Effects of zinc deficient diet on development of atopic dermatitis-like eruptions in DS-Nh mice. J Dermatol Sci
Department of Environmental Immuno-Dermatology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan. Journal of Dermatological Science
(Impact Factor: 3.42).
05/2008; 50(1):31-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.jdermsci.2007.11.002
Zinc is one of the essential dietary factors and zinc deficiency diminishes the immune system. However, the mechanisms by which zinc deficiency affects the immune system are not fully understood.
We analyzed the mechanisms of zinc deficiency affecting the allergic response using a DS-Nh mouse model of atopic dermatitis.
Male DS-Nh mice were fed a zinc deficient diet for 4 weeks. We measured transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and epidermal moisture level, assessed the skin eruption score, and examined the frequency of lymphocyte subpopulation in spleen and thymus by flow cytometry. The suppressive effect of CD25+CD4+ T cells was analyzed in vitro. The amount of cytokines produced by the spleen cells and the serum IgE levels were measured by ELISA.
In DS-Nh mice fed the zinc deficient diet, skin eruptions were exacerbated and serum IgE levels and number of S. aureus on the skin surface was increased. IFN-gamma and IL-13 production by spleen cells was increased. The number of CD25+CD4+ T cells in spleen was significantly decreased, while the percentage of Foxp3 positive cells in the CD25+CD4+ T cells was comparable to those of the controls. CD25+CD4+ T cells from mice fed the zinc deficient diet maintained a suppressive function compared with those from the controls.
These findings indicate that zinc deficiency influences the skin barrier system and immune system, and suggests that zinc deficiency acts as an exacerbation factor of atopic dermatitis.
Available from: Carlos Eduardo Fonseca-Alves
- "The coat appears dull and dry. In adult animals, deficiency of this mineral mainly manifests as skin changes (Tielsch et al., 2007; Takahashi et al., 2008), although the clinical syndrome is rare, having been reported primarily in dogs of the breeds Siberian husky, Doberman Pinscher, and bull terrier (Willense, 1995; Wilkinson and Harvey, 1996). This is a case report of a dog with zinc deficiency that showed complete clinical remission in response to zinc supplementation. "
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ABSTRACT: Zinc is an essential mineral of the diet and deficiency can occur because of dietary insufficiency or genetic abnormalities. Zinc deficiency is characterized by alterations in the immune system and in growth and development, as well as lesions in the gastrointestinal system and skin. A male mixed breed dog, 8 years of age, was presented at the veterinary hospital with clinical signs compatible with zinc deficiency. The animal received supplementation with zinc with methionine, and complete resolution was achieved. This paper reports a case of zinc deficiency in a mixed breed dog.
Available from: Muge Toyran
- "Because of its immunomodulatory effects, zinc is increasingly studied in in ammatory diseases such as AD. Animal models show that mice fed with a zinc-de cient diet developed AD-like skin lesions[19,20]. A limited number of reports compare levels of zinc in patients with AD to those of healthy individuals, and the results are contradictory: some authors reported lower levels[9,10], whereas others found no differences[11,12]. Di Toro et alfound no differences in serum levels, although zinc levels in hair were lower in patients with AD. "
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ABSTRACT: Trace elements are micronutrients that are present in small amounts in the body and are essential for normal functioning of the immune and antioxidant systems. Inflammation and oxidative stress are major pathogenic mechanisms in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). The role of micronutrients in AD has been investigated in a limited number of studies, although the results are contradictory.
In this study, we examined the levels of iron, copper, and magnesium in serum and the level of zinc in erythrocytes in children with AD. We compared our findings with those of a healthy control group.
The study population comprised 92 AD patients and 70 controls. We performed a complete blood count and measured levels of iron, copper, and magnesium in serum and levels of zinc in erythrocytes.
We found that serum magnesium and erythrocyte zinc levels were lower in children with AD than in the control group; levels of copper and iron did not differ between the groups. The levels of micronutrients studied were not correlated with disease severity.
Evaluation of zinc and magnesium levels in children with AD could prove useful. The role of micronutrients in the pathogenesis and course of AD warrants further study.
Available from: Yong-Min Kim
- "Minerals, are essential nutrients for human, can trigger alterations on gene expression by initiating signaling events upstream of gene transactivation. Until the present, there are few studies for minerals and AD in human, however, the studies of mice reported that Staphylococcus aureus was increased on the skin of zinc-deficient mice before the development of AD-like eruptions, leading the authors to postulate that zinc may have an important role in the induction of dermatitis
. The deficiency of magnesium also induced AD-like skin lesions
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Mineral water from deep-sea bedrock, formed over thousands of years, is rich in minerals such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe and others. Our present study was to investigate the preventive effects of natural deep-sea water on developing atopic dermatitis (AD).
We elicited AD by application of DNCB (2,4-dinitro-chlorobezene) in Nc/Nga mouse dorsal skin. Deep Sea water (DSW) was filtered and concentrated by a nanofiltration process and reverse osmosis. We applied concentrated DSW (CDSW) to lesions five times per week for six weeks, followed by evaluation. 1% pimecrolimus ointment was used as positive control. The severity of skin lesions was assessed macroscopically and histologically. Levels of inflammatory mediators and cytokines in the serum were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the levels of CD4+ and CD8+ spleen lymphocytes were determined by flow cytometry analysis.
DNCB-treated mice showed atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions. Treatment of mice with CDSW reduced the severity of symptoms in the skin lesions, including edema, erythema, dryness, itching, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Histological analyses demonstrated that epidermal thickness and infiltration of inflammatory cells were decreased after CDSW treatment. Given these interesting observations, we further evaluated the effect of CDSW on immune responses in this AD model. Treatment AD mice with CDSW inhibited up-regulation of IgE, histamine, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the serum. Also, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in spleen lymphocyte was down-regulated after treatment with CDSW. Finally, cytokines, especially IL-4 and IL-10 which are important for Th2 cell development, were reduced.
Our data suggests that topical application of CDSW could be useful in preventing the development of atopic dermatitis.
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