Inflammaging as a Major Characteristic of Old People: Can It Be Prevented or Cured?

Department of Experimental Pathology and Interdepartmental Centre L. Galvani at the University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
Nutrition Reviews (Impact Factor: 6.08). 12/2008; 65(12 Pt 2):S173-6. DOI: 10.1301/nr.2007.dec.S173-S176
Source: PubMed


Widespread aging at the population level is a recent phenomenon that emerged in affluent societies. Inflammation is necessary to cope with damaging agents and is crucial for survival, particularly to cope with acute inflammation during our reproductive years. But chronic exposure to a variety of antigens, especially to some viruses such as cytomegalovirus, for a period much longer than that predicted by evolution, induces a chronic low-grade inflammatory status that contributes to age-associated morbidity and mortality. This condition carries the proposed name "inflammaging". Centenarians are unique in that, despite high levels of pro-inflammatory markers, they also exhibit anti-inflammatory markers that may delay disease onset. The key to successful aging and longevity is to decrease chronic inflammation without compromising an acute response when exposed to pathogens.

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    • "The number of astrocytes, at least in human brains, for which the relevant counts were performed (Pelvig et al., 2008; Fabricius et al., 2013), does not change with age, remaining unaffected even in centenarians (Fabricius et al., 2013). Although the concept of the age-dependent increase in astroglial reactivity is quite widespread (Unger, 1998; Lynch et al., 2010) and is used to corroborate the ideas of the so called ''inflammaging'' (Franceschi, 2007), which regards brain senescence as a chronic neuroinflammation; the experimental data on this matter are, however, controversial. In aged animals a decrease (e.g. "
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    ABSTRACT: Astrocytes are fundamental for homoeostasis, defence and regeneration of the central nervous system. Loss of astroglial function and astroglial reactivity contribute to the ageing of the brain and to neurodegenerative diseases. Changes in astroglia in ageing and neurodegeneration are highly heterogeneous and region-specific. In animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) astrocytes undergo degeneration and atrophy at the early stages of pathological progression, which possibly may alter homeostatic reserve of the brain and contribute to early cognitive deficits. At the later stages of AD reactive astrocytes are associated with neurite plaques, the future commonly found in animal models and in human diseased tissue. In animal models of the AD reactive astrogliosis develops in some (e.g. in the hippocampus) but not in all regions of the brain. For instance, in entorhinal and prefrontal cortex astrocytes to not mount gliotic response to emerging β-amyloid deposits. This deficits in reactivity coincides with higher vulnerability of these regions to AD-type pathology. Astroglial morphology and function can be regulated through environmental stimulation and/or medication suggesting that astrocytes can be regarded as a target for therapies aimed at prevention and cure of neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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    • "These systemic toxicities were closely representative of those previously noted clinically with FDA­approved immu­ nostimulatory IT therapeutics such as high­dose IL­2 and IFN­ (Lee and Margolin, 2011). Aging is associated with a gradual decline in immunolog­ ical function but is also accompanied by the coincidence of a systemic, chronic, and low­grade proinflammatory response termed inflammaging that leads to increased systemic cyto­ kine levels, namely IL­1, IL­6, and TNF (Franceschi, 2007). "
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