Harmonic holography: A new holographic principle

Department of Electrical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA.
Applied Optics (Impact Factor: 1.78). 03/2008; 47(4):A103-10. DOI: 10.1364/AO.47.00A103
Source: PubMed


The process of second harmonic generation (SHG) has a unique property of forming a sharp optical contrast between noncentrosymmetric crystalline materials and other types of material, which is a highly valuable asset for contrast microscopy. The coherent signal obtained through SHG also allows for the recording of holograms at high spatial and temporal resolution, enabling whole-field four-dimensional microscopy for highly dynamic microsystems and nanosystems. Here we describe a new holographic principle, harmonic holography (H(2)), which records holograms between independently generated second harmonic signals and reference. We experimentally demonstrate this technique with digital holographic recording of second harmonic signals upconverted from an ensemble of second harmonic generating nanocrystal clusters under femtosecond laser excitation. Our results show that harmonic holography is uniquely suited for ultrafast four-dimensional contrast microscopy.

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    • "The coherent nature of the SHG signal allows us to use nonlinear holography for measuring the complex two-dimensional (amplitude and phase) SHG signal [22] [28]. The idea is quite similar to conventional linear holography [17] [29]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, the detection of a small reflector in a randomly heterogenous medium using second-harmonic generation is investigated. The medium is illuminated by a time-harmonic plane wave at frequency omega. It is assumed that the reflector has a non-zero second-order nonlinear susceptibility, and thus emits a wave at frequency two omega in addition to the fundamental frequency linear scattering. It is shown how the fundamental frequency signal and the second-harmonic signal propagate in the medium. A statistical study of the images obtained by migrating the boundary data is performed. It is proved that the second-harmonic image is more stable with respect to medium noise than the one obtained with the fundamental signal. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio for the second-harmonic image does not depend neither on the second-order susceptibility tensor nor on the volume of the particle.
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    • "Figure 2 (c) shows an interference pattern between a second harmonic spherical wave, generated in a quartz plate, and a second harmonic plane wave, generated in a beta barium borate (BBO) crystal. This coherence property enables the detection of SHG nanoparticles using interferometric techniques, based on which we have demonstrated a new holographic principle [12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Nanocrystals with second harmonic response is a new class of nonlinear optical nanoprobes with dramatically different properties from fluorescent agents. Compared with two-photon fluorescence, second harmonic generation is an ultrafast, lossless, and coherent process. In particular, the absence of photobleaching and emission intermittency in the optical response of the second harmonic nanoparticles is likely to complement the fluorescent agents widely used today in many imaging applications. Furthermore, the coherent emission from the second harmonic generation process provides unique opportunities for the application of coherence domain techniques that are not available with fluorescent agents. We review the application of the second harmonic nanocrystals in imaging applications, especially those pertaining to biomedicine.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
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    • "In this case sensitive CCD camera is placed away from the object plane, and the image is added coherently with a reference SHG plane wave. By digital propagation in the observed interference pattern, the field is reconstructed at any plane, with a diffraction limited resolution (Pu et al. 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: This chapter has given an overview of the current state of research on SHG active nanocrystals. While this field is still in constant progress, many achievements have already allowed revisiting nonlinear optics in order to adapt to the scale of these new nano-objects. Their applications to both nanophotonics and biophotonics fields have shown their potential and are probably only at their infancy.
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