn hazard and maintaining an acceptable perception of adequate product warmth. A figure of merit that can be optimized is defined that quantifies and combines both the above effects as a function of the beverage temperature. An established mathematical model for simulating burns as a function of applied surface temperature and time of exposure is used to quantify the extent of thermal injury. Recent data from the literature defines the consumer preferred drinking temperature of coffee. A metric accommodates the thermal effects of both scald hazard and product taste to identify an optimal recommended serving temperature. The burn model shows the standard exponential dependence of injury level on temperature. The preferred drinking temperature of coffee is specified in the literature as 140+/-15 degrees F (60+/-8.3 degrees C) for a population of 300 subjects. A linear (with respect to temperature) figure of merit merged the two effects to identify an optimal drinking temperature of approximately 136 degrees F (57.8 degrees C). The analysis points to a reduction in the presently recommended serving temperature of coffee to achieve the combined result of reducing the scald burn hazard and improving customer satisfaction.

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... These results provide further evidence that the preferred consumption temperature is much below that recommended for brewing. Brown and Diller (2008) An attempt to formally optimize beverage temperature was performed by Brown and Diller (2008). In that study, a figure of merit was used to simultaneously account for both preference and safety. ...
... These results provide further evidence that the preferred consumption temperature is much below that recommended for brewing. Brown and Diller (2008) An attempt to formally optimize beverage temperature was performed by Brown and Diller (2008). In that study, a figure of merit was used to simultaneously account for both preference and safety. ...
... 87 subjects participated in the study and the Borchgrevink et al. (1999) 68.3°C (155°F) Pipatsattayanuwong et al. (2001) 71.4°C (161.8°F) Lee and Mahoney (2002) 59.8°C (139.6°F) Brown and Diller (2008) 57.8°C (136°F). Stokes et al. (2016) 70.8°C (159.4°F) ...
Article
Hot beverages are served ubiquitously in the food‐service industry as well as at residences and other venues. Coffee and tea beverages, in particular, are brewed at temperatures that are sufficiently high to cause immediate and serious risk for scald injuries. On the other hand, numerous research studies have been performed to identify the preferred consumption temperatures for hot beverages. The outcome of these mutually reinforcing studies is that the preferred drinking temperatures are significantly below the often‐encountered brewing temperatures (∼200 °F). Consequently, there is great need to distinguish brewing temperatures from serving temperatures. Serving consumers beverages at very high temperatures is not only unnecessary (from a preference standpoint) but also unsafe. An appropriate range for service temperatures is (130 to 160 °F). Often times, hot beverages are served at temperatures near their brewing temperature; far hotter than preferred by consumers. This practice creates unnecessary risk to the consumer. A more rationale recommended range of service temperatures is 130 to 160 °F. This recommendation balances a range of consumer preferences and safety.
... In the catering industry, the recommended temperature for keeping drinks warm is between 85 and 88 • C [2]. According to Brown and Diller [3], hot beverages such as tea, hot chocolate, and coffee are frequently served at temperatures between 71.1 and 85 • C. These results were corroborated by data from a lawsuit against a fast food restaurant chain in the United States that showed that coffee that caused burns was dispensed at a temperature between 75 and 88 • C [4]. ...
... This drop in temperature depends on several factors such as the initial temperature of the drink, the time between preparation and its introduction into the mouth, the thermal properties of the container, the ambient temperature, and the amount of other added substances such as milk and cream. [3]. When capacities of consumers who were accustomed to drinking very hot beverages should be lower than that of consumers accustomed to lower temperatures. ...
... The addition of milk, which is quite common for this type of hot drink, may explain this result. Indeed, adding substances such as milk and cream ultimately lead to a reduction in consumption temperature [3,4,6]. We also observed that the frequency of subjects consuming their tea at a very hot level was high compared to other drinks. ...
Article
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The temperature range for consuming hot drinks includes temperatures that can damage cells on the tongue. We hypothesized that the consumption of very hot drinks can lead to a decrease in the ability to perceive low concentrations of tastants. We evaluated the ability to perceive low concentrations of five prototypical sapid compounds in 42 women and 40 men aged 18–65. A questionnaire made it possible to collect the usual frequencies (number of unit/day) and consumption temperature levels (medium hot/very hot) for four very common hot drinks (coffee, tea, herbal infusions, and hot chocolate). Our results showed that subjects who consumed very hot drinks (versus medium hot) were less sensitive to sweet (p = 0.020) and salty (p = 0.046) tastes. An aggravating effect of high consumption frequencies was only shown for sweet taste (p = 0.036). Moreover, our data also showed that women were more sensitive than men to sour, bitter, and umami tastes (p values < 0.05), as well as that taste sensitivity decreases with age, especially after 50 years old (all tastes; p values < 0.05). These findings strengthen our knowledge about the influence of sex and age on taste sensitivity, and they provide knowledge on the influence of consumption habits related to hot drinks on taste sensitivity.
... According to Borchgrevink, Susskind, and Tarras (1999), the ideal serving temperature for hot brewed coffee was found to be 68 to 79 °C (154 to 174 °F). However, other studies have suggested a recommended serving temperature according to consumer's preference to be around 50-60°C (Brown & Diller, 2007;Lee & O'Mahony, 2002;Pipatsattayanuwong, Lee, Lau, & O'Mahony, 2001). Those differences suggest variation when it comes to serving temperatures of coffee. ...
... Such differences in temperature are almost never considered when evaluating the sensory quality of coffee. The National Coffee Association of U.S.A., Inc., recommends that the temperature of coffee must be between 82.2 °C and 85 °C (180 °F and 185 °F) for optimal flavor notes (Lingle, 1996;Brown & Diller, 2007). ...
... Different coffee samples showed variation in intensity of perceived flavor attributes. This is because coffee samples were different in degree of roasting, types and, thus, also rich flavor notes that could impact the perceived flavor attributes , 1996;Brown & Diller, 2007). However, our findings suggest that these differences may be dependent on the coffee, which may be why the range of suggested temperatures ...
Article
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The sensory properties of coffee are impacted by various factors such as coffee origin, degree of roasting and methods of consumption. This study analyzed impact of consumption temperature on 36 flavor attributes of hot brewed coffee by descriptive sensory analysis. Different coffee samples (2 Arabica, 1 Robusta, and 1 Blended Arabica and Robusta) were consumed at 50 °C, 60 °C and 70 °C. Data were assessed using an Analysis of Variance, mixed effect model with least square means and significance level of α = 0.05. Results showed significant interactions of consumption temperature and coffee samples for attributes such as coffee identity, fidelity, and blendedness. The consumption temperature played a major impact on perceived flavor attributes of coffee and influenced Arabica, Blended and Robusta coffee differently. Coffee identity and fidelity significantly increased with an increase in all temperatures, but most attributes showed significantly higher intensity only for samples consumed at 70 °C regardless of insignificant differences at 60 °C and 50 °C.
... In most sensory studies of brewed coffee, test samples have been served at a specific temperature within the range of 55 to 85°C at which consumers typically prefer to drink their brewed coffee (Borchgrevink, Susskind, & Tarras, 1999;Brown & Diller, 2008;Lee & O'Mahony, 2002;Nebesny & Budryn, 2006). However, it is worth noting that in reality, consumers drink their brewed coffee over a range of temperatures typically starting very hot (the recommended holding temperature is 80-85°C, Borchgrevink et al., 1999), and declining all the way to room temperature (25-30°C), in particular when people consume hot coffee concurrently with other activities like performing office work or engaging in social conversations (Pramudya & Seo, 2018a). ...
... However, such plausible variations, in serving/consumption temperature, with respect to sensory attributes of brewed coffee have been overlooked by sensory professionals. Most research associated with the effect of serving temperature in coffee beverages has been limited to examining only overall acceptability and/or thermal burning sensations in the oral cavity (Borchgrevink et al., 1999;Brown & Diller, 2008;Lee & O'Mahony, 2002). ...
Article
In most previous studies, brewed coffee samples were served at specific serving temperatures for sensory evaluation. While several recent studies have illustrated that serving temperature does have an impact on sensory attribute intensities of brewed coffee, more elaboration is needed. By focusing on knowledge gaps between earlier studies, this study sought to determine whether and how sensory attributes of brewed coffee can vary as a function of serving temperature and coffee variety. In this study, 6 trained panelists rated intensities of 32 sensory attributes (3 appearances, 12 aromas, 2 tastes, 13 flavors, and 2 mouthfeels) with respect to brewed coffee samples, of each of three varieties (Ethiopian, Kenyan, and Colombian) served at four different serving temperatures: 70, 55, 40, and 25 °C, respectively. The results indicated that intensities of 18 and 7 attributes, respectively, differed significantly with serving temperature and coffee variety. A principal component analysis (PCA) showed the greater amount of data variation could be attributed to serving temperature (63.28%) rather than coffee variety (21.24%), much like the result of a hierarchical clustering analysis. Regression vector (RV) coefficients, determined by a factor score matrix of brewed coffee samples served at different temperatures, revealed that brewed coffee samples served at 70 and 55 °C were perceived differently from those served at 40 and 25 °C. In conclusion, the findings emphasize that sensory attributes of brewed coffee samples should be evaluated at multiple serving temperatures, both higher (70 to 55 °C) and lower (40 to 25 °C) ones, to better capture sensory attributes of brewed coffee than those from a traditional sensory evaluation. Further study is needed to characterize different coffee samples with respect to lessening an overwhelming effect of serving temperature.
... If the coffee has a temperature of 70 • C, thus the contact temperature estimation will be about 55 • C. On the other hand, the formula results in a temperature of 57 • C, which would cause the tongue to be heated at around the pain threshold temperature of 48 • C [18]. This is corroborated by the optimal drinking temperature of 57.8 • C postulated by Brown and Diller [19] based on data modelling for simulating burns from various in vivo studies. These theoretical estimations well confirm the measurements of proband's tongue surfaces of Lee et al. [18]. ...
... This consumption preference of German consumers may explain the fact that an increased incidence of oesophageal cancer has not been described in connection to hot beverage consumption in Germany, while in other countries, such as for tea in Iran or mate in South America, where such epidemiological associations were mainly described, the preferred consumption temperature was typically much higher than 70 • C [3][4][5][6][7][8]. All other previous studies were conducted in the USA, and very similar consumer preference was detected in this country as in our study (ideal consumption temperature 63-68 • C [24]; optimal drinking temperature 58 • C [19]; most preferred serving temperature 75 • C [25]; mean preferred temperature for drinking 60 • C [23]; preferred temperature of ingestion 56 • C [22]). ...
Article
Full-text available
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluates “very hot (>65 °C) beverages” as probably carcinogenic to humans. However, there is a lack of research regarding what temperatures consumers actually perceive as “very hot” or as “too hot”. A method for sensory analysis of such threshold temperatures was developed. The participants were asked to mix a very hot coffee step by step into a cooler coffee. Because of that, the coffee to be tasted was incrementally increased in temperature during the test. The participants took a sip at every addition, until they perceive the beverage as too hot for consumption. The protocol was evaluated in the form of a pilot study using 87 participants. Interestingly, the average pain threshold of the test group (67 °C) and the preferred drinking temperature (63 °C) iterated around the IARC threshold for carcinogenicity. The developed methodology was found as fit for the purpose and may be applied in larger studies.
... Since the extent of burns is strongly correlated with temperature level, reduction of temperature amounts to a reduction in burn injury. For instance, for hot beverages, preferred temperatures are much lower than the 140-160 ∘ F recommended by beverage purveyors [98][99][100][101][102]. When consumer safety and drinking preference are both considered, the optimal beverage temperature is 136 ∘ F [98]. ...
... For instance, for hot beverages, preferred temperatures are much lower than the 140-160 ∘ F recommended by beverage purveyors [98][99][100][101][102]. When consumer safety and drinking preference are both considered, the optimal beverage temperature is 136 ∘ F [98]. Served beverage temperatures at purveyor-recommended values are unnecessarily high and present an immediate scald threat. ...
Chapter
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Skin burns are very common injuries that affect people of all ages in all parts of the world. Burns are particularly harmful because damage can be life threatening or, in other cases, can require long‐term care accompanied by great physical and emotional pain and economic costs. Full‐thickness burns extend through the full depth of the dermal layer into the subcutaneous tissue and require extensive medical treatment. The procedure to calculate the extent of burn injuries requires two steps. First, temperatures within the tissue must be determined. Next, translating these temperatures to an injury criterion must be achieved. The aforementioned calculations were performed using a high‐fidelity modeling program; however, the gold standard is, and should be, experimental/clinical evidence. Scald burns or other skin burns are serious concerns for human health and safety. It is possible to reduce the frequency and impact of skin burns by controlled exposure temperatures.
... For leaching experiments, we ran three separate trials using temperatures that are realistic to hot food and drink −70 and 95 • C (Brown and Diller, 2008; Table 1). For Trial 1, all food and liquid matrices were prepared with 70 • C water and were in contact with polystyrene products for 30 min. ...
... Here, we aimed to conduct leaching experiments under scenarios that are realistic to how each product is used for eating and drinking. Temperatures used in this study ranged from 70 to 95 • C (Brown and Diller, 2008), and products were not exposed to leachate for more than 30 min. Under these conditions, leachate concentrations for styrene and ethylbenzene were below the limits accepted by the WHO: 20 ppb for styrene and 300 ppb for ethylbenzene (World Health Organization, 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
Expanded polystyrene (EPS) products and their associated chemicals (e.g., styrenes) are widespread in the marine environment. As a consequence, bans on their use for single-use packaging materials are being proposed in several municipalities. To better understand how science can inform decision-making, we looked at the available scientific literature about contamination and effects and conducted experiments to measure chemical leachate from polystyrene products and toxicity from the leachate. We conducted leaching experiments with common food matrices (water, soup broth, gravy, black coffee and coffee with cream and sugar) at relevant temperatures (70 and 95°C) that are consumed in or with several polystyrene products (coffee cup lids, polystyrene stir sticks, polystyrene spoons, EPS cups, EPS bowls, and EPS takeout containers). We analyzed each sample for styrene, ethylbenzene, toluene, benzene, meta- and para- xylene, isopropylbenzene, and isopropyltoluene—chemicals associated with polystyrene products. To determine whether the leachates are toxic, we conducted chronic toxicity tests, measuring survival and reproductive output in Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity tests included nine treatments: seven concentrations of ethylbenzene, EPS cup leachate and a negative control. Overall, we found that temperature has a significant effect on leaching. We only detected leachates in trials conducted at higher temperature −95°C. Ethylbenzene was the only target analyte with final concentrations above the method limit of detection, and was present in the greatest concentrations in EPS and with soup broth. Measurable concentrations of ethylbenzene in the leachate ranged from 1.3 to 3.4 μg/L. In toxicity tests, the calculated LC50 for ethylbenzene was 14 mg/L and the calculated LC20 was 210 μg/L. For the treatment exposed to the EPS cup leachate, mortality was 40%—four times greater than the negative control. Finally, there was no significant difference (p = 0.17) between reproductive output for any treatment with ethylbenzene, but there was a significant reduction (p = 0.01) in reproductive output for the treatment exposed to the EPS leachate compared to the negative control. Thus, although the target analyte ethylbenzene was not toxic at concentrations detected in the leachate, significant adverse effects were detected in the whole EPS cup leachate sample.
... Consumer acceptance of foods or beverages often varies with their serving temperatures (Brown & Diller, 2008;Cardello & Maller, 1982;Lee & O'Mahony, 2002). In general, consumers' hedonic ratings for certain foods or beverages are the highest in the temperature ranges in which they are usually consumed (Cardello & Maller, 1982). ...
... Furthermore, cooked rice in a lunchbox is most likely consumed at less than room temperature in Japan and Korea (Yau & Huang, 1996). Finally, temperatures of foods or beverages affect not only releases of volatile compounds (Francis et al., 2005;Steen et al., 2017), but may also affect sensory perception and acceptance (Brown & Diller, 2008;Cardello & Maller, 1982;Drake et al., 2005;Engelen et al., 2003;Kim et al., 2015;Lee & O'Mahony, 2002). These three points indicate that temperature variations of hot or cold foods and beverages often occur during consumption and further influence sensory perception of those items. ...
Article
Temperatures of most hot or cold meal items change over the period of consumption, possibly influencing sensory perception of those items. Unlike temporal variations in sensory attributes, product temperature-induced variations have not received much attention. Using a Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) method, this study aimed to characterize variations in sensory attributes over a wide range of temperatures at which hot or cold foods and beverages may be consumed. Cooked milled rice, typically consumed at temperatures between 70 and 30 °C in many rice-eating countries, was used as a target sample in this study. Two brands of long-grain milled rice were cooked and randomly presented at 70, 60, 50, 40, and 30 °C. Thirty-five CATA terms for cooked milled rice were generated. Eighty-eight untrained panelists were asked to quickly select all the CATA terms that they considered appropriate to characterize sensory attributes of cooked rice samples presented at each temperature. Proportions of selection by panelists for 13 attributes significantly differed among the five temperature conditions. “Product temperature-dependent sensory-attribute variations” differed with two brands of milled rice grains. Such variations in sensory attributes, resulted from both product temperature and rice brand, were more pronounced among panelists who more frequently consumed rice. In conclusion, the CATA method can be useful for characterizing “product temperature-dependent sensory attribute variations” in cooked milled-rice samples. Further study is needed to examine whether the CATA method is also effective in capturing “product temperature-dependent sensory-attribute variations” in other hot or cold foods and beverages.
... These data show that beverage service temperatures, which are often in excess of 180 ℉ are at levels which have the potential to cause serious physical harm. Furthermore, some beverage service temperatures are above the preferred temperature for the consumers [57][58][59][60][61] . ...
... The temperature of 55 °C was decided in a preexperiment, and was unisonous determined as highest temperature well bearable by a group of 5 testers. This also resembles the recommended optimal drinking temperature of approximately 57.8 °C [39]. Citric acid, which served as control, was tested at all described temperatures. ...
Article
Objectives: Aim of this investigation was to study the temperature-dependent in vitro enamel erosion of five acidic drinks and citric acid under controlled conditions in an artificial mouth. Methods: The erosive potential of Orange juice, Coca-Cola Zero, Sprite Zero, two fruit teas and citric acid (control) was investigated on bovine enamel specimens at temperatures between 5 °C and 55 °C. The pH values and total calcium content of all test drinks were determined. Specimens were immersed into an artificial mouth to imitate physiological oral conditions for 60 h. Cyclic de- and re-mineralization was performed, imitating the intake of six drinks in six h followed by a six-hour remineralization phase, where only artificial saliva ran over the specimens. Total erosive enamel loss was determined by contact profilometry. Differences in substance loss at different temperatures were tested for statistical significance (p-values ≤ 0.05) by means of ANOVA. Results: Rising liquid temperature did not result in a considerable change of pH. Highest substance loss was observed for citric acid (33.6 ± 6 μm to 38.7 ± 6 μm), while only little erosion was induced by fruit tea (0.8 ± 1 μm to 5.9 ± 1 μm). Rising liquid temperature did not result in significantly increased substance loss for citric acid, orange juice and Coca-Cola Zero. Sprite Zero and both fruit teas, however, caused significantly (p < 0.001) more enamel loss at elevated temperature. Conclusions: Not all investigated drinks showed a temperature-induced change in erosivity. Clinical significance: For some erosive beverages it can be recommended to keep the consummation temperature as low as possible to decrease the risk of erosive tooth substance loss.
... One beverage was presented in a plain cup, and the other one was presented in a cup with the sad emoji expression. The beverages were served at 60 °C based on previous literature on the ideal temperature for hot beverages considering consumers' preference and avoidance of burn hazard (Brown & Diller, 2008). ...
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Throughout six experiments (five pre-registered), we found that embodying a product with emotional content, by using emoji facial expressions, influences its expected temperature in online settings. A negative valence, low arousal expression on the receptacle of a hot chocolate beverage leads to lower expected temperature than a positive valence, high arousal expression and a control condition without any expression. The influence of the emoji expression is enhanced by higher anthropomorphism (i.e., making individuals focus on the emotions of the product). Our results suggest that these effects are driven by the product embodying the emotional connotation of the expressions and subsequently their respective associated temperatures. Importantly, our findings point to the presence of negativity biases, as the negative stimuli exerted a larger impact than the positive one. Our research adds to the literature on embodied cognition and consumer behavior and offers insights for marketers on a novel way to leverage emotional cues to influence product expectations and highlight specific sensory features.
... Although there may be some discernable differences between synthetic and natural caffeine (Zhang and others 2012), all caffeine consumed in the taste was synthetic, aside from any remnant in the decaffeinated coffee that both study arms consumed. As temperature can influence the perception of sweet or bitter taste (Kapaun and Dando 2017), samples were poured fresh from a food-safe sous vide water bath maintained at a constant temperature of 60°C, determined by others as the optimal temperature for immediate consumption (Brown and Diller 2008). ...
Article
Multiple recent reports have detailed the presence of adenosine receptors in sweet sensitive taste cells of mice. These receptors are activated by endogenous adenosine in the plasma to enhance sweet signals within the taste bud, before reporting to the primary afferent. As we commonly consume caffeine, a powerful antagonist for such receptors, in our daily lives, an intriguing question we sought to answer was whether the caffeine we habitually consume in coffee can inhibit the perception of sweet taste in humans. 107 panelists were randomly assigned to 2 groups, sampling decaffeinated coffee supplemented with either 200 mg of caffeine, about the level found in a strong cup of coffee, or an equally bitter concentration of quinine. Participants subsequently performed sensory testing, with the session repeated in the alternative condition in a second session on a separate day. Panelists rated both the sweetened coffee itself and subsequent sucrose solutions as less sweet in the caffeine condition, despite the treatment having no effect on bitter, sour, salty, or umami perception. Panelists were also unable to discern whether they had consumed the caffeinated or noncaffeinated coffee, with ratings of alertness increased equally, but no significant improvement in reaction times, highlighting coffee's powerful placebo effect. This work validates earlier observations in rodents in a human population.
... There seems to be consensus of a serving temperature 213 in the range of 80-85 • C among established coffee authorities and producers 214 (Merrild, n.d.; National Coffee Association of America, n.d.), whereas several 215 different consumer studies reveals that most consumers prefer a serving tem-216 perature between 60 and 70 • C (Borchgrevink et al., 1999; Lee and O'Mahony, 217 2002). The temperature of 60 • C was chosen as it is low enough not to in-218 duce scalding hazards(Brown and Diller, 2008) and also represents the same 219 temperature as the coffee would normally be consumed by the consumer. ...
Article
The demand for high quality and specialty coffee is increasing worldwide. In order to meet these demands, a more uniform and standardized quality assessment of coffee is essential. The aim of this study was to make a sensory scientific and chemical characterization of common roasting defects in coffee, and to investigate their potential relevance for consumers’ acceptance of coffee. To this end, six time-temperature roasting profiles based on a single origin Arabica bean were developed: one ‘normal’ representing a reference coffee free of defects, and five common roast defects (‘dark’ ‘light’ ‘scorched’ ‘baked’ and ‘underdeveloped’. The coffee samples obtained from these beans were evaluated by means of (1) aroma analysis by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS), (2) sensory descriptive analysis (DA) by trained assessors, and (3) hedonic and sensory evaluation by consumers using a Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) questionnaire. Multivariate analyses of aroma, DA, and CATA data produced similar sample spaces, showing a clear opposition of the light roast to the dark and scorched roasts), with the normal roast having average values of key aroma compounds. The DA data confirmed this indications and showed the normal roast to have a balanced sensory profile compared to the other defects. Importantly, the normal roast was also significantly preferred in the consumer test (N=83), and significantly associated to positive CATA attributes ‘Harmonic’ ‘Pleasant’ and ‘Balanced’. Taken overall, the results provide a solid basis for understanding chemical and sensory markers associated with common roasting defects, which coffee professionals may use internally in both quality control and product development applications.
... Coffee and tea are generally brewed at high temperatures to aid in solubilizing compounds which have limited lower temperature water solubility. However, these beverages are hazardous at the brewed temperatures, potentially causing burns, and are less enjoyable for consumption when too hot [36]. In Fig. 4, the PCM cup cools the hot beverage from the 85 C dispensing temperature to the ideal range in less than 1 min, and remains within this range for 3 h and 55 min. ...
Article
A series of phase change materials produced primarily from non-toxic renewable vegetable oil derivatives are described. It is shown that the synthesis of the materials from commercially available fatty acid methyl esters and short-chain dialcohols is rapid and effective. The phase change temperatures of these materials can be predictively varied, while maintaining similar latent heat values, as a function of the length of the fatty acid methyl esters and/or short chain dialcohols. This facilitates the synthesis of phase change materials which function over a wide range of working temperatures, whilst maintaining the amount of heat absorbed or released within a predictable range. The PCMs described compare favorably to other commercial PCMs, with similar or higher latent heat values. One diester which melts within a normal hot beverage consumption range was used to test diester thermoregulation. An insulated beverage container was modified with a PCM liner and filled with water initially at 85 C. The PCM modified container brought the water to a drinkable temperature range (60 C ± 10 C) in less than 1 min and held the temperature of the water within the desired range for a longer duration than a control without added PCM.
... Solving the heat transfer equation for the geometry shown in Fig. 7 indicates that the presence of a 1 mm thick electrospun layer of the same nanoscale PCL fibers fabricated in this study can decrease the temperature rise of bone about 10 C after one minute of exposure to a hot beverage (Fig. 9). Beverage (coffee) temperature is assumed to be 85 C for the worst-case scenario, 30 and convective heat transfer coefficient is 5000 W/m 2 K. 16,31 IV. CONCLUSIONS Electrospun PCL fibers were aimed at both laserprocessed and unprocessed titanium sheets, followed by immersion of the derived samples in SBF for four weeks to determine HA formation. ...
Article
In this study, a combination of electrospinning and laser texturing is introduced as a novel method for increasing the biocompatibility of metal implants. Besides having a rough laser treated surface, the implant benefits from the high porosity and better wettability of an electrospun fibrous structure, which is a more favorable environment for cell proliferation. Titanium samples were patterned using a nanosecond laser beam and were placed as collectors in an electrospinning machine. They were then soaked in simulated body fluid for four weeks. Energy Dispersive X-ray and X-Ray Diffraction results indicate significantly more hydroxyapatite formation on laser treated samples with nanoscale fibers deposited on their surface. This shows that having a laser treated surface underneath the fibrous layer can improve short-term biocompatibility even before degradation of fibers. The thermal conductivity of the electrospun layer, measured using a Hot Disk Transient Plane Source instrument and computer code, was shown to be considerably lower than that of titanium and very close to bone. The presence of this layer can therefore be beneficial in making the implant more compatible to a biological medium. In case of dental implants, it was shown that this layer can act as a thermal barrier while a hot beverage is consumed and it can decrease the temperature rise by about 60%, which avoids any possible damage to newly formed cells during the healing period.
... There already exists some literature on the subject [6][7][8][9][10]. These studies generally deal with preferred hot-beverage drinking temperatures and the corresponding potential for burn injuries. ...
Article
A comprehensive study was performed to quantify the risk of burns from hot beverage spills. The study was comprised of three parts. First, experiments were carried out to measure the cooling rates of beverages in a room-temperature environment by natural convection and thermal radiation. The experiments accounted for different beverage volumes, initial temperatures, cooling period between the time of service and the spill, the material which comprised the cup, the presence or absence of a cap, and the presence or absence of an insulating corrugated paper sleeve. Among this list, the parameters which most influenced the temperature variation was the presence or absence of a cover or cap, the volume of the beverage, and the duration of the cooling period. The second step was a series of experiments that provided temperatures at the surface of skin or skin surrogate after a spill. The experiments incorporated a single layer of cotton clothing and the exposure duration was 30 seconds. The outcomes of the experiments were used as input to a numerical model which calculated the temperature distribution and burn depth within tissue. Last was the implementation of the numerical model and a catalogue of burn predictions for various beverage volumes, beverage service temperatures, and durations between beverage service and spill. It is hoped that this catalogue can be used by both beverage industries and consumers to reduce the threat of burn injuries. It can also be used by treating medical professionals who can quickly estimate burns depths following a spill incident.
... Besides, people may get the scald burns on the tongue if they drink hot coffee at the temperature range of 70°C to 90°C. The serving temperatures of hot coffee can also be in the range of 50°C to 60°C depending on the customer's satisfaction [18]. ...
... The study employed three parallel consumption conditions: 200 mL of black tea (Lipton Yellow Label), placebo tea (flavoured and coloured water), both served at a drinkable temperature of 60 Celcius (Brown & Diller, 2008), or water at room temperature. Tea was consumed without sugar and milk. ...
Article
Tea has historically been associated with mood benefits. Nevertheless, few studies have empirically investigated mood changes after tea consumption. We explored immediate effects of a single cup of tea up to an hour post-consumption on self-reported valence, arousal, discrete emotions, and implicit measures of mood. In a parallel group design, 153 participants received a cup of tea or placebo tea, or a glass of water. Immediately (i.e. 5 minutes) after consumption, tea increased valence but reduced arousal, as compared to the placebo. There were no differences at later time points. Discrete emotions did not differ significantly between conditions, immediately or over time. Water consumption increased implicit positivity as compared to placebo. Finally, consumption of tea and water resulted in higher interest in activities overall and in specific activity types compared to placebo. The present study shows that effects of a single cup of tea may be limited to an immediate increase in pleasure and decrease in arousal, which can increase interest in activities. Differences between tea and water were not significant, while differences between water and placebo on implicit measures were unexpected. More servings over a longer time may be required to evoke tea's arousing effects and appropriate tea consumption settings may evoke more enduring valence effects.
... We reviewed the literature for other studies of preferred beverage temperature [16][17][18]23,[31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40] (Table 4), and found that the mean preferred tea temperature in our study was 1.5°C higher than any other studied population. It should be noted that the various studies presented in Table 4 use various methodologies to assess temperature and this limits the ability to compare them, and numerous studies concerning beverage temperature do not report descriptive statistics for temperature. ...
Article
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Background Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is common in certain areas worldwide. One area, western Kenya, has a high risk of ESCC, including many young cases (<30 years old), but has limited prior study of potential risk factors. Thermal injury from hot food and beverages and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been proposed as important risk factors for ESCC in other settings. The beverage of choice in western Kenya is milky tea (chai). Methods Healthy individuals >18 years of age who were accompanying relatives to an endoscopy unit were recruited to participate. The preferred initial temperature of chai consumption in these adults was measured by questionnaire and digital thermometer. Comparisons of these results were assessed by kappa statistics. Concentrations of 26 selected PAHs were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in samples of 11 brands of commercial tea leaves commonly consumed in Kenya. Results Kappa values demonstrated moderate agreement between questionnaire responses and measured temperatures. The mean preferred chai temperatures were 72.1 °C overall, 72.6 °C in men (n = 78), and 70.2 °C in women (n = 22; p < 0.05). Chai temperature did not significantly differ by age or ethnic group. The PAH levels in the commercial Kenyan tea leaves were uniformly low (total PAH < 300 ng/g of leaves). Conclusions Study participants drink chai at higher temperatures than previously reported in other high-risk ESCC regions. Chai is not, however, a source of significant PAH exposure. Very hot chai consumption should be further evaluated as a risk factor for ESCC in Kenya with the proposed questionnaire.
... Warm fluids have been consumed since antiquity (1). Their ingestion and preferences with respect to temperature have established a predilection for warm beverages between 55°and 70°C and even up to 78.5°C (2). Hot fluid ingestion has been associated with a potential increase in cancer, leading the International Agency for Research on Cancer to classify hot fluids (>65°C) as probably carcinogenic to humans (3); however, temperatures between 55°and 65°C have been identified as an ideal temperature range associated with a satisfactory sensation to the consumer without burning and harmful effects (4,5). ...
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We hypothesized that ingested warm fluids could act as triggers for biomedical devices. We investigated heat dissipation throughout the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract by administering warm (55°C) water to pigs and identified two zones in which thermal actuation could be applied: esophageal (actuation through warm water ingestion) and extra-esophageal (protected from ingestion of warm liquids and actuatable by endoscopically administered warm fluids). Inspired by a blooming flower, we developed a capsule-sized esophageal system that deploys using elastomeric elements and then recovers its original shape in response to thermal triggering of shape-memory nitinol springs by ingestion of warm water. Degradable millineedles incorporated into the system could deliver model molecules to the esophagus. For the extra-esophageal compartment, we developed a highly flexible macrostructure (mechanical metamaterial) that deforms into a cylindrical shape to safely pass through the esophagus and deploys into a fenestrated spherical shape in the stomach, capable of residing safely in the gastric cavity for weeks. The macrostructure uses thermoresponsive elements that dissociate when triggered with the endoscopic application of warm (55°C) water, allowing safe passage of the components through the GI tract. Our gastric-resident platform acts as a gram-level long-lasting drug delivery dosage form, releasing small-molecule drugs for 2 weeks. We anticipate that temperature-triggered systems could usher the development of the next generation of stents, drug delivery, and sensing systems housed in the GI tract.
... Sixty milliliters of low pulp orange juice was consumed chilled at 5°C. Sixty milliliters of unsweetened coffee was served at the preferred drinking temperature of 60 ± 8.3°C (Brown and Diller 2008). Panelists were asked to drink the entire serving of the beverage, or chew the half of piece of gum served for 1 min, then discard it into a spit cup. ...
Article
Food sensory tests generally require panelists to abstain from food or beverage consumption 30 min to an hour before a tasting session. However, investigators do not have a complete control over panelists' intentional or unintentional consumption prior to a tasting session. Currently, it is unclear how prior consumption impacts the results of the tasting session. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of temporary and lingering mouth irritation caused by the consumption of coffee, orange juice, and gum within 1, 15, or 30 min prior to the tasting session on the perception of 4 basic tastes: sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. Fifty-two panelists were served a beverage (orange juice, coffee, and water) or were asked to chew a piece of gum, and then, remained in the waiting room for 1, 15, or 30 min. They were then asked to report taste intensities using 15-cm unstructured line scales. Mean intensities of all tastes were not significantly different when orange juice was a primer at 1, 15, and 30 min when compared to water. Mean intensities of bitter were significantly lower when coffee was a primer at 1, 15, and 30 min than when water was a primer. Mean intensities of sweet were significantly lower when gum was a primer at 1 and 15 min than when water was a primer. The findings showed that it is necessary for 30 min or more waiting period of no food or beverage consumption prior to sensory testing.
... Tea, coffee, and chocolate-based beverages are common hot drinks which are served at temperatures between 71.8°C and 85.8°C (Brown and Diller, 2008). ...
... Interestingly, it has been reported by several studies that the most preferred or recommended drinking temperatures of black coffee are often well below the mean serving temperatures encountered in the two mentioned studied (~75 • C), for instance (decimals were rounded to the near whole number), 68 • C [24], 72 • C [25], 60 • C [26], 58 • C [27] and 63 • C [28]. ...
Article
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The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified the consumption of “very hot” beverages (temperature >65 °C) as “probably carcinogenic to humans”, but there is no information regarding the serving temperature of Brazil’s most consumed hot beverage—coffee. The serving temperatures of best-selling coffee beverages in 50 low-cost food service establishments (LCFS) and 50 coffee shops (CS) were studied. The bestsellers in the LCFS were dominated by 50 mL shots of sweetened black coffee served in disposable polystyrene (PS) cups from thermos flasks. In the CS, 50 mL shots of freshly brewed espresso served in porcelain cups were the dominant beverage. The serving temperatures of all beverages were on average 90% and 68% above 65 °C in the LCFS and CS, respectively (P95 and median value of measurements: 77 and 70 °C, LCFS; 75 and 69 °C, CS). Furthermore, the cooling periods of hot water systems (50 mL at 75 °C and 69 °C in porcelain cups; 50 mL at 77 °C and 70 °C in PS cups) to 65 °C were investigated. When median temperatures of the best-selling coffees are considered, consumers should allow a minimum cooling time before drinking of about 2 min at both LCFS and CS.
... Research has been done on the consumption temperature of others infusions, manly, coffee and tea. Brown and Diller (2008) and Borchgrevink et al.(1999) studied coffee consumption temperature and preference of them. They found that consumers preferred relatively hot temperatures (62.8 ºC to 68.3 ºC). ...
Article
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The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that temperatures above 65ºC in hot beverages could be potentially carcinogenic. If they are consumed below 65ºC are considered as non-carcinogenic to humans. Coffee and tea are consumed in cups and the infusion is put in direct contact with the mouth. In contrast, in hot maté a device similar to a straw is used to sip the infusion. Therefore, the temperature of the infusion when reaching the consumer’s mouth is generally lower than the temperature of the water used to prepare the infusion. In this investigation usual conditions of consumption of hot mate by sensorial analysis were determined. Taking these conditions into account, experiments were carried out using temperature sensors to determine the infusion temperature when entering the mouth of the consumer and the variables influence it. Our findings suggest that the infusion temperature at the point of consumption is always below 58ºC and is influenced by the water temperature, the amount of yerba maté and the frequency of sipping. Keywords
... Despite green tea being preferably consumed at higher temperatures, e.g. 65 to 85˚C [21,22], there is no information relating temperature, and the subsequent effects on dental structures. For example, the degree of erosion on teeth was proportional to the increase in temperature; however, the assessment was using citric acid [23], a corrosive liquid. ...
Article
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Tea is a popular beverage consumed at different temperatures. The effect of tea on teeth at different temperatures has not been studied previously. The present study used an in vitro green tea immersed tooth model at different tea temperatures (hot and cold) compared to an in vivo tea administration model allowing rats to drink tea over the course of a week. The elements present in tea leaves were identified by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and compared to the elements in teeth (enamel surface) using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). Here, LIBS demonstrated in vivo and in vitro green tea treatments resulted in a significant increase in the mineral elements found in enamel. For the in vitro assessment, elements in enamel varied based on cold-tea and hot-tea treatment; however, hot water reduced the elements in enamel. Atomic force microscopy found the in vivo tea group had a higher roughness average (RA) compared with the in vivo water group. Cold tea and hot tea in vitro groups demonstrated lower RA than in vitro water controls. Scanning electron microscopy found hot water induced cracks more than 1.3μm in enamel while cold tea and hot tea promoted the adhering of extrinsic matter to teeth. Overall, teeth treated to high temperature lost the mineral phase leading to demineralization. Our results indicate that green tea protects enamel, but its protective action in dental structures is enhanced at cold temperature.
... There was some doubt about esophageal cancer, since this cancer has been often observed in subjects drinking very hot beverages, mainly tea and mate [163]. The preferred temperature for the consumption of coffee has been found to be 60 ± 8.3 • C, while the optimum temperature safe for the esophageal mucosa is considered as being 57.8 • C [167]. Hence, the usual temperature of coffee consumption is lower than the temperature leading to burns and lesions of the esophageal mucosa with potential evolution to cancer [168]. ...
Article
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The objective of the present research was to review the state of the art on the consequences of drinking coffee at the different levels of the gastrointestinal tract. At some steps of the digestive process, the effects of coffee consumption seem rather clear. This is the case for the stimulation of gastric acid secretion, the stimulation of biliary and pancreatic secretion, the reduction of gallstone risk, the stimulation of colic motility, and changes in the composition of gut microbiota. Other aspects are still controversial, such as the possibility for coffee to affect gastro-esophageal reflux, peptic ulcers, and intestinal inflammatory diseases. This review also includes a brief summary on the lack of association between coffee consumption and cancer of the different digestive organs, and points to the powerful protective effect of coffee against the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. This review reports the available evidence on different topics and identifies the areas that would most benefit from additional studies.
... As Supplementary Table S1 shows, coffee temperature immediately post brew was 4-5 °C lower for the 87° brewing temperature than for the 93° brewing temperature. This lower temperature is safer with regard to the risk of scald burns 50 . Furthermore, although coffee as a beverage has been removed from lists of substances believed to be carcinogenic due to chemical composition 51 , studies of tea and maté consumption indicate that regular consumption of beverages above 65 °C is correlated to increased risk of oesophageal cancer 52 . ...
Article
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The brew temperature is widely considered a key parameter affecting the final quality of coffee, with a temperature near 93 °C often described as optimal. In particular, drip brewers that do not achieve a minimum brew temperature of 92 °C within a prescribed time period fail their certification. There is little empirical evidence in terms of rigorous sensory descriptive analysis or consumer preference testing, however, to support any particular range of brew temperatures. In this study, we drip-brewed coffee to specific brew strengths, as measured by total dissolved solids (TDS), and extraction yields, as measured by percent extraction (PE), spanning the range of the classic Coffee Brewing Control Chart. Three separate brew temperatures of 87 °C, 90 °C, or 93 °C were tested, adjusting the grind size and overall brew time as necessary to achieve the target TDS and PE. Although the TDS and PE both significantly affected the sensory profile of the coffee, surprisingly the brew temperature had no appreciable impact. We conclude that brew temperature should be considered as only one of several parameters that affect the extraction dynamics, and that ultimately the sensory profile is governed by differences in TDS and PE rather than the brew temperature, at least over the range of temperatures tested.
... Immediately after being prepared or served, they may be too hot for consumption. So, mathematical modeling or empirical data can be used estimate the cooling times elapsed before temperatures ideal for consumption are reached [1]. ...
Preprint
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A simple model for the cooling of volatile liquids resting in open vessels is formulated, accounting for the heat loss from the exposed liquid surface due to evaporation plus black-body radiation, and from the outer vessel surface due to black-body radiation. Experimental data for water is compared with the model predictions to test its accuracy, and a good agreement is found, considering that there are no fitting parameters in the model. The maximum deviations from the predicted cooling curve are ≈ 2 minutes in time and ≈ 3 • C in temperature.
... Food-intrinsic temperatures (i.e., serving temperature) as well as food-extrinsic temperatures (e.g., physical or ambient room temperatures) influence judgment and behaviors (McBurney et al., 1973;Moskowitz, 1973;Bartoshuk et al., 1982;Frankmann, 1987, 1988;Cruz and Green, 2000;Schiffman et al., 2000;Engelen et al., 2003;Mony et al., 2013;Kim et al., 2015;Stokes et al., 2016;Seo, 2017, 2018). Food-intrinsic temperatures influence consumer acceptance (Cardello and Maller, 1982;Lee and O'Mahony, 2002;Brown and Diller, 2008). Food and drinks are more acceptable when served in the temperature range at which they are usually consumed (Cardello and Maller, 1982). ...
Article
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Temperature is an important characteristic of food and drink. In addition to food-intrinsic temperature (i.e. serving temperature), consumers often experience food-extrinsic temperature (e.g. physical warmth). Emerging research on cross-modal correspondence has revealed that people reliably associate temperature with other sensory features. Building on the literature on cross-modal correspondence and sensation transference theory, the present study aimed to reveal mental representations of temperature–taste correspondence and cross-modal mental representations influencing corresponding sensory/hedonic perceptions of beverages, with a focus on manipulating food-extrinsic warmth. To reveal mental representations of temperature–taste correspondence, Experiment 1 investigated whether temperature words (warm, cool) are associated with sensory/hedonic attributes (e.g. sweet, sour, salty, bitter). The results of Experiment 1 demonstrated that warm (vs. cool) was matched more with saltiness, tastiness, healthfulness, and preference (intention to buy), whereas cool (vs. warm) was matched more with sourness and freshness. Experiment 2 assessed whether cross-modal mental representations influence corresponding sensory/hedonic perceptions of beverages. The participants wore hot and cold pads and rated sensory/hedonic attributes of Japanese tea (Experiment 2a) or black coffee (Experiment 2b) before and after tasting it. The results of Experiment 2a demonstrated that physical warmth (vs. coldness) increased healthfulness and the intention to buy Japanese tea. The results of Experiment 2b did not reveal any effects of physical warmth on sensory/hedonic ratings. These findings provide evidence of taste–temperature correspondence and provide preliminary support for the influence of food-extrinsic warmth on taste attributes related to positivity.
... Radnor, PA), while an Isotemp circulating oven (Fisher Scientific; Hampton, NH) was used for studies at 30 ± 2 and 60 ± 2 °C. The specified temperature range was used to simulate cold-or hot-served beverages (Brown and Diller 2008). Food simulants were either pre-heated or precooled to match the set incubation temperature before beginning the experimental trial. ...
Article
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Copper (Cu) metal and alloys are used in cookware and other food contact surfaces due to their desirable properties for various applications. However, Cu metal can ionise and subsequently transfer to food and beverages under certain conditions. Here, we tested how pH and temperature affected Cu release kinetics using model systems utilising Cu metal foil and commercially available copperware. Cu foil and copperware were exposed to food simulants composed of 3% (w:w) aqueous solutions of citric acid, malic acid, acetic acid, or deionised (DI) water at temperatures ranging from 4°C to 60°C. An additional pilot experiment tested how simulated long-term cleaning affected subsequent Cu release from lined and unlined copperware to 3% citric acid. Food simulants were then analysed by ICP-MS for total Cu. After 180 min, incubation of Cu metal foil with acid-containing food simulants at 4°C resulted in Cu release ranging from 8.7 - 14.0 µg cm⁻², while 21.5–38.1 µg cm⁻² was released at 60°C. In contrast, Cu transfer from metal foil to DI water was relatively low, with <0.6 µg cm⁻² released after 180 min at 60°C. With citric acid food simulant, lined copperware released between 0.6 and 3.0 µg Cu cm⁻² over 180 min at the set temperatures, while unlined copperware released approximately 25–45 fold higher amounts of Cu (26.9–74.6 µg cm⁻²) over this same time period. In contrast, use of DI water food simulant resulted in Cu release of <0.1 µg cm⁻² for the lined copperware and <2 µg cm⁻² for the unlined type. No significant effect of simulated long-term cleaning on Cu release from copperware was observed. These data indicate that Cu release is affected by temperature and pH, and that specific steps can be taken to limit Cu metal release from food contact surfaces to foods and beverages.
... At higher brewing temperatures, more bitter and more astringent substances are dissolved into the espresso and its sensory quality is impaired [18]. However, field research detected that temperatures were often set at much higher levels, probably because of unfounded fears about microbiological hazards [13,19,20]. Salamanca et al. confirmed that the bitterness and acidity of espresso was more pronounced at higher brewing temperatures [21]. ...
Article
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Very hot (>65 °C) beverages such as espresso have been evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as probably carcinogenic to humans. For this reason, research into lowering beverage temperature without compromising its quality or taste is important. For espresso, one obvious possibility consists in lowering the brewing temperature. In two sensory trials using the ISO 4120:2004 triangle test methodology, brewing temperatures of 80 °C vs. 128 °C and 80 °C vs. 93 °C were compared. Most tasters were unable to distinguish between 80 °C and 93 °C. The results of these pilot experiments prove the possibility of decreasing the health hazards of very hot beverages by lower brewing temperatures.
... Nevertheless, only at 60 C, both SMP tablets and SMP tablets with sugar had shown 5% TSS, which is the same as of SMP sample. This temperature is usually the most suitable temperature for enjoying a hot drink with limitation of the scald burn hazard(Brown & Diller, 2008).The FEA analysis of die assembly for SMP tablets resulted in maximum stress, strain, displacement, and minimum FOS under the safe limit. The fabricated die showed excellent tableting of SMP tablets Note: Values in rows with same letter in superscripts are not significantly different (p < .05) ...
Article
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The skim milk powder (SMP) has problems of quantification and handling during milk reconstitution for tea and coffee making. To address these issues, a novel product, “SMP tablet,” was made by varying moisture content (3, 5, 10, and 15% wet basis) of SMP and compression force (625, 750, 875, 1,000, and 1,125 N) during tableting. A die containing upper, lower, and grooved punches was designed, fabricated, and analyzed with finite element method. The tetrahedral type of mesh with 1.9078–2.356 mm element size, 0.095–0.118 mm tolerance, 80,420–85,107 nodes, and 53,041–57,252 elements resulted in 40.53–68.60 MPa maximum stress and 1.9–4 minimum factor of safety advocating acceptability of design. The SMP was pressed inside die through universal testing machine in controlled manner and disintegration time (DT), tensile strength (TS), and insolubility index (ISi) of SMP tablets were evaluated. Response surface methodology showed cubic model as best fit (p < .0001 and R² > .97) for all the responses. The numerical optimization showed 4.6% wb moisture and 1,125 N compression force favorable for good quality attributes (103.8 kPa TS; 318 s DT; 40.5 mg ISi). Further, sugar addition (10%), as a disintegrating agent, improved DT (178 s) and TS (159 kPa). The SMP tablet with sugar had 14.90 ± 0.05 mm average diameter, 5.04 ± 0.18 mm thickness, 625 ± 6 mg weight, and 3.45% weight variation with similar total soluble solids (5%) at 60°C compared with SMP. The direct consumable, no artificial additives/binders and ease in quantification are tablets' novelty comparing SMP. Practical applications Poor quantification and handling are the two major issues with SMP. This can be easily combated by pressing the powder and converted into tablet form. The quantity of required number of SMP tablets for milk reconstitution can be easily remembered like sugar cubes. The SMP tablets can be marketed as novel dairy products and taken directly or used in coffee and tea making. Moreover, this study will provide an insightful information to dairy industry for commercial application of SMP tablets.
... The coffee container technological solutions currently available to hot beverage drinkers, such as the ceramic mug, the insulated metal thermos and the paper sleeve-covered cup, feature substantial manufacturing costs, known impractical recyclabilities, inconvenient form factors and/or large carbon footprints over their lifetimes [21][22][23][24] . Moreover, these containers not only typically possess difficult-to-control heat dissipation properties, but also rarely account for the distinction between the comfortable external temperature range for holding a hot coffee-filled cup (~20-48 °C) and the preferred internal temperature range for drinking the coffee (~55-70 °C) (Fig. 1b) [27][28][29] . Consequently, there is a demand for the development of packaging solutions that exhibit the sustainable manufacturability and desirable recyclability of common metallized films, adaptively manage heat with a minimal external input of energy and accommodate the many different form factors of food and beverage containers. ...
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The implementation of innovative packaging solutions in the food and beverage industry is playing an increasingly important role in driving the global transformation towards sustainability. Within this context, the metallized polymer films most widely used for packaging, which feature static infrared reflecting properties, need to be replaced by green and low-cost alternative materials with highly desirable dynamic thermoregulability. Here we demonstrate the scalable manufacturing of squid-skin-inspired sustainable packaging materials with tunable heat-management properties. The reported composites feature a low estimated starting material cost of around US$0.1 m⁻², sizes comparable to those of common metallized plastic films, the ability to modulate infrared transmittance by >20-fold and heat fluxes by >30 W m⁻² upon actuation with strain, and functional robustness after mechanical deformation or cycling. Furthermore, the composites demonstrate excellent performance in routine practical packaging scenarios, as exemplified by their ability to control the cooling of a model warm beverage within a standard paper container used daily by most adults in the USA. Such materials could represent a technological solution that addresses the combined cost, performance and sustainability pressures facing the food and beverage packaging industry.
... We chose a range of temperatures to test based on natural and environmental factors that pertain to a person's daily life leading to question whether our environment can affect treatments using CHX. The lowest temperature, 4 • C, corresponds to refrigerated rinse; room temperature, 23 • C, is the likely storage temperature of the rinse; body temperature, 37 • C, is the temperature the rinse may reach while in use; and the highest temperature, 50 • C, was set at the hottest safe temperature for hot liquid drinks (16). The control sample was tested at room temperature to correspond to the most likely temperature for CHX rinse storage. ...
Article
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Introduction: Natural color of dentin is affected by many variables, including anatomical variations, age, how much dentin is exposed, or how much enamel is covering the dentin. Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) has been observed to cause tooth staining, especially of exposed dentin. Risk factors for CHX staining include the amount of time for CHX utilization amongst others. Interestingly, the temperature of the rinse when used has been identified as a risk factor. However, no evidence of the effect of temperature is available in the literature. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of temperature on dentin staining due to CHX exposure. Methods: Two studies were done. The first a pilot study at room temperature to determine the time needed to establish staining solutions, a method to evaluate stain intensity, and establish the time needed to stain dentin samples in vitro . The second study exposed dentin samples on a twice daily basis to a 1 min soak in CHX at different temperatures, followed by a period in an unstimulated saliva mixed with black tea mixture. Temperatures tested were 4, 23, 37 and 50°C. Control samples were exposed to only black tea and saliva (no CHX) and tested at 23°C. Results: The pilot study found that the combination of CHX and black tea causes dentin staining. From this data the sample size needed for the second experiment was calculated, requiring 12 samples per group. Sixty dentin samples were divided amongst 5 groups. The data from this study showed significant darkening of the dentin samples over 18 days. The 4 and 23°C CHX rinses resulted in significant staining compared to the control samples. The 37 and 50°C CHX rinses did not stain significantly more than the control samples. Conclusions: Chlorhexidine has the ability to cause tooth staining in the presence of chromogens such as those in black tea. Significant darkening was observed at lower temperatures (4 and 23°C) over 18 days, therefore dental professionals may wish to advise gently warming the CHX rinse toward 37°C prior to use to reduce the risk of staining.
Article
The present study aimed to investigate coffee flavour perception and release as function of serving temperature to support standardisation in the specialty coffee branch. The coffee cultivar Bourbon Caturra was evaluated at six serving temperatures ranging from 31°C to 62 °C. Coffee samples were analysed by dynamic headspace sampling gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and descriptive analyses using sip-and-spit tasting. The release of volatiles followed mostly the van’t Hoff principle and was exuberated at temperatures above 40°C. Aliphatic ketones, alkylpyrazines, some furans and pyridines increased most notably at temperatures at ⩾50 °C. The changes in volatile release profiles could explain some of the sensory differences observed. The flavour notes of ‘sour’, ‘tobacco’ and ‘sweet’ were mostly associated with the coffees served at 31 °C to 44 °C, whereas coffees served between 50 °C and 62 °C exhibited stronger ‘overall intensity’, ‘roasted’ flavour and ‘bitter’ notes.
Conference Paper
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Background: More than 3 billion passengers are transported every year on commercial airline flights worldwide, many of whom are children. The incidence of in-flight medical events (IFMEs) affecting children is largely unknown. This study seeks to characterize pediatric IFMEs, with particular focus on in-flight injuries (IFIs). Methods: We reviewed the records of all IFMEs from January 2009 to January 2014 involving children treated in consultation with a ground-based medical support center providing medical support to commercial airlines. Results: Among 114 222 IFMEs, we identified 12 226 (10.7%) cases involving children. In-flight medical events commonly involved gastrointestinal (35.4%), infectious (20.3%), neurological (12.2%), allergic (8.6%), and respiratory (6.3%) conditions. In addition, 400 cases (3.3%) of IFMEs involved IFIs. Subjects who sustained IFIs were younger than those involved in other medical events (3 [1-8] vs 7 [3-14] y, respectively), and lap infants were overrepresented (35.8% of IFIs vs 15.9% of other medical events). Examples of IFIs included burns, contusions, and lacerations from falls in unrestrained lap infants; fallen objects from the overhead bin; and trauma to extremities by the service cart or aisle traffic. Conclusions: Pediatric IFIs are relatively infrequent given the total passenger traffic but are not negligible. Unrestrained lap children are prone to IFIs, particularly during meal service or turbulence, but not only then. Children occupying aisle seats are vulnerable to injury from fallen objects, aisle traffic, and burns from mishandled hot items. The possible protection from using in-flight child restraints might extend beyond takeoff and landing operations or during turbulence.
Chapter
This chapter focuses on thermal effects of radiofrequency (RF) energy in three sections: thermal effects that are potentially related to hazards, mechanisms for thermal effects in biological systems, and models for heating of tissue by RF energy. There is a considerable literature, and many lawsuits, connected with RF-induced burns to patients from a variety of medical procedures. Given the ubiquity of RF technology in modern environments, remarkably few burn injuries from overexposure to RF energy are reported. Several thermal mechanisms have been identified by which RF fields can produce biological effects. These can be divided into mechanisms that depend on the temperature increase and the rate of temperature increase. Compared to scientifically more exotic studies of "athermal" effects of RF energy, the topic is both well developed scientifically and clearly relevant to the health and safety of people exposed to RF energy.
Article
A consumer trend towards the fast preparation of beverages has increased the popularity of hot beverages (especially coffee and tea) available in disposable containers called coffee-to-go cups with fitted polystyrene lids. Lids in contact with hot beverages may release low molecular weight organic compounds into the gaseous phase causing direct exposure of consumers to these compounds during drinking. The paper describes in detail an analytical procedure that provides the opportunity to obtain reliable analytical information on the emission rates of selected compounds from the monoaromatic hydrocarbons released from 8 types of polystyrene lids used in disposable coffee-to-go cups. Samples were conditioned at 40 °C and 80 °C using the microscale stationary emission chamber (μ-CTE™ 250). The average total amounts of detected monoaromatic hydrocarbons released from lids made of white, black and brown polystyrene were, respectively: (i) 1253 ± 401 ng/g, 994 ± 74 ng/g, and 573 ± 85 ng/g at 40 °C; (ii) 3219 ± 1865 ng/g, 2140 ± 238 ng/g, and 1306 ± 174 ng/g at 80 °C.
Article
Hospital-acquired burn injuries can result in increased length of hospitalization, costs of stay, and potential for additional procedures. The aim of this study is to describe iatrogenic burn injuries over a 15-year period at an academic public hospital system. Data was collected from January 2004 to June 2019. Data included time of injury, hospital location, mechanism, level of harm caused, and anatomic location of the injury. Demographic information included patient age, gender, body mass index, payer status, primary admission diagnosis and length of stay. 122 patients were identified through an internal hospital database that tracked reported injuries. Incidence was highest between 2005-2012 (12.3 ± 4.1 per year) as compared to 2013-2019 (2.9 ± 2.1 per year). A majority (77%) resulted in harm caused to the patient. Most (41%) of the injuries occurred on the general medical floors, followed by the operating room (33.6%). The most common etiology was scald (23%), followed by electrocautery (14.8%). Five of the injuries resulted in burn consults, although none of these patients required surgery. Iatrogenic burns appear to be decreasing. While a majority were reported to have caused patient harm, none were serious enough to warrant surgery. Most injuries occurred on the medical floors with a scald mechanism. This review presents an opportunity to emphasize in-hospital burn prevention, as well as an opportunity for the burn team to affect change in concert with hospital administration.
Article
The author has proposed a model of brief interaction of two amorphous bodies with boundary conditions of the third and fourth kind in the amorphous body without a convective massflux. Consideration has been given to the thermophysical aspect of formation of the temperature sensation of a biomedical object (BMO) on contact with the amorphous body with a different temperature. The procedure of short measurements in the stage of irregular thermal regime (pulse method) was applied to investigation of thermal conductivity of various anatomical sections of the BMO skin as a function of its temperature. It has been shown experimentally that thermal conductivity grows with temperature and is within 0.29–0.48 W/(m K). The total relative error of the method of thermal conductivity measurements amounted to ∼ 5%. It has been proposed that analytical calculation of the surface temperature of the BMO on contact be modeled as a combination of the temperatures in liquid and solid media by using the criterion of moisture-content percentage in the BMO.
Conference Paper
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Disposable cups tend to be a viable solution as a packaging method for hot or cold beverages, but they have adverse environmental impact. They represent a concern for consumers due to the excessive use of trees during production of paper cups and non-biodegradability of plastic cups. The mobility and convenience of reheating the beverage in a microwave oven, for example, encourages the use of disposable cups. In this project, an environmentally-friendly solution is presented to reduce the use of plastic and paper cups that harm the environment. Compared to other existing products, this device maintains a desired temperature of a hot or cold beverage for extended periods of time using insulation and power from a thermoelectric cooler. The proposed design consists of a double-wall mug with outer steel and inner copper cylinders. The base of the copper cylinder is integrated with a thermoelectric cooler and a control system. The development of the device is governed by the performance of preserving desired temperature of beverages for longer times compared to conventional mugs and containers. Testing methods consist of thermal FEA simulation, CFD simulation and physical prototype testing showing a temperature difference of 30 °C with the added thermal system to the mug.
Conference Paper
With the limited water temperature dispensed by current water dispensers and the varying water temperature desired by consumers, a multiple temperature selections thermoelectric water dispenser was designed to provide the consumer’s demand. This design uses a Thermoelectric module that operates based on the Peltier effect to heat and cool the water in the respective container, thereby eliminating the harmful effects of Freon, a refrigerant used by the current water dispensers process. Arduino Uno’s implementation as a microcontroller provided consumers with a chance to input and be served with their desired water temperature. The experiment results showed that the design is accurate in providing the consumers with their desired water temperature. Thus, the implemented design is successful in meeting the objectives of the study.
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Very hot (> 65 °C) beverages such as espresso were evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as probably carcinogenic to humans. For this reason, research into lowering beverage temperature without compromising its quality or taste is important. For espresso, one obvious possibility consists in lowering the brewing temperature. In two sensory trials using ISO 4120:2004 triangle test methodology, brewing temperatures of 80°C vs. 128°C and 80° vs. 93°C were compared. From the tested levels, espresso brewed at the lowest temperature had the highest acceptance. However, most tasters were unable to distinguish between 80°C and 93°C. The results of these pilot experiments proof the possibility to decrease the health hazard of very hot beverages by lower brewing temperatures.
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In this work, discrimination tests, descriptive analysis, consumer tests, and total dissolved solids (TDS) were used to evaluate the effects of brew basket geometry on the sensory quality and consumer acceptance of drip brewed coffee. Two basic geometries, semi‐conical and flat‐bottom, were evaluated in conjunction with coffee roast and particle size. Initial discrimination tests showed that small differences in median particle size were not discernable, but that coffees brewed using either semi‐conical or flat‐bottom filter baskets were significantly different (P < 0.05, N = 45). Additionally, coffee brewed in the semi‐conical basket had significantly higher %TDS, and we estimated a sensory difference threshold of 0.24 %TDS. A subsequent descriptive analysis (DA) showed significant differences by roast for 11 attributes and by grind for six attributes. Although brewing geometry, as a single factor, was only significantly different for three independent attributes (smoke aroma , sweetness , and tobacco flavor ), roast × geometry interactions were significant for six attributes (berry flavor , bitterness , burnt wood/ash , citrus flavor , earthy flavor , and sourness ) and the grind × geometry interaction was significant for two attributes (bitterness and floral aroma ). Attributes showing significant interactions with brewing geometry were also key drivers of consumer liking/disliking. Overall consumer liking (9‐point hedonic scale) was analyzed by cluster analysis (N = 85), which revealed four distinct preference clusters. For each cluster, a particular basket geometry and/or roast level showed lesser acceptance. Overall, the results strongly corroborate the hypothesis that basket geometry affects the sensory quality of drip brewed coffee. Practical Application Most Americans consume drip brewed coffee. Improving our understanding of the effects of basket geometry, roast level, and grind size on the total dissolved solids, sensory properties, and acceptability of drip brewed coffee gives producers and consumers alike an opportunity to optimize the sensory quality of their coffee.
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Aim: To identify policies on the consumption of hot drinks by patients and visitors on all perinatal and postnatal wards in the United Kingdom, and to seek the opinions of members of the wider burns MDT as to whether standardised patient education or regulation of hot drinks around newborn babies is required. Methods: All maternity units with postnatal wards across the United Kingdom were surveyed to establish availability of hot drinks on site and whether these were permitted on postnatal wards around infants. An online questionnaire was distributed to members of the British Burn Association to ascertain opinions on hot drinks policies. Results: Hot takeaway drinks were permitted around newborn infants in 194 of surveyed postnatal wards and were only banned by two units. The online survey received 49 responses from different members of the British Burn Association. Thirty responders (61%) supported a takeaway hot drink ban, while those against the policy would alternatively encourage patient education, dedicated drinking areas and introduction of safety measures. Conclusions: Almost every postnatal unit in the UK has access to hot drink retailers on site allowing parents and visitors to bring them into close contact with babies. With varying local regulations, this poses potentially serious consequences during feeding or carrying. We propose a standardised antenatal education be made available, together with standardised designated areas on wards for parents and visitors to consume hot drinks away from infants.
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A zero-energy thermos flask with energy harvesting and temperature indication functions is demonstrated in this work. Firstly, a phase change material and wavelength-selective transmitting polymer wall are adopted together to harvest solar heat via the greenhouse effect. Next, two thermochromic pigments are utilized for temperature indication. The displayed color pairs can represent fluid status as hot (>338.15 K), warm (328.15 K–338.15 K), or lukewarm (<328.15 K). Indicating temperature both assures the users’ safety and specifies the best time having a hot drink. A numerical model is constructed for dimension optimization using the Taguchi method. A prototype of zero-energy thermos flask is then generated for experimental demonstration. Transient thermal analysis is also executed with aids from numerical modeling.
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Three hundred consumers were required to mix a hot and a cooler coffee together until it was at a desired temperature for drinking. They added creamer and sweetener to taste. In a 2nd experiment, 108 consumers performed the same experiment with black coffee only, but repeated it using different coffee strengths. In all experiments, the chosen mean preferred temperature for drinking was around 60 °C (140 °F). Black coffee drinkers chose a slightly higher mean temperature than drinkers with added creamer, and they also chose a slightly lower mean temperature when the flavor was stronger. In all cases, consumers tended to choose, on average, temperatures for drinking coffee that were above the oral pain threshold and the burn damage threshold.
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Research on thermal therapy--the heating of pathological tissue using energy source (radiofrequency, microwave, high-intensity focused ultrasound, or laser energy)--and cryosurgery--the freezing of pathological tissue using either liquid or gaseous cryogens--can be classified into two broad categories: basic science and clinical application. The basic science of thermal therapy and cryosurgery is an interdisciplinary research field involving both biology and engineering. Studies from the perspective of biology mainly focus on determining the thermally induced injury mechanisms at the macromolecular, cellular, and tissue (in vitro and in vivo) levels. Studies from the engineering perspective emphasize how to measure and predict the thermal and injury behavior using engineering tools. This article will give a detailed overview of studies relevant to the basic science of thermal therapy and cryosurgery from both the biology and engineering points of view. This includes the experimental observations of cellular and vascular alterations during and after thermal therapy/cryosurgery and the quantification of thermal histories and corresponding injuries using mathematical models.
Chapter
The burn injury constitutes one of the most commonly encountered types of trauma. The average number of burns reported annually in the United States is in excess of 2,000,000,(1) which represents a source of morbidity and mortality of major concern. About 50% of these burns or scalds are severe enough to require medical attention and restrict physical activity; 25% of the burns necessitate confinement to a bed.(2) Burns resulting from fires and explosions are the most frequent causes of fatal accidents among children and the elderly. Accidents occurring in the home are responsible for more than three-fourths of these deaths.(3) The concentration of burns among the younger portion of the population results in a disproportionately large social cost in comparison with other serious pathologies, such as heart disease, cancer, and stroke, which tend to be contracted at a more advanced age following a useful, productive life. From these statistics, it is obvious that burns constitute a major injury entity to modern society.
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The effects of thermal insult on living tissue have been studied by direct microscopic observation of the circulatory system's response to a controlled trauma regimen. An experimental apparatus has been developed which utilizes a unique high and low temperature stage in conjunction with a precision thermal control system to examine the injury process in the microcirculation of the golden hamster cheek pouch. The tissue temperature and its time rate of change were regulated by a programmable analog control unit. Cooling effects were produced by passing a steady flow of refrigerant fluid through the microscope state. Under these conditions the thermal history of the system was set by balancing the steady-state cooling effect with the variable heating effect.
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The finite-element method was applied to solve for the transient temperature field that develops within the skin during a burn protocol, as defined by a specific combination of surface temperature and duration of exposure. Five different burn injury models have been used to compute injury as a function of position and time in the tissue on the basis of calculated thermal histories caused by the insult. Models are represented as an Arrhenius-type function, as characterized by two coefficients corresponding to an apparent activation energy and a linear frequency factor. Models, developed previously by empiric curve fitting to a discrete set of experimental data, display unique behaviors in simulation scenarios. The present study compared these five models over a broad spectrum of temperatures and exposure times, providing a general guide for the estimation of thermal injury. When extrapolated to protocols outside the limits of experimental validation, there may be significant intermodel variations in the predicted injury associated with a given burn simulation. These data illustrate that one must consider the limitations of individual models when designing a predictive simulation and when interpreting numeric results.
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The causes of serious domestic scald injuries in Birmingham were studied for one year. Seventy-eight people sustained such scalds, 11 adults and 67 children. Only 51 of the patients received satisfactory first aid. Most accidents could have been avoided and the severity of the injury would have been less if appropriate first aid had been given.
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A paper published by Harry H. Pennes in Volume 1 of the Journal of Applied Physiology defined the theoretical basis for a considerable body of analysis performed by many investigators during the ensuing half century. However, during the past decade, the Pennes' model of heat transfer in perfused tissue has been criticized for various reasons, one of which is that his own experimental data seemed to be at variance with the model. More specifically, the shape of the mean temperature-depth relationship measured by Pennes was distinctly different from the shape of the theoretical curve. In this paper, I show that Pennes used an inappropriate procedure to analyze his data and that, when the data are analyzed in a more rigorous manner, they support his theory. Additional support for Pennes' theory is provided by the experimental data of H. Barcroft and O. G. Edholm [J. Physiol. (Lond.) 102: 5-20, 1942 and 104: 366-376, 1946], who had previously studied cooling of the forearm during immersion in water at various temperatures.
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QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS of the relationship between arterial blood and tissue temperatures has not been previously attempted. Bazett and McGlone's measurements of tissue temperature indicate that the deep thermal gradient in the resting normal human forearm does not extend deeper than 2.5 cm.; deeper measurements are not reported (1). According to recent observations in this laboratory, the temperature gradient in intact human biceps muscle extended beyond this depth to approach the geometrical axis of the limb (2), as would be expected if the analytic theory of heat flow by conduction is applicable to a localized arm segment. With the stimulus of this observation, the temperatures of the normal human forearm tissues and brachial arterial blood have been measured to evaluate the applicability of heat flow theory to the forearm in basic terms of local rate of tissue heat production and volume flow of blood.
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Mathematic models have been used for several decades to predict the severity of burn injury that would result from application of a given thermal stress to the surface of the skin. Solution of the governing mathematic equations has been achieved either by analytic methods, with required simplifying assumptions that may compromise the rigor with which the results are applied, or by numeric methods, which require programming of finite element or finite difference codes in computer languages. In recent years microcomputer hardware and the associated software have become both powerful and relatively simple to use, and the price per unit of computing capability has dropped dramatically. Thus it is now possible to perform on a desktop machine with relative case calculations that previously might have been prohibitively complex or expensive. Modeling of burn injuries fits into this category. This article presents a straightforward method for implementing a finite difference solution to the burn process through the combination of a Macintosh personal computer and a widely used spreadsheet software program; this hardware and software combination has been used widely for a broad spectrum of general computing activities. This article presents a model for a surface thermal burn, as implemented for solution on a spreadsheet, with example runs to illustrate and verify the method.
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: This article presents a brief description of a set of equations by which the thermal burn process may be modeled, a formulation of the differential equations into a finite-difference format, and a simple method of solution using a standard commercial spreadsheet software application. A companion article provides a discussion of results that can be obtained with the modeling techniques presented here.1 A short version of the spreadsheet program is available from the author. (C)1999The American Burn Association
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Thermal injury in living tissues is commonly modeled as a rate process in which cell death is interpreted to occur as a function of a single kinetic process. Experimental data indicate that multiple rate processes govern the manifestation of injury and that these processes may act over a broad spectrum of time domains. Injury is typically computed as a dimensionless function (omega) of the temperature time history via an Arrhenius relationship to which numerical values are assigned based on defined threshold levels of damage. However, important issues central to calculation and interpretation of the omega function remain to be defined. These issues include the following: how is temperature identified in time and space within a tissue exposed to thermal stress; what is the biophysical and physiological meaning of a quantitative value for omega; how can omega be quantified in an experimental system; how should omega be scaled between graded levels of injury; and what are the differences in injury kinetics between unit volume- and unit surface area-governed processes of energy deposition into tissue to cause thermal stress? This paper addresses these issues with the goal of defining a more rigorous and comprehensive standard for modeling thermal injury in tissues.
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A retrospective study was performed at the Yorkshire Regional Burns Centre from 1994 to 2004 inclusive to determine the changes in treatment and clinical outcomes of patients admitted with hot beverage burns and the effect of changes in referral patterns over this period. Although children under the age of 3 years accounted for 77.5% of all cases of hot beverage scalds, this injury was represented in all age groups. Children from 1 to 2 years of age had the highest incidence of this injury. Changes in referral patterns over this period resulted in a decrease in the mean total body surface area of injury, an increase in the number of admissions and an increase in the time interval from injury to admission to the Burns Centre for this period. The total body surface area given by referring facilities was often times inaccurate, as reported previously by this Burns Centre. The introduction of Biobrane in 2002 was effective in reducing the length of hospitalisation for patients with superficial partial thickness burns. Hot beverage burns remain a significant public health problem deserving of continuing efforts to maintain public awareness.
Article
Burns due to hot beverages are a well known public health hazard, both at home and in the work place. Although, such injuries are often minor, they can be severely debilitating, and on certain occasions, fatal. Burns due to hot liquids most commonly affect children but in certain circumstances, the adult population is at risk. Scald burns to the perineum from hot liquids served at drive through restaurants have not previously been reported. Perineal scalds are associated with both physical and psychological morbidity. The scalds sustained in these cases were embarrassing and upsetting for the patient. They were associated with prolonged periods away from work, and several visits to the hospital for dressing changes and wound assessment. Most importantly, they were preventable injuries. If certain health and safety measures relating to the dispensing of hot liquids at drive through restaurants were observed, these injuries would greatly reduce in incidence. Â Â [Abstract unavailable] Language: en
Analysis of skin burns Heat transfer in medicine and biology analysis and applications [12] Diller KR. Modeling of bioheat transfer processes at high and low temperatures
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Diller KR. Analysis of skin burns. In: Shitzer A, Eberhart RC, editors. Heat transfer in medicine and biology analysis and applications, vol. 2. New York: Plenum Press; 1985. [12] Diller KR. Modeling of bioheat transfer processes at high and low temperatures. Adv Heat Trans 1992;22:157–358.
Bioheat transfer In: Kreith F, Goswami Y, editors. The CRC handbook of mechanical engineering
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Diller KR, Valvano JW, Pearce JA. Bioheat transfer. In: Kreith F, Goswami Y, editors. The CRC handbook of mechanical engineering. 2nd ed., Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2005. p. 4-282–361 [Holmes K. Appendix A. p. 4-351–3].
Analysis of several models for simulating skin burns
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Diller KR, Hayes LJ, Blake GK. Analysis of several models for simulating skin burns. J Burn Care Rehabil 1991;12:177–89.
Accuracy analysis of the Henriques model for predicting thermal burn injury Advances in bioheat and mass transfer
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Diller KR, Klutke GA. Accuracy analysis of the Henriques model for predicting thermal burn injury. In: Roemer RB, editor. Advances in bioheat and mass transfer. New York: ASME; 1993. p. 117-23.
Bioheat transfer The CRC handbook of mechanical engineering
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Diller KR, Valvano JW, Pearce JA. Bioheat transfer. In: Kreith F, Goswami Y, editors. The CRC handbook of mechanical engineering. 2nd ed., Boca Raton: CRC Press;
The coffee brewing handbook. Long Beach, California: Specialty Coffee Association of America
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Lingle TR. The coffee brewing handbook. Long Beach, California: Specialty Coffee Association of America; 1996. p. 87.
Bioheat transfer The CRC handbook of mechanical engineering
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Diller KR, Valvano JW, Pearce JA. Bioheat transfer. In: Kreith F, Goswami Y, editors. The CRC handbook of mechanical engineering. 2nd ed., Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2005. p. 4-282-361 [Holmes K. Appendix A. p. 4-351-3].
Accuracy analysis of the Henriques model for predicting thermal burn injury
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Analysis of several models for simulating skin burns
  • Diller