Control of the Oscillator Strength of the Exciton in a Single InGaN-GaN Quantum Dot

Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
Physical Review Letters (Impact Factor: 7.51). 12/2007; 99(19):197403. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.197403
Source: PubMed


We report direct evidence for the control of the oscillator strength of the exciton state in a single quantum dot by the application of a vertical electric field. This is achieved through the study of the radiative lifetime of a single InGaN-GaN quantum dot in a p-i-n diode structure. Our results are in good quantitative agreement with theoretical predictions from an atomistic tight-binding model. Furthermore, the increase of the overlap between the electron and hole wave functions due to the applied field is shown experimentally to increase the attractive Coulomb interaction leading to a change in the sign of the biexcitonic binding energy.

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    • "A large built-in piezo-electric field exists in nitride-based heterostructures, which depends sensitively on the structural parameters, especially in quantum confined systems like quantum dots (QDs). At the same time, the built-in field significantly alters the optical properties of the heterostructure, including the emission wavelength [4], oscillator strength [5], and output polarization [6]. As a result, little has been understood with respect to how the structural parameters, such as shapes and sizes of III-nitride QDs, influence the optical properties of the QDs. "
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN disk-in-a-wire quantum dots with precisely controlled location and structural parameters, including diameter, thickness and material composition. We measured the time-integrated and time-resolved spectra and the second-order correlation function of the photoluminescence from quantum dots with diameters ranging from 19 nm to 33 nm at temperatures of 10 K to 120 K. The influence of the small fluctuations in structural parameters, most importantly the quantum dot thickness, on the optical properties are also investigated through statistical correlations among multiple optical properties of many individual quantum dots. We found that in a single dot the strain-induced polarization field and the strain relaxation at the sidewall form a potential barrier to protect the exciton from reaching the sidewall surface. However, the exciton can overcome this potential barrier and recombine nonradiatively at the surface through two mechanisms: tunnelling through the barrier quantum mechanically and hopping over the barrier by attaining sufficient thermal energy. The former (latter) mechanism is temperature insensitive (sensitive) and dominates nonradiaitve exciton decay at low (high) temperatures. We also found that despite the good uniformities in structural parameters, all optical properties still exhibit inhomogeneities from dot to dot. However, all these inhomogeneities can be modeled by simply varying the potential barrier height, which also explains the observed correlation curves among all optical properties. Finally, we found that the biexciton-to-exciton quantum efficiency ratio, which determines the probability of multi-photon emission, can be tuned by adjusting the potential barrier height and the temperature, suggesting a new way to achieve single photon emission at high temperatures.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Physical Review B
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    ABSTRACT: Using analytical expressions for the polarization field in GaN quantum dot, and an approximation by separating the potential into a radial and an axial, we investigate theoretically the quantum-confined Stark effects. The electron and hole energy levels and optical transition energies are calculated in the presence of an electric field in different directions. The results show that the electron and hole energy levels and the optical transition energies can cause redshifts for the lateral electric field and blueshifts for the vertical field. The rotational direction of electric field can also change the energy shift.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2008 · Chinese Physics Letters
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    ABSTRACT: In-depth optical spectroscopic studies of single polar GaN/AlN quantum dots (QDs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy are carried out by means of low-temperature microphotoluminescence. Luminescence linewidths as low as 700 mu eV are obtained allowing thorough characterization of the QD electronic properties. Biexciton emission is observed for a wide range of dot size. It is shown that the binding energy (E-XX(b)) exhibits two regimes. The main one is governed by the dot height through the quantum confined Stark effect leading to a variation of E-XX(b) from +3 meV for the smallest dots to -11 meV for the largest ones. A secondary variation of opposite sign is demonstrated for dots having the same height but different lateral size.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Physical review. B, Condensed matter
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