The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup, held in Germany from June 9 to July 9, 2006, provided an opportunity to examine the relation between emotional stress and the incidence of cardiovascular events.
Cardiovascular events occurring in patients in the greater Munich area were prospectively assessed by emergency physicians during the World Cup. We compared those events with events that occurred during the control period: May 1 to June 8 and July 10 to July 31, 2006, and May 1 to July 31 in 2003 and 2005.
Acute cardiovascular events were assessed in 4279 patients. On days of matches involving the German team, the incidence of cardiac emergencies was 2.66 times that during the control period (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.33 to 3.04; P<0.001); for men, the incidence was 3.26 times that during the control period (95% CI, 2.78 to 3.84; P<0.001), and for women, it was 1.82 times that during the control period (95% CI, 1.44 to 2.31; P<0.001). Among patients with coronary events on days when the German team played, the proportion with known coronary heart disease was 47.0%, as compared with 29.1% of patients with events during the control period. On those days, the highest average incidence of events was observed during the first 2 hours after the beginning of each match. A subanalysis of serious events during that period, as compared with the control period, showed an increase in the incidence of myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation by a factor of 2.49 (95% CI, 1.47 to 4.23), of myocardial infarction without ST-segment elevation or unstable angina by a factor of 2.61 (95% CI, 2.22 to 3.08), and of cardiac arrhythmia causing major symptoms by a factor of 3.07 (95% CI, 2.32 to 4.06) (P<0.001 for all comparisons).
Viewing a stressful soccer match more than doubles the risk of an acute cardiovascular event. In view of this excess risk, particularly in men with known coronary heart disease, preventive measures are urgently needed.
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"For example, the death of a loved one substantially increases the risk of a cardiac event in the month following the loss (Kaprio et al., 1987). Other acute stressors, including natural disasters, missile attacks, or even watching a tense sports contest have also been associated with increased mortality from heart attacks (Leor et al., 1996; Meisel et al., 1991; Wilbert-Lampen et al., 2008). Chronic or ongoing stress has also been reliably associated with increased cardiac morbidity. "
"Substantial studies have reported that increased morbidity/mortality of cardiovascular diseases was associated with stressful events, for instance: the US 911 attack , earthquakes , , and large-scale sport events , . A large fluctuation in the stock exchange market may also represent important mental and physical stresses that may adversely affect cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, however, to date only a few studies from different areas have investigated the potential impacts of stock market variation on cardiovascular incidence and mortality –, with inconsistent findings; furthermore, no multi-city study has been conducted, and the lag pattern of the effect of stock variation on cardiovascular mortality has not been examined yet. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current study aimed to examine the effects of daily change of the Shenzhen Stock Exchange Index on cardiovascular mortality in Guangzhou and Taishan, China.
Daily mortality and stock performance data during 2006-2010 were collected to construct the time series for the two cities. A distributed lag non-linear model was utilized to examine the effect of daily stock index changes on cardiovascular mortality after controlling for potential confounding factors.
We observed a delayed non-linear effect of the stock index change on cardiovascular mortality: both rising and declining of the stock index were associated with increased cardiovascular deaths. In Guangzhou, the 15-25 lag days cumulative relative risk of an 800 index drop was 2.08 (95% CI: 1.38-3.14), and 2.38 (95% CI: 1.31-4.31) for an 800 stock index increase on the cardiovascular mortality, respectively. In Taishan, the cumulative relative risk over 15-25 days lag was 1.65 (95% CI: 1.13-2.42) for an 800 index drop and 2.08 (95% CI: 1.26-3.42) for an 800 index rising, respectively.
Large ups and downs in daily stock index might be important predictor of cardiovascular mortality.
"Major stressful events are well documented to increase the incidence of acute cardiac events . Cardiovascular complications more than doubled during the FIFA World Cup games of 2006 . After the September 11 terrorist attacks, significantly more patients presented with acute myocardial infarction to the hospitals in Brooklyn  and New Jersey . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Christchurch, New Zealand, was struck by 2 major earthquakes at 4:36am on 4 September 2010, magnitude 7.1 and at 12:51pm on 22 February 2011, magnitude 6.3. Both events caused widespread destruction. Christchurch Hospital was the region's only acute care hospital. It remained functional following both earthquakes. We were able to examine the effects of the 2 earthquakes on acute cardiac presentations.
Patients admitted under Cardiology in Christchurch Hospital 3 week prior to and 5 weeks following both earthquakes were analysed, with corresponding control periods in September 2009 and February 2010. Patients were categorised based on diagnosis: ST elevation myocardial infarction, Non ST elevation myocardial infarction, stress cardiomyopathy, unstable angina, stable angina, non cardiac chest pain, arrhythmia and others.
There was a significant increase in overall admissions (p<0.003), ST elevation myocardial infarction (p<0.016), and non cardiac chest pain (p<0.022) in the first 2 weeks following the early morning September earthquake. This pattern was not seen after the early afternoon February earthquake. Instead, there was a very large number of stress cardiomyopathy admissions with 21 cases (95% CI 2.6-6.4) in 4 days. There had been 6 stress cardiomyopathy cases after the first earthquake (95% CI 0.44-2.62). Statistical analysis showed this to be a significant difference between the earthquakes (p<0.05).
The early morning September earthquake triggered a large increase in ST elevation myocardial infarction and a few stress cardiomyopathy cases. The early afternoon February earthquake caused significantly more stress cardiomyopathy. Two major earthquakes occurring at different times of day differed in their effect on acute cardiac events.